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Diagnostic Description

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Light greenish to dark brown in color with variable markings (Ref. 4281). Snout cylindrical, equal to or less than eye diameter. With 18 - 19 body rings between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). The snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) is distinguished by the lack of pectoral and anal fins (Ref. 88171). An elongated bump on top of head behind eye (Ref. 59043).
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Ovoviviparous; reproducing on average 3 times each year (Ref. 89328). Several females depositing partial clutches to a male’s brood pouch under the tail (Refs. 205, 31201). Up to 400 eggs may be found in a single pouch (Ref. 89329). Brooding males occur mainly between May and July (Refs. 31201, 58137). During the breeding season, both males and females were observed to remain low amongst the seagrass in one meadow (Ref. 31201). Gestation period lasts about 5 weeks and size at birth is 1.7- 3.5 cm (Refs. 58137, 88187, 89330). Aquarium experiments have shown that new born young are benthic, remaining close to the bottom Ref. 89330).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 33 - 42; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 3
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Threats

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Least Concern (LC)
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Susan M. Luna
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Trophic Strategy

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Visual, low-level predator. Feeds primarily during the day (Ref. 58137), preying mainly on small crustaceans (Ref. 89327).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref. 4281); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (Zostera) (Refs. 4146, 6733, 88187). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (Ref. 85544).
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Christine Papasissi
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Importance

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fisheries: of no interest
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Christine Papasissi
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Greater pipefish

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The greater pipefish (Syngnathus acus) is a pipefish of the family Syngnathidae.[2] It is a seawater fish and the type species of the genus Syngnathus.

Etymology

The genus name Syngnathus derives from the Greek, syn, symphysis meaning grown together and gnathos meaning jaw. The Latin species name acus means needle.[4]

Description

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Greater pipefish in Zostera vegetation

The greater pipefish has a long segmented armoured body, angular in cross section and stretching up 45 cm long with its stiff appearance. It ranges a color brown to green in with broad alternating light and dark hue along it. Its customized by a long snout with mouth on end and a slight hump on the top of the body just behind the eyes.

The fish is generally 33 cm to 35 cm in length with a reported maximum length of 47 cm. They are almost square in each segment of the body, and known to feel rigid when handled. The greater pipefish has distinctive body rings which are a sandy brown with darker bars covering his body in between.[5][4]

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Fossil of Syngnathus acus from Pliocene of Italy

Anatomy

The anatomy of fish vary through the sex. The top third of the females belly is deep (when egg bound), twice the breadth of the lower two thirds below the vent. The male is the "tailing" with the twin folds below the vent. The folds of the skin make the middle third and during the "brooding" of the young they swell in size until the young are released from the pouch (at a size of 22 mm to 35 mm).

Biology

These fishes feed on live mysids and small prawns.[2] They are ovoviviparous and reproduce usually three times each year. A few females deposit partial clutches under the tail into the male's brood pouch, that may contain up to 400 eggs.[4]

Distribution

The greater pipefish is found all around the British Isles and is regularly found in the Mediterranean Sea.[2]

Habitat

These fishes are common on southerly and westerly coasts in a variety of habitats, often amongst seaweeds and seagrass.[2]

Syngnathus temminckii

The southern African species Syngnathus temminckii (Kaup, 1856) was until recently synonymised with S. acus. However, morphological data clearly show that it is distinct, and genetic data indicate that it is not even the sister taxon of S. acus, but of another southern African species, the river pipefish S. watermeyeri (Mwale et al., in press).

Gallery

Bibliography

  • Bent J. Muus, Jørgen G. Nielsen: Die Meeresfische Europas. In Nordsee, Ostsee und Atlantik. Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, ISBN 3-440-07804-3
  • Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris.
  • Rudie H. Kuiter: Seepferdchen: Seenadeln, Fetzenfische und ihre Verwandten. Ulmer (Eugen), 2001, ISBN 3-80013-244-3

References

  1. ^ Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (2015). "Syngnathus acus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T198765A44933898. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T198765A44933898.en.
  2. ^ a b c d e Syngnathus acus at the World Register of Marine Species
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2018). "Syngnathus acus" in FishBase. February 2018 version.
  4. ^ a b c Fishbase
  5. ^ "Synghatus acus on jjphoto.dk". Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-07-10.

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Greater pipefish: Brief Summary

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The greater pipefish (Syngnathus acus) is a pipefish of the family Syngnathidae. It is a seawater fish and the type species of the genus Syngnathus.

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Syngnathus temminckii

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Syngnathus temminckii (longsnout pipefish) is the most common pipefish in southern African estuaries, ranging from Walvis Bay (Namibia) to the Tugela River on the east coast of South Africa.[1]

Biology

This species is common in estuaries, usually in eelgras beds, but has also been found offshore to depths of 110 m.[1] Sexual maturity is reached at 12 cm, and breeding occurs from March to November. Males carry the developing embryos in a brood pouch on their belly.[1]

Taxonomy

Syngnathus temminckii was until recently synonymised with the European species S. acus Linnaeus, 1758 (greater pipefish), but morphological data show that it is distinct.[2] Genetic data further indicate that it is not even the sister taxon of S. acus, but of another southern African species, the critically endangered estuarine pipefish, S. watermeyeri.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c Heemstra, P.C. (2004) Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. NISC (PTY) LTD
  2. ^ a b Mwale, M., Kaiser, H., Barker, N.P., Wilson, A.B. & Teske, P.R. (2013) Identification of a uniquely southern African clade of coastal pipefishes (Syngnathus spp.). Journal of Fish Biology
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Syngnathus temminckii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Syngnathus temminckii (longsnout pipefish) is the most common pipefish in southern African estuaries, ranging from Walvis Bay (Namibia) to the Tugela River on the east coast of South Africa.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of 90 m or more; on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (@Zostera@) (Ref. 6733).
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2019). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2019).
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]

Status

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Morphological data showed that S. temminckii is distinct from the broadly distributed European pipefish Syngnathus acus

Reference

Mwale, M.; Kaiser, H.; Barker, N. P.; Wilson, A. B.; Teske, P. R. (2013). Identification of a uniquely southern African clade of coastal pipefishesSyngnathusspp. Journal of Fish Biology. 82(6): 2045-2062.

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bibliographic citation
Mwale, M.; Kaiser, H.; Barker, N. P.; Wilson, A. B.; Teske, P. R. (2013). Identification of a uniquely southern African clade of coastal pipefishesSyngnathusspp. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 82(6): 2045-2062.
Contributor
Nicolas Bailly [email]