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Jojoba

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneid.

Jojoba

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Simmodsia chinensis

Location: Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico

Common Name: goat nut, deer nut, pignut

Elevation: 200 feet to nearly 4,000 feet above sea level

Description: Sonoran Deserts second most valuable native plant. Jojoba averages 2 to 5 feet tall and wide, sometimes to 10 feet. Leathery, grayish-green leaves and usually an evergreen, the jojoba will shed its leaves when severe drought occurs. The ratio of male to female plants is 4 to 1. Vertical orientation of the leaves is an adaptation to help this plant survive the extreme heat. Beans of the Jojoba plant contain more the “oil” of the Jojoba. Jojoba oil is colorless and odorless which makes it beneficial for cosmetic products.

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Common Names

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jojoba
goat-nut
coffee bush
quinine plant
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

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More info for the term: cover

Jojoba presumably provides good cover for many small mammals and birds.
Gambel's quail use jojoba for nesting sites in southern Arizona [16].
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

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More info for the terms: dehiscent, dioecious, formation, root crown, seed, shrub

Jojoba is a native, drought-resistant, evergreen shrub that may grow to
10 feet (3 m) or remain as a low mound 8 to 20 inches (20-50 cm) tall
[4,15,18,35]. The form varies in different environments [15]; the more
erect form is generally found on moist sites, whereas the semiprostrate
form is found on desert sites [38]. Several stems arise from the root
crown [15] and branching is profuse [15,18,23]. Younger stems are
pubescent [18,35]. In full light, lateral branching is prolific near
the base. As the plant ages, the lower foliage is shade-pruned and a
high canopy develops [15]. The bark is smooth [18].

The leaves are thick and leathery, and are generally 0.8 to 1.6 inches
(2-4 cm) long [18,23,35]. They are vertically oriented on the plant to
reduce exposure to the sun [29]. Jojoba leaves may be shed during
severe drought [4], but generally live two or three seasons depending on
moisture and shade conditions [4,15]. Jojoba is considered to be
drought-resistant, and plants are physiologically active the entire year
[4].

Jojoba is dioecious [5,15,23,35]. Female flowers are axillary and
usually solitary [4,15,18,38]. They may, however, occur in fascicles
with up to 20 flowers [38]. Male flowers are smaller than female
flowers and are grouped in dense clusters [4,15,18,38]. Pollen is wind
dispersed [15]. Drought is the strongest factor inhibiting the
formation of flower buds [4,15], but cold temperatures may also reduce
flowering. There is generally a burst of flowering following winter and
spring rainfall [15].

Jojoba fruits are dehiscent capsules that are generally one-seeded but
may contain up to three acornlike seeds [5,15,18,23,38]. The seeds are
light brown to black and are large, generally 0.6 to 1.2 inches (1.5-3.0
cm) long [5,15,38]. Approximately 50 percent of jojoba seed consists of
lipids [4,15,38].

Jojoba may have several taproots that develop by forking below the root
crown. The maximum depth of taproots is not known, but taproots have
been observed at depths of 33 feet (10 m). Horizontal root growth does
not occur except where subsurface strata prevent downward growth.
Shallow or subsurface feeder roots and true rhizomes are not developed
[4,15].

The life span of jojoba is over 100 years and may exceed 200 years [4,5,15].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

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In the United States, jojoba occurs in the Sonoran Desert from west
Riverside and San Diego counties, California; east through Imperial
County, California, to southern Yavapai and Greenlee counties, Arizona;
south to Cochise, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona [18,23,35]. Jojoba
is also distributed throughout Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and
is found on islands in the Gulf of California [4,5,17,23,35,38].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: cover, forbs, grassland, root crown, shrub, shrubs

Jojoba readily sprouts from the root crown and/or following fire in
desert shrub and coastal sage scrub communities [8,15,44,58]. Fire may
cause jojoba to take on a thicket or clonal form where shoots develop
from deep sections of the main roots [15]. Seeds may survive fire in
the seedbank if the fire is not too severe, but it is not known if they
germinate well on bare mineral soil. Establishment may be limited after
severe fire by lack of nurse plants.

