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Behavioral diversity

provided by EOL authors

It is extremely difficult to generalize about any of the behaviors or nesting habits of passerines, because as a group they are so diverse. Perching birds exhibit a bewildering array of plumages and colors derived from diverse keratin structures as well as ingested pigments, such as carotenoids (Gray, 1996). Many passerines, such as some Old World Flycatchers (Muscicapidae) and African Widowbirds (Viduinae) have extremely long tail feathers or highly modified plumes (Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae) used in courtship displays. Several groups such as the Wattlebirds of New Zealand (Callaeidae) and Honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) have fleshy, bright blue, red or yellow wattles on the face and neck. Perching birds build their nests generally out of sticks or grass on the ground, in trees, and in the case of Dippers (Cinclidae) in the banks of fast-flowing rivers. Many passerines migrate from their nesting grounds in the Nearctic and Palearctic to more equatorial regions, or from southern temperate regions north to the tropics. Parental care by both sexes is common in passerines, although in some highly dimorphic and predominantly lekking groups, such as manakins (Prum, 1994) and birds of paradise (Diamond, 1986), females alone provide for young and build the nest. Cooperative breeding, in which young birds delay breeding and assist other individuals (often parents) in raising young and defending the territory, is common in several passerine groups, such as Australian fairy wrens (Maluridae) and New World Jays (Corvidae; Brown, 1987; Edwards and Naeem, 1993). Some of the most elaborate singers in the bird world are passerines (Kroodsma and Miller, 1996). Some passerine birds are poisonous to the touch and are avoided as prey by indigenous peoples (Dumbacher et al., 1992).

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Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
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Introduction

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The Passeriformes is the largest and most diverse commonly recognized clade of birds. The Passeriformes (or ‘passerine’ birds) are synonymous with what are commonly known as "perching birds"; this group also contains within it a major radiation commonly known as songbirds (oscine Passerines or Passeri). Of the 10,000 or so extant species of birds, over half (~5,300) are perching birds.

Perching birds have a worldwide distribution, with representatives on all continents except Antarctica, and reaching their greatest diversity in the tropics. Body sizes of passerines vary from about 1.4 kg in northern populations of Ravens (Corvus corax) to just a few grams. Perching birds include some of the most colorful and mysterious of all birds, such as birds of paradise from New Guinea and the bright orange Cock of the Rock from tropical South America. Because of their high diversity, generally small body size and relative ease of observation, collection and field study, perching birds have historically attracted the attention of a wide range of descriptive and experimental biologists, including systematists, behavioral ecologists, and evolutionary biologists.

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Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
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Monophyly and Sister Group

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Historically, it is generally agreed that the Passeriformes constitute a monophyletic group. Raikow (1982) established this monophyly in an explicitly phylogeneticcontext. He noted that Passeriformes possess a suite of distinguishing characteristics, including a unique sperm morphology, a distinctive morphology of the bony palate, a simple yet functionally diverse foot with three toes forward and one (the hallux) oriented backwards, and a distinctive fore- (wing) and hindlimb musculature. There are few if any species which pose problems for avian systematists as to whether they are or are not passerines. Most of the controversy lies in relationships within the clade.

The sister group of the Passeriformes is not so much hotly contested as it is poorly resolved by existing data sets. Traditionally, Passeriformes have been considered closely related to a large group known as the “higher non-Passerines”. These include a number of clades such as cuckoos (Cuculiformes), hornbills, kingfishers and related lineages (Coraciiformes), and woodpeckers and relatives (Piciformes). Many of these groups possess a zygodactyl foot, a condition in which two toes point forward and two point backward. The sister relationship of Passeriformes to woodpeckers, the hornbill group and allies is reflected in Joel Cracraft’s phylogenetic hypothesis for major groups of birds based on cladistic interpretation of morphological and molecular characters (Cracraft, 1988). However, in the other major classification bearing on the relationships of perching birds, that based on DNA-DNA hybridization, Passeriformes appear as the sister group to a large, diverse group containing pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), cranes and rails (Gruiformes) and storks (Ciconiiformes)! These latter three groups share few obvious morphological characteristics with Passeriformes. However, the DNA hybridization tree links Passeriformes with these groups at a very deep level in the tree, rendering this result tenuous. A recent study of nuclear DNA sequences by Hackett et al. (2008) finds Psittaciformes (parrots) to be the sister group of passerines, with Falconidae (falcons) also close. Clearly, more work on the sister-group relationship of Passeriformes is needed, since this relationship will be the basis of any study seeking to identify whether or not Passeriformes are a particularly diverse group (e.g., Nee et al. 1992).

