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Distribution

provided by ReptileDB
Continent: Africa Near-East Middle-America Asia Oceania
Distribution: Africa: Egypt [HR 30: 236; HR 32: 11], Libya, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Mozambique, Somalia, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Mauritania, Gabon, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Comores (Mayotte, Mohéli, Anjouan), Nossi Be = Nosy Bé, Mascarenes, Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues, Middle East: Saudi Arabia (introduced), Oman (introduced), , United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Iran, Asia: Vietnam, Laos, Thailand [HR 32: 279], Myanmar (= Burma), Cambodia, Malaysia (Pulau Tioman, Johor: Pulau Sibu), Indonesia (Sulawesi, Komodo), Solomon Islands [McCoy 2000], S China (Hainan, Guangdong: Nan Ao Island, Hong Kong), Taiwan (incl. Lanyu), Japan (Ryukyu islands, incl. Senkaku), India (Maharashtra (Pune (=Poona)), Arunachal Pradesh (Miao “ Changlang district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.]), Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines (Palawan: Calamian Islands, Panay, Luzon etc.), New Guinea, Nauru, Australia and Oceania: (Cook Islands, CKI, North Territory), New Caledonia, Toga Island America: Mexico (introduced; Querétaro, Michoacán, Aguascalientes [HR 32: 279]), Guatemala (introduced), Belize ? (P. Stafford, pers. comm.), USA (introduced to Florida and Hawaii), West Indies [HR 28: 210], Grand Cayman Islands [HR 34: 265], St. Martin, St. Barthélmy (BREUIL 2002). Elevation 0-2000 m.
Type locality: Vizagapatam [Visakhapatnam], India.
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Indotyphlops braminus

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Indotyphlops braminus, commonly known as the brahminy blind snake[3] and other names, is a nonvenomous blind snake species found mostly in Africa and Asia, but has been introduced in many other parts of the world. They are completely fossorial (i.e., burrowing) animals, with habits and appearance similar to earthworms, for which they are often mistaken, although close examination reveals tiny scales rather than the annular segments characteristic of true earthworms. The species is parthenogenetic and all known specimens have been female. The specific name is a Latinized form of the word Brahmin. No subspecies are currently recognized.[3]

Description

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I. braminus in Hua Hin, Thailand (top) and East Timor (bottom)

Adults measure 2–4 inches (5.1–10.2 cm) long, uncommonly to 6 inches (15 cm), making it the smallest known snake species. The head and tail are superficially similar as the head and neck are indistinct. Unlike other snakes, the head scales resemble the body scales. The eyes are barely discernible as small dots under the head scales. The tip of the tail has a small, pointed spur. Along the body are fourteen rows of dorsal scales. Coloration ranges from charcoal gray, silver-gray, light yellow-beige, purplish, or infrequently albino, the ventral surface more pale. Coloration of the juvenile form is similar to that of the adult. Behavior ranges from lethargic to energetic, quickly seeking the cover of soil or leaf litter to avoid light[4][5][6]

The tiny eyes are covered with translucent scales, rendering these snakes almost entirely blind. The eyes cannot form images, but are still capable of registering light intensity.

Common names

I. braminus is variously known as the brahminy blind snake,[3] flowerpot snake, common blind snake, island blind snake, teliya snake, and Hawaiian blind snake. The moniker "flowerpot snake" derives from the snake's incidental introduction to various parts of the world through the plant trade.

"Kurudi" is the common Malayalam term which refers to braminus.

Geographic range

Probably originally native to Africa and Asia, it is an introduced species in many parts of the world, including Australia, the Americas, and Oceania. It is common as an introduced species throughout most of Florida now.[7]

The vertical distribution is from sea level to 1,200 m in Sri Lanka and up to 1,500 m in Guatemala. The type locality given is "Vishakhapatam" [India].[1]

This is also the only snake reported from the Lakshadweep Islands.[8]

Indigenous range

In Africa, it has been reported in Egypt, Kenya, Senegal, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Somalia, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa (an isolated colony in Cape Town, also about eight have been found in Lephalale, Limpopo Province at the Medupi Power Station during construction), Madagascar, the Comoro Islands, Mauritius, the Mascarene Islands and the Seychelles. It has also been found in Libya [9] and Nossi Be (= Nosy Bé).[10]

In Asia, it occurs on Arabian Peninsula, Lebanon, Iran, Pakistan, Nepal, mainland India, the Maldives, the Lakshadweep Islands, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh, the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Singapore, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Hainan, southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawashima and Miyakoshima.