Fires in the Sonoran Desert are generally rare due to widely spaced
shrubs and sparse cover of grasses and perennial forbs. However, in an
exceptionally wet year annual cover may be dense enough to
carry fire [8,20]. These fires tend to occur at the desert shrub-desert
grassland ecotone [20].

Postfire recovery in interior chaparral and coastal sage scrub
communities is rapid due to the fact that most species, including
jojoba, sprout from the root crown following damage. In coastal sage
scrub the recovery process may take as little as 10 years [40,41].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

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More info for the terms: mesic, natural

Within its natural range jojoba is found from sea level on the
California coast to lower mountain slopes, pediments, and upper bajada
sites in Arizona [4,15,38]. In the Sonoran Desert jojoba is generally
restricted to sites between 2,000 and 4,000 feet (600-1200 m) elevation
and is lacking over many of the plains and valleys [4,5,15]. Slopes are
usually over 3 percent and often over 30 percent. Jojoba usually is
more abundant on north-facing slopes than south-facing slopes in
southern Arizona [4], and is significantly (p less than .05) more abundant on
north-facing pediments than south-facing pediments or arroyo habitats at
Punta Cirio, Sonora [28,53]. Jojoba is mostly limited to well-drained,
coarse desert soils such as sandy alluviums and coarse mixtures of
gravels and clays. These mixtures may be derived from igneous materials
such as granite and other volcanics [4,15]. Soils are usually neutral
to alkaline, high in phosphorous, and subject to annual drying [15].
Calcium carbonate content may also be high, especially in areas adjacent
to mountain ranges with an appreciable content of limestone or
calcareous sandstone [4]. Jojoba can tolerate high levels of salinity,
but its flowering capabilities may be reduced on such sites [13].

Jojoba is climatically adapted to both mesic coastal climates and
continental inland deserts [38]. Growth in natural stands is linked to
winter-spring rains. Jojoba is scattered in areas where annual
precipitation is less than 4 inches (100 mm) [4,5,15]. In those areas,
it may be restricted to sites with perennial runoff such as arroyo
margins [15]. Optimal growth occurs in areas that receive more than 12
to 14 inches (300-350 mm) of rain annually [4,15]. Jojoba reaches
greatest dominance and forms pure stands on rocky slopes and valleys of
the mountains north and east of Phoenix, Arizona, where annual rainfall
is 15 to 18 inches (380-450 mm). Populations on good sites may have
over 200 jojoba plants per acre [15]. Jojoba can tolerate extreme daily
temperature fluctuations. Temperatures of 109 to 114 degrees Fahrenheit
(43-46 deg C) often occur at sites where jojoba is found. Mature jojoba
can tolerate temperatures as low as 15 degrees Fahrenheit (-9 deg C),
but leaf damage may occur. Seedlings are damaged or killed at
temperatures of 15 to 26 degrees Fahrenheit (-9 to -3 deg C) [4,15].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

242 Mesquite
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: cactus, shrub

K027 Mesquite bosque
K033 Chaparral
K035 Coastal sagebrush
K041 Creosotebush
K042 Creosotebush - bursage
K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub
K044 Creosotebush - tarbush
K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

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Jojoba is probably top-killed by light to moderately severe fire. Even
severe fire may not kill jojoba roots, which can sprout.
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the terms: forest, fruit

Jojoba foliage is important forage for livestock and wildlife
[9,15,18,32,46,54] and may provide the best browse available within its
range [23]. Jojoba foliage is eaten by mule deer [4,25,31,54,55],
desert bighorn sheep [33,49], jackrabbits [19], domestic sheep [4],
goats [4], and cattle [4,15,32]. Cattle may browse jojoba severely
enough to prevent any fruit development [15], and often consume it
faster than it grows [4]. At the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in
Arizona, there were fewer crissal thrashers and brown towhees on grazed
versus ungrazed areas due to the fact that heavy browsing had reduced
the abundance and vigor of jojoba [48].

Jojoba is one of the four most important forage species for desert
bighorn sheep in the Kofa Mountains [33], but is less abundant in areas
used by desert bighorn sheep in the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona [24].