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Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
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Species diversity, origin and biogeography

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Species diversity:The tradition of recognizing perching birds (Passeriformes) as the most diverse and rapidly radiating clade has been questioned because there are few obvious “key innovations” that should cause systematists to recognize Passeriformes over any other arbitrarily larger or smaller monophyletic group within birds (Raikow, 1986). One point that has been missed in debates on this issue is that the branch leading to the songbirds (oscines), a group comprising 80% of extant perching birds, is the longest internal branch on the DNA hybridization tree produced by Sibley and Ahlquist (1990). This branch has also been one of the few to be well resolved in applications of mtDNA sequences to higher level questions in birds, presumably because it is long. Given the large number of clades that will require names under phylogenetic taxonomy, perhaps the length of branches leading to particular clades should be one criterion whereby systematists decide which of the many clades to name.

Origin and biogeography of passerines:The temporal and geographic origin of passerine birds is obscure. Traditionally the group was thought to have originated in the Tertiary, at about the same time as extant orders of mammals. Some recent workers favor a later, Eocene origin (Feduccia, 1995; Wilson, 1989), but the DNA -DNA hybridization data again favors an earlier origin (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990). Recently some of the oldest oscine fossils have been uncovered in Queensland, Australia (Boles, 1995); this and other paleobiogeographical data suggest that passerines may have in fact originated in the Southern hemisphere (Olson, 1989).

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Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
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Passerine

provided by wikipedia EN

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 140 families and some 6,600 identified species,[1] Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three suborders: Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscines).[2][3] The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Description

The order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni (suboscines), Passeri (oscines), and the basal Acanthisitti.[4] Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a wide range of songs and other vocalizations (though some of them, such as the crows, do not sound musical to human beings); some such as the lyrebird are accomplished imitators. The acanthisittids or New Zealand wrens are tiny birds restricted to New Zealand, at least in modern times; they were long placed in Passeri; their taxonomic position is uncertain, although they seem to be a distinct and very ancient group.

"
Pterylosis or the feather tracts in a typical passerine

Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders. The heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the thick-billed raven and the larger races of common raven, each exceeding 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and 70 cm (28 in). The superb lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to very long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall. The smallest passerine is the short-tailed pygmy tyrant, at 6.5 cm (2.6 in) and 4.2 g (0.15 oz).

Anatomy

The foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backward, called anisodactyl arrangement, and the hind toe (hallux) joins the leg at approximately the same level as the front toes. This arrangement enables passerine birds to easily perch upright on branches. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas, the second and third toes are united at their basal third.

The leg of passerine birds contains an additional special adaptation for perching. A tendon in the rear of the leg running from the underside of the toes to the muscle behind the tibiotarsus will automatically be pulled and tighten when the leg bends, causing the foot to curl and become stiff when the bird lands on a branch. This enables passerines to sleep while perching without falling off.[5][6]

Most passerine birds have 12 tail feathers but the superb lyrebird has 16,[7] and several spinetails in the family Furnariidae have 10, 8, or even 6, as is the case of Des Murs's wiretail. Species adapted to tree trunk climbing such as woodcreeper and treecreepers have stiff tail feathers that are used as props during climbing. Extremely long tails used as sexual ornaments are shown by species in different families. A well-known example is the long-tailed widowbird.

Eggs and nests

The chicks of passerines are altricial: blind, featherless, and helpless when hatched from their eggs. Hence, the chicks require extensive parental care. Most passerines lay coloured eggs, in contrast with nonpasserines, most of whose eggs are white except in some ground-nesting groups such as Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, and in some parasitic cuckoos, which match the passerine host's egg. Vinous-throated parrotbill has two egg colours, white and blue. This can prevent the brood parasitic Common cuckoo.

Clutches vary considerably in size: some larger passerines of Australia such as lyrebirds and scrub-robins lay only a single egg, most smaller passerines in warmer climates lay between two and five, while in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, hole-nesting species like tits can lay up to a dozen and other species around five or six. The family Viduidae do not build their own nests, instead, they lay eggs in other birds' nests.