In Maritime Southeast Asia, it occurs on Sumatra and nearby islands (the Riao Archipelago, Bangka, Billiton and Nias), Borneo, Sulawesi, the Philippines, Butung, Salajar, Ternate, Halmahera, Buru, Ceram, Ambon, Saparua, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Madura, Flores, Lomblen, Sumba, Timor, East Timor, Kai Island, the Aru Islands,[11] New Guinea (Western Papua and Papua New Guinea), New Britain, and Bougainville Island.

It occurs in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and on Christmas Island.

Introduced range

They have been introduced mainly to control the spreading of termites in the following countries.

In Australia, it occurs in the Northern Territory near Darwin, and at the northern tip of Queensland and other parts of queensland like sunshine coast.

In Oceania, it occurs on Palau, Guam, Fiji, Saipan, Hawaiian Islands and Tahiti in French Polynesia.

In the Americas, it occurs in the United States (California, Connecticut, Florida, Belize, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Arizona, Hawaii and Texas), western and southern Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Barbados and on the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands.

It has been found in the Canary Islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, probably being introduced in soil imported with potted plants.[12]

It has also been found in Malta, with two specimens found on the main island. The snake has been labeled as potentially invasive to the native fauna.[13]

Habitat

Usually, they occur in urban and agricultural areas.[4] These snakes live underground in ant and termite nests. They are also found under logs, moist leaves, stones and humus in wet forest, dry jungle, abandoned buildings and even city gardens. The distribution and survival of this group of blind snakes directly reflect soil humidity and temperature.[8]

Feeding

Their diet consists of the larvae, eggs, and pupae of ants and termites.[4]

Reproduction

This species is parthenogenetic and all specimens collected so far have been female. They lay eggs or may bear live young. Up to eight offspring are produced: all female, all genetically identical diploid organisms.[4]

It has been proposed that the species be transferred to a new genus as Virgotyphlops braminus because of its obligate parthenogenetic nature.[14]

References

  1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré TA. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ a b c "Ramphotyphlops braminus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 30 August 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d Brahminy Blind Snake at the Florida State Museum of Natural History. Accessed 30 August 2007.
  5. ^ Brahminy Blind Snake One of the Worlds Smallest Snake
  6. ^ The one of the smallest snake in the world
  7. ^ U.Florida.edu—Herpetology: Ramphotyphlops braminus
  8. ^ a b Whitaker R. 1978. Common Indian Snakes: A Field Guide. Chennai: Macmillan India Limited. 154 pp. ISBN 978-0333901984.
  9. ^ "Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803)".
  10. ^ "Indotyphlops braminus".
  11. ^ Aru Islands: requires confirmation according to McDowell, 1974:25
  12. ^ John Bowler (2018). Wildlife of Madeira and the Canary Islands. Wild Guides. p. 164. ISBN 9780691170763.
  13. ^ "New snake species found in Malta may be invasive".
  14. ^ Wallach, Van (2020). "First appearance of the Brahminy Blindsnake, Virgotyphlops braminus (Daudin 1803) (Squamata: Typhlopidae), in North America, with reference to the states of Mexico and the USA" (PDF). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians. 27 (2): 326–330.

Paolino, G., Scotti, R., & Grano, M. (2019). First detection of the “flowerpot snake” Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803) (Serpentes Typhlopidae) in Ischia (Italy): a new possible invasive species. Biodiversity Journal, 10(4), 321–324. https://doi.org/10.31396/biodiv.jour.2019.10.4.321.324

tucsonherpsociety.org. (n.d.). https://tucsonherpsociety.org/amphibians-reptiles/snakes/brahminy-blindsnake-2/.

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Indotyphlops braminus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Indotyphlops braminus, commonly known as the brahminy blind snake and , is a nonvenomous blind snake species found mostly in Africa and Asia, but has been introduced in many other parts of the world. They are completely fossorial (i.e., burrowing) animals, with habits and appearance similar to earthworms, for which they are often mistaken, although close examination reveals tiny scales rather than the annular segments characteristic of true earthworms. The species is parthenogenetic and all known specimens have been female. The specific name is a Latinized form of the word Brahmin. No subspecies are currently recognized.

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