Jojoba's evergreen leaves provide important forage for mule deer,
especially in the fall and winter [31,32,46]. Average volume and
percent occurrence of jojoba in 11 mule deer stomachs during different
seasons at the Three Bar Wildlife Area, Tonto National Forest, Arizona
follow [31]:

Season Average volume (%) Occurrence (%)
__________________________________________________________________
Midsummer (fruits) 1 36
(foliage) 5 73
Early fall (foliage) 9 90
Late fall (foliage)* 36 87
(foliage)** 20 94
(foliage)*** 24 90
Midwinter (foliage) 20 90
Late winter (foliage) 23 80
Late spring (fruits) 7 27
(foliage) 12 91

*--following a dry summer
**--following a wet summer
***--following a wet summer with early frosts

Throughout its range, jojoba nuts are eaten by ground squirrels, desert
chipmunks, packrats, pocket gophers, mice, rabbits, birds, desert mule
deer, and other mammals [4,7,9,15]. Collared peccary in southern
Arizona spent 4 percent of their total July, August, and September
feeding time consuming jojoba seeds [10].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: cover, shrub

Jojoba is mainly found in desert shrub habitats and lower elevations
of chaparral vegetation [37,54]. In interior chaparral associations in
Arizona, jojoba occurs with typical chaparral species on dry, open sites
with an average shrub cover of 60 to 70 percent [40]. Although it is
not listed as a dominant shrub species in available publications, jojoba
is important over some parts of its range. Some minor associations in
the Sonoran Desert are dominated by jojoba on rocky, upland sites within
the paloverde (Cercidium spp.) type [30]. Jojoba is also dominant near
Puerto Libertad in Sonora on piedmont and bajada sites [7].

In addition to species already mentioned in DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE,
jojoba is associated in desert shrub habitats with saguaro (Carnegiea
gigantea), leatherstem (Jatropha spp.), brittle bush (Encelia farinosa),
ironwood (Olneya tesota), false-mesquite (Calliandra eriophylla),
ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), littleleaf paloverde (Cercidium
microphyllum), catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), desert hackberry (Celtis
pallidum), ratany (Krameria spp.), wolfberry (Lycium spp.), cholla or
prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), and yucca (Yucca spp.) [4,7,15,31,44,51].

Jojoba is associated in southern portions of coastal sage scrub
vegetation with California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), sugar
sumac (Rhus ovata), white sage (Salvia apiana), common deerweed (Lotus
scoparius), and California sagebrush (Artemisia californica)
[1,15,41,47].

Jojoba is also associated with broadleaved riparian species such as
Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii), blue paloverde (Cercidium
floridum), hackberry (Celtis spp.), and honey mesquite (Prosopis
glandulosa var. glandulosa) in the Gila River Resource Area in eastern
Arizona [34].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

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More info for the terms: natural, seed, shrub, shrubs

The jojoba industry was started in 1971 when Native American communities
in California and Arizona, in collaboration with researchers from
federal agencies, collected and processed jojoba seed from wild jojoba
plants. Many jojoba shrubs were planted after the sperm whale was
placed on the endangered species list, the importation of sperm whale
oil was banned, and scientific evidence suggested that jojoba oil could
replace sperm whale oil in many applications. Jojoba has been
commercially harvested since 1982. At one time, approximately 40,000
acres (16,000 ha) of jojoba were under cultivation. The existing jojoba
industry has relied on continuing private-sector investments [6]. For
information regarding management and cultivation techniques of jojoba as
a crop species refer to [4,6,15,60,62,63] and other references.

A list of phytophagous, predaceous, parasitic, and other insects
associated with jojoba in natural stands is available in the literature
[42].

In San Diego County, California, widespread planting of jojoba has the
potential to destroy sensitive vegetation such as coastal mixed
chaparral and coastal sage scrub communities [39].