Origin and evolution

The evolutionary history of the passerine families and the relationships among them remained rather mysterious until the late 20th century. In many cases, passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities that, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the wrens of the Americas and Eurasia; those of Australia; and those of New Zealand look superficially similar and behave in similar ways, and yet belong to three far-flung branches of the passerine family tree; they are as unrelated as it is possible to be while remaining Passeriformes.[8]

Much research remains to be done, but advances in molecular biology and improved paleobiogeographical data gradually are revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution that reconciles molecular affinities, the constraints of morphology and the specifics of the fossil record.[9][10] The first passerines are now thought to have evolved in the Southern Hemisphere in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, around 50 million years ago.[3][10]

The initial split was between the New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) and all other passerines, and the second split involved the Tyranni (suboscines) and the Passeri (oscines or songbirds). The latter experienced a great radiation of forms out of the Australian continent. A major branch of the Passeri, parvorder Passerida, expanded deep into Eurasia and Africa, where a further explosive radiation of new lineages occurred.[10] This eventually led to three major Passerida lineages comprising about 4,000 species, which in addition to the Corvida and numerous minor lineages make up songbird diversity today. Extensive biogeographical mixing happens, with northern forms returning to the south, southern forms moving north, and so on.

Fossil record

Earliest passerines

"
Male superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae): This very primitive songbird shows strong sexual dimorphism, with a peculiarly apomorphic display of plumage in males.

Perching bird osteology, especially of the limb bones, is rather diagnostic.[11] However, the early fossil record is poor because the first Passeriformes were apparently on the small side of the present size range, and their delicate bones did not preserve well. Queensland Museum specimens F20688 (carpometacarpus) and F24685 (tibiotarsus) from Murgon, Queensland, are fossil bone fragments initially assigned to Passeriformes.[12] However, the material is too fragmentary and their affinities have been questioned.[13] Several more recent fossils from the Oligocene of Europe, such as Wieslochia, Jamna, and Resoviaornis, are more complete and definitely represent early passeriforms, although their exact position in the evolutionary tree is not known.

From the Bathans Formation at the Manuherikia River in Otago, New Zealand, MNZ S42815 (a distal right tarsometatarsus of a tui-sized bird) and several bones of at least one species of saddleback-sized bird have recently been described. These date from the Early to Middle Miocene (Awamoan to Lillburnian, 19–16 mya).[14]

Early European passerines

"
Wieslochia fossil

In Europe, perching birds are not too uncommon in the fossil record from the Oligocene onward, but most are too fragmentary for a more definite placement:

  • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
  • Resoviaornis (Early Oligocene of Wola Rafałowska, Poland)
  • Jamna (Early Oligocene of Jamna Dolna, Poland)
  • Winnicavis (Early Oligocene of Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland)
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene of Luberon, France) – suboscine or basal[15]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Oligocene of France) – several suboscine and oscine taxa[16]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Middle Miocene of France and Germany) – basal?[17]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszőlős, Hungary) – at least 2 taxa, possibly 3; at least one probably Oscines[18]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Felsőtárkány, Hungary) – oscine?[19]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Polgárdi, Hungary) – Sylvioidea (Sylviidae? Cettiidae?)[20]

That suboscines expanded much beyond their region of origin is proven by several fossil from Germany such as a broadbill (Eurylaimidae) humerus fragment from the Early Miocene (roughly 20 mya) of Wintershof, Germany, the Late Oligocene carpometacarpus from France listed above, and Wieslochia, among others.[21][10] Extant Passeri super-families were quite distinct by that time and are known since about 12–13 mya when modern genera were present in the corvoidean and basal songbirds. The modern diversity of Passerida genera is known mostly from the Late Miocene onwards and into the Pliocene (about 10–2 mya). Pleistocene and early Holocene lagerstätten (<1.8 mya) yield numerous extant species, and many yield almost nothing but extant species or their chronospecies and paleosubspecies.

American fossils

In the Americas, the fossil record is more scant before the Pleistocene, from which several still-existing suboscine families are documented. Apart from the indeterminable MACN-SC-1411 (Pinturas Early/Middle Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina),[22] an extinct lineage of perching birds has been described from the Late Miocene of California, United States: the Palaeoscinidae with the single genus Palaeoscinis. "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene of Florida) probably belongs to an extant family, most likely passeroidean.