Jojoba was very tolerant of browsing near Roosevelt Lake in southern
Arizona. It initiated new twigs from lateral buds to compensate for the
loss of apical buds and twigs from herbivory. Heavily browsed plants
maintained a ratio of photosynthetic biomass to total biomass as high as
unbrowsed plants. However, heavy browsing greatly reduced shrub size
and forage yield. Moderate browsing pressure resulted in forage yields
similar to those of unbrowsed plants. Although browsing reduced shrub
size, browsed plants maintained a water status similar to unbrowsed
plants, even under high water stress. This indicated a comparable
ability to balance transpirational water loss with water uptake through
the roots. Jojoba was tolerant of heavy browsing, but moderate browsing
was recommended to maintain greater shrub size and forage production
[45,46].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

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More info for the terms: forest, fruit

Jojoba provides highly nutritious forage for livestock and wildlife
[4,32,38,46]. Near Roosevelt Lake in southern Arizona, jojoba foliage
is highest in crude protein and phosphorous in the spring. New growth
tends to be higher in nutritional quality than old plant material,
except from December to March [46].

Nutritional composition (%) of jojoba as desert mule deer forage in the
Picacho Mountains of Arizona follows [25]:

Fiber*
Month Dry matter Protein ADF NDF Lignin Cellulose
___________________________________________________________________________
Jan-Feb 45.73 6.99 28.01 50.86 6.12 22.68
Mar-April 51.00 10.07 27.59 48.30 7.43 19.92
May-June 42.59 7.52 29.65 54.73 9.06 19.68
Jul-Aug 57.32 6.25 39.22 58.28 10.80 27.81
Sep-Oct 44.77 10.98 30.61 55.45 7.75 23.27
Nov-Dec 44.71 9.36 27.55 55.15 8.80 19.68

*ADF--acid detergent fiber; NDF--nondetergent fiber

The following measurements (in percent) were obtained for jojoba as mule
deer forage at the Three Bar Wildlife Area on the Tonto National Forest,
Arizona [56]:

Crude Dry
Month Plant part Protein ADF* Ca P Matter** IVD***
_______________________________________________________________________
May-June Leaf 10 26 .57 .20 39 47
Stem 10 41 .31 .25 -- 47
Fruit 11 40 .79 .20 31 46
Flower 11 24 .40 .46 14 75
July-Sept Leaf 20 24 .85 .16 40 43
Stem 9 38 .72 .21 -- 35
Fruit 12 49 .22 .23 42 44
October Leaf 13 34 .93 .17 41 40
Stem 8 49 .87 .15 -- 30
Nov-Dec Leaf 13 31 1.35 .12 47 36
Stem 8 41 .66 .11 -- 31
Jan Leaf 11 25 .93 .10 44 44
Stem 8 41 .42 .11 -- 35
Feb-April Leaf 11 29 1.53 .28 44 45
Stem 8 40 .73 .32 -- 28

*ADF--acid detergent fiber
**Dry matter is given for leaves and stems combined
***IVD--in-vitro digestibility

Nutritional composition (%) of jojoba foliage as desert bighorn sheep
forage in the Harquahala Mountains of Arizona follows [49]:

Fiber*
Month Dry matter Protein ADF NDF Lignin Cellulose
__________________________________________________________________________
Jan-Feb 23.98 9.00 23.51 32.51 6.77 16.43
Mar-April 49.97 8.38 25.37 48.16 7.75 15.34
May-June 45.25 10.34 27.58 35.57 7.40 20.23
Jul-Aug 53.69 10.30 26.13 35.14 6.94 18.82
Sep-Oct 50.23 9.60 27.76 36.85 8.93 18.27
Nov-Dec 45.24 9.81 28.52 32.68 8.27 18.86

*ADF--acid detergent fiber; NDF--nondetergent fiber
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

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AZ CA MEXICO
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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More info for the term: seed

Jojoba seed oil is chemically similar to that of sperm whale oil and can
be substituted in many processes [4,6,9,13,18]. Approximately 90
percent of the seed oil harvested is utilized by the cosmetics industry
[6]. The oil may also be used in many industrial processes and for the
production of pharmaceuticals and commercial products such as
lubricants, waxes, candles, and rubber compounds such as varnishes,
rubber adhesives, and linoleum [4,6,26,32,35,42]. The seed oil is also
a good source of straight-chain alcohols and acids used in detergents,
disinfectants, emulsifiers, and bases for creams and ointments [4]. The
seed meal by-product may have use as livestock feed if the
antinutritional compounds are removed [6,32].

Native Americans and early white settlers in the Southwest used jojoba
nuts to make a substitute for coffee. Jojoba was also used by Native
Americans for widespread medicinal purposes [4,12,23].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

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Jojoba browse is highly palatable to livestock and big game animals [38].
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info for the term: seed

Seasonal growth and development of jojoba is generally a response to
winter-spring rains. Flowers appear mostly in February and March [15],
but flowering may occur anytime from December to July [23,35,38]. In
the Tucson, Arizona, area jojoba has flowered as early as the first week
in January. Flowering usually begins in late January with peak bloom in
February. The flowering period is usually complete by late February to
mid-March. Populations in the area have been observed to bloom at
different times of the year in response to heavy precipitation [5].

Viable seed may develop regardless of the flowering date [38]. Deep
soil moisture early in the year or previous fall is required for
maximum seed development. Summer rains may help fill out maturing seeds
and prolong their ripening. Seed fall is early in the season if
conditions are dry and hot, but may be late and prolonged. Seed fall
continues over 6 to 7 weeks. Baja California populations generally
mature seed 1 to 2 months earlier than California and Arizona
populations [15].

Most vegetative growth of jojoba occurs in the spring [7].
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: association, cover, density, top-kill, wildfire

Jojoba was "substantially" reduced both in density and cover within 9
months following a controlled fire in June 1981 in Bulldog Canyon near
Phoenix, Arizona. The prefire vegetation was classified as a littleleaf
paloverde-cactus-shrub association. Jojoba showed some resistance to
top-kill, and many plants sprouted vigorously after the fire. Nine
months after the fire, 60 percent of jojoba plants were sprouting and 40
percent were present as adults (not top-killed by fire). On an adjacent
site burned by a wildfire, all jojoba were present as sprouts in
postfire years 1 and 2 [8].
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: fire regime, root crown, shrub

Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown


FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in
which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: density, fruit, natural, perfect, root crown, seed, softwood

Jojoba is wind pollinated [5,7,38]. Honey bees collect large amounts of
pollen but apparently do not visit female plants [5]. Plants bearing
perfect hermaphroditic flowers are rarely found in certain populations.
Apomyxis does not occur. Pollination and fertilization must take place
to produce fruits with viable seeds [5,38]. Sex ratios in natural
populations are generally equal [5]. Irrigated plants produce fruit in
about 3 years, but a longer period is required before an appreciable
quantity of seeds is produced by plants growing in natural populations
[38]. Seed maturation is complete within 6 to 7 months of fertilization
[15].

The period of flowering, the amount of fruit developed, and the quantity
of seed produced is highly variable from year to year at any given
location [7,15,38,50]. During 3 consecutive years at Puerto Libertad,
Sonora, seed yield ranged from 0 to 448 seeds per plant [7]. Most
capsules split at maturity and release seeds, but they occasionally drop
before opening and slowly disintegrate on the ground. A few capsules
may remain on the plant for an extended period [38]. Seeds are
dispersed by animals and erosion [50]. The seeds remain viable for a
long time [7,15,38]; almost 100 percent germination has been obtained
from seed stored 10 to 12 years in sealed containers kept at 35 degrees
Fahrenheit (1.5 deg C) [38]. The seeds may reside in the soil for many
years before conditions are appropriate for germination [50]. However,
in natural populations many jojoba seeds may be consumed by desert
rodents. Jojoba seeds are high in energy content, large and heavy, and
usually fall directly under the parent plant, all of which increase the
chance for predation. Pocket gophers carry away large numbers of seeds
and deposit them in caves or burrows. Although most of the seeds are
consumed, some seedlings have been observed from abandoned gopher
burrows [7]. However, jojoba produces cyanogenic glycosides as a
defense mechanism [7,59], which may make the seeds inedible to some
desert rodents [7]. Following the period of natural dispersal (August)
at a site in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, the seedbank was totally depleted
within 8 weeks. However, at Santa Rosa, Sonora, only a fraction of the
seeds were lost to predation [7].