Systematics and taxonomy

The Passeriformes is currently divided into three suborders: Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscines). The Passeri has been traditionally subdivided into two major groups recognized now as Corvida and Passerida respectively containing the large superfamilies Corvoidea and Meliphagoidea, as well as minor lineages, and the superfamilies Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, and Passeroidea but this arrangement has been found to be oversimplified. Since the mid-2000s, literally, dozens of studies have investigated the phylogeny of the Passeriformes and found that many families from Australasia traditionally included in the Corvoidea actually represent more basal lineages within oscines. Likewise, the traditional three-superfamily arrangement within the Passeri has turned out to be far more complex and will require changes in classification.

Major "wastebin" families such as the Old World warblers and Old World babblers have turned out to be paraphyletic and are being rearranged. Several taxa turned out to represent highly distinct lineages, so new families had to be established, some of them – like the stitchbird of New Zealand and the Eurasian bearded reedlingmonotypic with only one living species.[23] In the Passeri alone, a number of minor lineages will eventually be recognized as distinct superfamilies. For example, the kinglets constitute a single genus with less than 10 species today but seem to have been among the first perching bird lineages to diverge as the group spread across Eurasia. No particularly close relatives of them have been found among comprehensive studies of the living Passeri, though they might be fairly close to some little-studied tropical Asian groups. Nuthatches, wrens, and their closest relatives as currently grouped in a distinct super-family Certhioidea.

Taxonomic list of Passeriformes families

"
New Zealand rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris), one of the two surviving species of suborder Acanthisitti

This list is in taxonomic order, placing related families next to one another. The families listed are those recognised by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[1] The order and the division into infraorders, parvorders and superfamilies follows the phylogenetic analysis published by Carl Oliveros and colleagues in 2019.[24][a] The relationships between the families in the suborder Tyranni (suboscines) were all well determined but some of the nodes in Passeri (oscines) were unclear owing to the rapid splitting of the lineages.[24]

Suborder Acanthisitti

"
Javan banded pitta (Hydrornis guajanus), an Old World suboscine.
"
Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus) a New World suboscine

Suborder Tyranni (Suboscines)

  • Infraorder Eurylaimides: Old World suboscines
  • Infraorder Tyrannides: New World suboscines
  • Parvorder Furariida
  • Parvorder Tyrannida

Suborder Passeri (Oscines)

"
Male stitchbird or hihi (Notiomystis cincta) showing convergence with honeyeaters
"
Male regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus, Ptilonorhynchidae)
  • Infraorder Corvides
  • Superfamily Orioloidea[b]
  • Superfamily Malaconotoidea[c]
"
Tiny goldcrest (Regulus regulus) belongs to a minor but highly distinct lineage of Passeri
  • Superfamily Corvoidea[d]
"
Reed warblers, such as this Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum), are now in the Acrocephalidae
  • Infraorder Passerides
"
blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and its relatives stand well apart from rest of the Sylvioidea sensu lato
  • Parvorder Sylviida[e]
"
Brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), nuthatches can climb downwards head-first
  • Superfamily Locustelloidea
"
Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), like many Muscicapoidea a stout and cryptic bird with complex vocalizations.
  • Superfamily Sylvioidea
"
Like these male (right) and female Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae), many Passeroidea are very colorful
  • Superfamily Aegithaloidea
"
Lesser striped swallow (Cecropis abyssinica), showing some apomorphies of its ancient yet highly advanced lineage.
  • Parvorder Muscicapida
  • Superfamily Bombycilloidea
  • Superfamily Muscicapoidea
  • Superfamily Certhioidea
  • Parvorder Passerida

Phylogeny

Living Passeriformes based on the "Taxonomy in Flux family phylogenetic tree" by John Boyd.[28]

Passeriformes classification   Acanthisitti

Acanthisittidae

    Eupasseres Tyranni Eurylaimides

?Sapayoidae

     

Calyptomenidae

   

Pittidae

       

Philepittidae

   

Eurylaimidae

      Tyrannides Tyrannida  

Pipridae

     

Cotingidae

       

Tityridae

     

Oxyruncidae

   

Onychorhynchidae

         

Tyrannidae

     

Pipritidae

     

Platyrinchidae

     

Tachurididae

   

Rhynchocyclidae

                Furnariida    

Melanopareiidae

     

Thamnophilidae

   

Conopophagidae

         

Grallariidae

     

Rhinocryptidae

     