Seed polymorphism in jojoba is apparently an important adaptive strategy
against the heterogeneity and unpredictability of the desert
environment. Medium- and large-sized seeds do not have a dormant stage
and germinate readily with adequate rainfall. Small seeds, however,
have a dormant stage and can survive longer. Small seeds have narrower
germination requirements which may allow the individual seeds to
germinate only after suitable conditions are present for a longer period
of time. Germination rates in one experiment were 80 percent, 67
percent, and 46 percent for large, medium, and small seeds,
respectively. Seedling emergence for large- and medium-sized seeds was
significantly (p less than .01) higher than for small seeds. Seed size also
determined seedling size. The following growth parameters were measured
for jojoba seedlings 44 days after sowing [21]:

Seed size Root-shoot Percent Mean emergence Leaf area
(mean weight) ratio emergence time in days (cm)
_______________________________________________________________________
Small (436 mg) 0.82:1.00 50.8 24.3 2.74
Medium (760 mg) 1.29:1.00 61.3 18.5 7.14
Large (941 mg) 1.35:1.00 77.1 14.1 12.22

Information on jojoba seed collection, germination, and planting
techniques is available in the literature [15,38].

The critical period for jojoba survival is the seedling stage. Many
years may pass without suitable conditions for germination, and years
when conditions are favorable for seedling establishment are even fewer
[15,61]. Most seedling mortality is caused by physical factors (such as
dry soil and freezing temperatures) with predation only amounting to a
small percentage of deaths [4,7]. Seedlings are very sensitive to harsh
summer weather in their first year [7]. In the Tucson Mountains of
Arizona, 219 recently germinated seedlings were studied from 1974 to
1984 to measure survival and growth. Seedling mortality was 88 percent,
70 percent, and 50 percent for 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old seedlings,
respectively. By the end of third year only four seedlings were living,
all of which were growing on "protected" sites [50]. Seedlings may be
numerous with favorable precipitation, however. A heavy storm in
September 1976 produced 3 inches (760 mm) of rain near Ocotillo,
California, where annual precipitations is generally only 4 inches (100
mm). Later that fall jojoba seedling density was 179 seedlings per
hectare [61]. More male than female seedlings survive the stress of
establishment [4].

Jojoba sprouts from the root crown following damage to stems [8,15].
Thickets may develop as a result of shoot production from deep roots
several feet away from the root crown [15]. Jojoba may also be
propagated from softwood cuttings taken in late spring or early summer
[15,38].
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border
7 Lower Basin and Range
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bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info on this topic.

Little information is available on the successional status of jojoba.
Gentry [15] stated that jojoba is apparently unable to tolerate closed
communities such as arroyo thickets, extensive creosotebush (Larrea
tridentata) stands, and chaparral. It is normally found growing in full
sunlight. Jojoba seedling establishment is associated with nurse plants
over at least part of its range [50].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name of jojoba is Simmondsia chinensis
(Link) Schneid. [18,23,35]. Some authorities have placed jojoba in the
family Buxaceae [23,35] while others place it in its own family,
Simmondsiaceae [9,18]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties,
or forms.
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Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Jojoba

provided by wikipedia EN

Jojoba /həˈhbə/ (About this soundlisten), with the botanical name Simmondsia chinensis, and also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush,[2] is native to the Southwestern United States. Simmondsia chinensis is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae, placed in the order Caryophyllales.

Jojoba is grown commercially to produce jojoba oil, a liquid wax ester extracted from its seed.

Distribution

The plant is a native shrub of the Sonoran Desert,[3] Colorado Desert, Baja California Desert, and California chaparral and woodlands habitats in the Peninsular Ranges and San Jacinto Mountains. It is found in southern California, Arizona, and Utah (U.S.), and Baja California state (Mexico).

Jojoba is endemic to North America, and occupies an area of approximately 260,000 square kilometers (100,000 sq mi) between latitudes 25° and 31° North and between longitudes 109° and 117° West.[3]

Description

Simmondsia chinensis, or jojoba, typically grows to 1–2 meters (3.3–6.6 ft) tall, with a broad, dense crown, but there have been reports of plants as tall as 3 meters (9.8 ft).[3]

The leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–4 centimeters (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1.5–3 centimeters (0.59–1.18 in) broad, thick, waxy, and glaucous gray-green in color.

The flowers are small and greenish-yellow, with 5–6 sepals and no petals. The plant typically blooms from March to May.[4]

Reproduction

Each plant is dioecious, with hermaphrodites being extremely rare. The fruit is an acorn-shaped ovoid, three-angled capsule 1–2 centimeters (0.39–0.79 in) long, partly enclosed at the base by the sepals. The mature seed is a hard oval that is dark brown and contains an oil (liquid wax) content of approximately 54%. An average-sized bush produces 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of pollen, to which few humans are allergic.[2]

The female plants produce seed from flowers pollinated by the male plants. Jojoba leaves have an aerodynamic shape, creating a spiral effect, which brings wind-born pollen from the male flower to the female flower. In the Northern Hemisphere, pollination occurs during February and March. In the Southern Hemisphere, pollination occurs during August and September.

Somatic cells of jojoba are tetraploid; the number of chromosomes is 2n = 4x = 52.[5]

Genetics

The jojoba genome was sequenced in 2020 and reported to be 887-Mb, consisting of 26 chromosomes (2n = 26), and is predicted to have 23,490 protein-coding genes.[6]

 src=
Plaque describing jojoba in the Lost Dutchman State Park (Arizona)

Taxonomy

Despite its scientific name Simmondsia chinensis, the plant is not native to China. The botanist Johann Link originally named the species Buxus chinensis, after misreading a collection label "Calif", referring to California, as "China". Jojoba was collected again in 1836 by Thomas Nuttall who described it as a new genus and species in 1844, naming it Simmondsia californica, but priority rules require that the original specific epithet be used.

The common name "jojoba" originated from O'odham name Hohowi.[2] The common name should not be confused with the similarly written jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus), an unrelated plant species, which is commonly grown in China.

Uses

 src=
Jojoba oil in a clear glass vial

Jojoba foliage provides year-round food for many animals, including deer, javelina, bighorn sheep, and livestock. Its nuts are eaten by squirrels, rabbits, other rodents, and larger birds.

Only Bailey's pocket mouse, however, is known to be able to digest the wax found inside the jojoba nut. In large quantities, jojoba seed meal is toxic to many mammals, later this effect was found to be due to simmondsin, which inhibits hunger. The indigestible wax acts as a laxative in humans.

Native American uses

Native Americans first made use of jojoba. During the early 18th century Jesuit missionaries on the Baja California Peninsula observed indigenous peoples heating jojoba seeds to soften them. They then used a mortar and pestle to create a salve or buttery substance. The latter was applied to the skin and hair to heal and condition. The O'odham people of the Sonoran Desert treated burns with an antioxidant salve made from a paste of the jojoba nut.[2]

Native Americans also used the salve to soften and preserve animal hides. Pregnant women ate jojoba seeds, believing they assisted during childbirth. Hunters and raiders ate jojoba on the trail to keep hunger at bay.

The Seri, who utilize nearly every edible plant in their domain, do not regard the beans as real food and in the past ate it only in emergencies.[2]

Contemporary uses

 src=
Wild jojoba seed market on the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona

Jojoba is grown for the liquid wax, commonly called jojoba oil, in its seeds.[7] This oil is rare in that it is an extremely long (C36–C46) straight-chain wax ester and not a triglyceride, making jojoba and its derivative jojoba esters more similar to whale oil than to traditional vegetable oils. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters (HJE's) are created via a saponification reaction which liberates more than 12 natural long chain fatty alcohols making them available for anti-viral purposes. Natural HJE's have been shown to be 50 times stronger in in-vitro testing than synthetic docosanol (C22:0) in combating the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1). Jojoba oil has also been discussed as a possible biodiesel fuel.[8][9][10] Jojoba cannot be cultivated on a scale to compete with traditional fossil fuels, and its use is relegated to personal care products.[11]

Cultivation

Plantations of jojoba have been established in a number of desert and semi-desert areas, predominantly in Argentina, Australia, Israel, Mexico, Peru and the United States. It is currently the Sonoran Desert's second most economically valuable native plant (overshadowed only by Washingtonia filifera—California fan palms, used as ornamental trees).