Formicariidae

   

Furnariidae

              Passeri Menurides  

Atrichornithidae

   

Menuridae

    Euoscines Climacterides  

Ptilonorhynchidae

   

Climacteridae

      Meliphagides  

Maluridae

     

Dasyornithidae

     

Pardalotidae

   

Meliphagidae

          Orthonychides  

Orthonychidae

   

Pomatostomidae

      Corvides  

Cinclosomatidae

     

Campephagidae

       

Neosittidae

   

Mohouidae

      Orioloidea  

Eulacestomidae

       

Psophodidae

     

Falcunculidae

   

Oreoicidae

           

Paramythiidae

     

Pteruthiidae

   

Vireonidae

         

Pachycephalidae

   

Oriolidae

            Malaconotoidea

Machaerirhynchidae

     

Artamidae

     

Rhagologidae

       

Platysteiridae

   

Vangidae

       

Aegithinidae

     

Pityriaseidae

   

Malaconotidae

              Corvoidea

?Dicruridae

     

Rhipiduridae

   

Lamproliidae

         

Monarchidae

     

Laniidae

   

Corvidae

         

Ifritidae

     

Melampittidae

     

Corcoracidae

   

Paradisaeidae

                      Passerides Melanocharitida

Melanocharitidae

    Cnemophilida

Cnemophilidae

    Petroicida  

Petroicidae

     

Notiomystidae

   

Callaeidae

        Eupetida  

Picathartidae

     

Chaetopidae

   

Eupetidae

       

Core Passerides

                        Core Passerides Sylviida Paroidea

Stenostiridae

     

Hyliotidae

     

Remizidae

   

Paridae

        Sylvioidea    

Nicatoridae

     

Panuridae

   

Alaudidae

         

Macrosphenidae

       

Cisticolidae

       

Pnoepygidae

   

Acrocephalidae

       

Locustellidae

     

Donacobiidae

   

Bernieridae

             

Hirundinidae

   

Pycnonotidae

       

Phylloscopidae

     

Cettiidae

     

Hyliidae

   

Aegithalidae

             

Sylviidae

   

Paradoxornithidae

       

Zosteropidae

     

Timaliidae

     

Pellorneidae

   

Leiothrichidae

                        Muscicapida Reguloidea

Regulidae

Bombycilloidea

Elachuridae

   

Mohoidae

     

Ptiliogonatidae

     

Bombycillidae

     

Dulidae

   

Hypocoliidae

          Certhioidea    

Tichodromadidae

   

Sittidae

       

Certhiidae

     

Troglodytidae

   

Polioptilidae

        Muscicapoidea    

Cinclidae

     

Turdidae

   

Muscicapidae

         

Buphagidae

     

Mimidae

   

Sturnidae

          Passerida  

Promeropidae

     

Arcanatoridae

       

Dicaeidae

   

Nectariniidae

       

Urocynchramidae

       

Irenidae

   

Chloropseidae

         

Peucedramidae

   

Prunellidae

      Estrild clade  

Ploceidae

     

Viduidae

   

Estrildidae

      Passerid clade  

Passeridae

     

Motacillidae

     

Fringillidae

     

Calcariidae

     

Rhodinocichlidae

       

Emberizidae

   

Passerellidae

     

?Zeledonia

   

?Teretistris

   

Phaenicophilidae

     

Icteridae

   

Parulidae

           

Mitrospingidae

   

Cardinalidae

   

Thraupidae

                                 

Notes

  1. ^ Oliveros et al (2019) use the list of families published by Dickinson and Christidis in 2014.[24][25] Oliveros et al include 10 families that are not included on the IOC list. These are not shown here. By contrast, the IOC list includes nine families that are not present in Dickinson and Christidis. In eight of these cases, the position of the additional family in the taxonomic order can be determined from the species included by Oliveros and colleagues in their analysis. No species in the family Teretistridae was sampled by Oliveros et al so its position is uncertain.[1][24]
  2. ^ The order of the families within the superfamily Orioloidea is uncertain.[24]
  3. ^ The order of the families within the superfamily Malaconotoidea is uncertain.[24]
  4. ^ The order of the families within the superfamily Corvoidea is uncertain.[24]
  5. ^ The taxonomic sequence of the superfamilies Locustelloidea, Sylvioidea and Aegithaloidea is uncertain, although the order of the families within each of the superfamilies is well determined.[24]
  6. ^ The order of some of the families within the superfamily Emberizoidea is uncertain.[24]
  7. ^ The family Teretistridae (Cuban warblers) is tentatively placed here. The family was not included in the analysis published by Oliveros et al (2019).[24] Dickinson and Christidis (2014) considered the genus Teretistris Incertae sedis.[27] Barker et al (2013) found that Teretistridae is closely related to Zeledoniidae.[26]

References

  1. ^ a b c Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Family Index". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  2. ^ Barker, F. Keith; Barrowclough, George F.; Groth, Jeff G. (2002). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: Taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 269 (1488): 295–308. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1883. PMC 1690884. PMID 11839199.
  3. ^ a b Ericson, P.G.; Christidis, L.; Cooper, A.; Irestedt, M.; Jackson, J.; Johansson, U.S.; Norman, J.A. (7 February 2002). "A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 269 (1488): 235–241. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1877. PMC 1690883. PMID 11839192.
  4. ^ Chatterjee, Sankar (2015). The Rise of Birds: 225 Million Years of Evolution. JHU Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 9781421415901.
  5. ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (2008), The Bird Class, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark
  6. ^ Brooke, Michael and Birkhead, Tim (1991) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521362059.
  7. ^ Jones, D. (2008) "Flight of fancy". Australian Geographic, (89), 18–19.
  8. ^ The name wren has been applied to other, unrelated birds in Australia and New Zealand. The 27 Australasian "wren" species in the family Maluridae are unrelated, as are the New Zealand wrens in the family Acanthisittidae; the antwrens in the family Thamnophilidae; and the wren-babblers of the families Timaliidae, Pellorneidae, and Pnoepygidae. For the monophyly of the "true wrens", Troglodytidae, see Barker, F. K. (May 2004). "Monophyly and relationships of wrens (Aves: Troglodytidae): a congruence analysis of heterogeneous mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (2): 486–504. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.08.005. PMID 15062790. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ Dyke, Gareth J.; Van Tuinen, Marcel (June 2004). "The evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes): Reconciling molecules, morphology and the fossil record". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (2): 153–177. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00118.x.
  10. ^ a b c d Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Science Advances. 1 (11): e1501005. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
  11. ^ See e.g. Boles (1997), Manegold et al. (2004), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  12. ^ Boles (1997)
  13. ^ Mayr, G (2013). "The age of the crown group of passerine birds and its evolutionary significance–molecular calibrations versus the fossil record". Systematics and Biodiversity. 11 (1): 7–13. doi:10.1080/14772000.2013.765521.
  14. ^ Worthy et al. (2007)
  15. ^ Specimen SMF Av 504. A flattened right hand of a passerine perhaps 10 cm long overall. If suboscine, perhaps closer to Cotingidae than to Eurylaimides: Roux (2002), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  16. ^ Hugueney et al. (2003), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  17. ^ Specimens SMF Av 487–496; SMNS 86822, 86825-86826; MNHN SA 1259–1263: tibiotarsus remains of small, possibly basal Passeriformes: Manegold et al. (2004)
  18. ^ A partial coracoid of a probable Muscicapoidea, possibly Turdidae; distal tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus of a smallish to mid-sized passerine that may be the same as the preceding; proximal ulna and tarsometatarsus of a Paridae-sized passerine: Gál et al. (1998–1999, 2000)
  19. ^ A humerus diaphysis piece of a swallow-sized passerine: Hír et al. (2001)
  20. ^ Hír et al. (2001)
  21. ^ Manegold et al. (2004)
  22. ^ Distal right humerus, possibly suboscine: Noriega & Chiappe (1991, 1993)
  23. ^ The former does not even have recognized subspecies, while the latter is one of the most singular birds alive today. Good photos of a bearded reedling are for example here Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine and here Archived 31 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Oliveros, C.H.; et al. (2019). "Earth history and the passerine superradiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (16): 7916–7925. doi:10.1073/pnas.1813206116. PMC 6475423. PMID 30936315.
  25. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  26. ^ a b Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2013). "Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds". Systematic Biology. 62 (2): 298–320. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys094. PMID 23229025.
  27. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  28. ^ John Boyd. "Taxonomy in Flux family phylogenetic tree" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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Passerine: Brief Summary

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A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 140 families and some 6,600 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three suborders: Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscines). The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

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