Jojoba prefers light, coarsely textured soils. Good drainage and water penetration is necessary. It tolerates salinity and nutrient-poor soils. Soil pH should be between 5 and 8.[12] High temperatures are tolerated by jojoba, but frost can damage or kill plants.[13] Requirements are minimal, so jojoba plants do not need intensive cultivation. Weed problems only occur during the first two years after planting and there is little damage by insects. Supplemental irrigation could maximize production where rainfall is less than 400 mm.[12] There is no need for high fertilisation, but, especially in the first year, nitrogen increases growth.[14] Jojoba is normally harvested by hand because seeds do not all mature in the same time. Yield is around 3.5 t/ha depending on the age of the plantation.[12]

Selective breeding is developing plants that produce more beans with higher wax content, as well as other characteristics that will facilitate harvesting.[2]

Its ability to withstand high salinity (up to 12 dS m−1 at pH 9) and the high value of jojoba products make jojoba an interesting plant for the use of desertification control. It has been used to combat and prevent desertification in the Thar Desert in India.[15]

References

  1. ^ "Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K.Schneid". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Phillips, Steven J.; Comus, Patricia Wentworth, eds. (2000). A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert. University of California Press. pp. 256–257. ISBN 0-520-21980-5.
  3. ^ a b c Gentry, Howard Scott (July 1958). "The natural history of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and its cultural aspects". Economic Botany. 12 (3): 261–295. doi:10.1007/BF02859772. S2CID 20974482.
  4. ^ "Simmondsia chinensis". Jepson eFlora (TJM2). The Jepson Herbarium.
  5. ^ Tobe, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Sachiko; Oginuma, Kazuo (December 1992). "Seed coat anatomy, karyomorphology, and relationships of Simmondsia (Simmondsiaceae)". The Botanical Magazine Tokyo. 105 (4): 529–538. doi:10.1007/BF02489427. S2CID 31513316.
  6. ^ Sturtevant, Drew; Lu, Shaoping; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Shen, Yin; Wang, Shuo; Song, Jia-Ming; Zhong, Jinshun; Burks, David J.; Yang, Zhi-Quan; Yang, Qing-Yong; Cannon, Ashley E. (March 2020). "The genome of jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis ): A taxonomically isolated species that directs wax ester accumulation in its seeds". Science Advances. 6 (11): eaay3240. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.3240S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay3240. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 7065883. PMID 32195345.
  7. ^ "Jojoba" (PDF). IENICA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  8. ^ Franke, Elsa; Lieberei, Reinhard; Reisdorff, Christoph (24 October 2012). Nutzpflanzen: Nutzbare Gewächse der gemäßigten Breiten, Subtropen und Tropen. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. p. 399.
  9. ^ Al-Hamamre, Z. (July 2013). "Jojoba is a Possible Alternative Green Fuel for Jordan". Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. 8 (3): 217–226. doi:10.1080/15567240903330442. S2CID 154094908.
  10. ^ Al-Widyan, Mohamad I.; Al-Muhtaseb, Mu’taz A. (August 2010). "Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source". Energy Conversion and Management. 51 (8): 1702–1707. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.11.043.
  11. ^ Uwe Wolfmeier, Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer, Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd Hohner, Josef Wildgruber (2002). "Waxes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_103. ISBN 3527306730.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link).
  12. ^ a b c Yermanos, D. M. (1979). "Jojoba – a crop whose time has come". California Agriculture.
  13. ^ Borlaug, N. (1985). Jojoba. New Crop for Arid Lands, New Raw Material for Industry. National Academy Press.
  14. ^ Nelson, M. (2001). "Nitrogen fertilization effects on jojoba seed production". Industrial Crops and Products. 13 (2): 145–154. doi:10.1016/s0926-6690(00)00061-3.
  15. ^ Alsharhan, Abdulrahman S.; Fowler, Abdulrahman; Goudie, Andrew S.; Abdellatif, Eissa M.; Wood, Warren W. (2003). Desertification in the third millennium. Lisse: Balkema. pp. 151–172. ISBN 978-0-415-88943-8.

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Jojoba: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Jojoba /həˈhoʊbə/ (About this soundlisten), with the botanical name Simmondsia chinensis, and also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush, is native to the Southwestern United States. Simmondsia chinensis is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae, placed in the order Caryophyllales.

Jojoba is grown commercially to produce jojoba oil, a liquid wax ester extracted from its seed.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN