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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals. It has been reported that they live up to 30 years (Lindenfors 2002), which is possible but unconfirmed. One 14.5 year old specimen was still alive in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Conservation Status

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Muriqui populations are estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands prior to the European colonization of South America. Populations of these primates are thought to have been spread throughout the continent. Today, there are fewer than 500 individuals known to persist in the scattered fragmented forests of coastal Brazil. The species is listed on the IUCN Red List of threatened species and has been considered critically endangered since the year 2000. CITES lists these animals as Appendix I, the most endangered status they have. Muriquis are also listed as endanged by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Efforts are being made to study this species in the attempt to develop a management plan. Without a management plan, extinction is imminent.

(Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001)

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Benefits

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Muriquis are not abundant enough to have negative economic impacts, though they are primates and are succeptable to many of the same diseases humans are. Being an endangered species in a degraded situation, disease is more likely to spread.

(Strier, 1992)

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Benefits

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Since the early 1990’s, muriquis have been targeted by eco-tourists. The popularity of South America's largest primate, particularly on the Fazenda Montes Claros Plantation, has been increasing throughout the years. Tourists bring in dollars for both the local people and the government.

This species has also been hunted by indigenous people. Its meat is considered a delicacy.

(Strier, 1992)

Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Associations

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Muriquis serve an important ecosystem role in dispersing seeds throughout the forest. One study showed that seeds collected from muriqui feces and then planted almost always germinated. In some cases, the seeds germinated faster than those that never passed through a muriqui digestive system.

B. arachnoides may also have some impact on predator populations, but because of its own low population size, it is unlikely that any predators rely very heavily on this species as a food source.

(Strier, 1992)

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Muriquis eat mostly fruit, leaves, flowers, and a few species of seeds. Fruit seems to be the choicest item in their diet. Due to their large size and the large number of individuals in their social groups, they can easily locate a fruit source and chase off other monkeys that are already exploiting it. Once they find a good foraging area, muriquis will often camp out, waiting for days eating leaves until the fruit is ripened.

Foods eaten include: ripened fruit, leaves, flowers, seeds of Sapucainha, seeds of Amexia-bicha, seeds of Inga, seeds of Bicuiba and seeds of Jatoba.

(Strier, 1992)

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Distribution

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Woolly spider monkeys, or muriquis, are found scattered throughout the southeast of Brazil, ranging from Bahia in the north to Sao Palo in the south. They make their home in the lonely remnants of their coastal Atlantic forest habitat. (Massicot, 2001; Strier, 1992; Moynihan, 1976)

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Habitat

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The preferred habitat of Brachyteles arachnoides is the mature evergreen and deciduous lowlands of the costal Atlantic forests in Brazil. B. arachnoides is arboreal and spends most of its time in the canopy. However, muriquis are quite resilient despite their endangered status. Troops will utilized both primary and secondary growth in pristine as well as disturbed areas. Although they are highly arboreal, they will cross open ground when there are gaps within the canopy. (Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001)

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Life Expectancy

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The average life expectancy of this species is unknown.

(Strier, 1992; Moynihan,1976)

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Morphology

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The muriqui is the largest South American primate, with males weighing about 15 kg, and females about 12 kg. The head and body length has been reported as 780 mm, and the tail is about the same length. When they are seen hanging by their arms, they measure about 1.5 meters tall.

Muriquis have very long prehensile tails, which aid them in their arboreal existence. Because of the swinging nature of their movements, their thumbs have become reduced in size and are considered vestigial. Both sexes have prominent pot bellies. The coat is grayish-golden except for the face, which looks as if its been covered with soot, and the area surrounding the genitals, which tends to be much redder in color than the rest of the body. The genitals in this species are fairly conspicuous. The male has a large os penis, and the female clitoris is very long and tipped with reddish hair.

(Napier and Napier, 1985; Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001; Monihan, 1976)

Average mass: 12-15 kg.

Average length: 780 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average mass: 11170 g.

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Associations

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The major predation threat to muriquis is from indigenous humans. These monkeys have been hunted for food because their meat is considered a delicacy in the areas where they are found. Although some troops of muriqui may be an important food source for large predators such as jaguars, ocelots, and harpy eagles, there are not many confirmed cases of this type of predation. One troop that was observed for a decade lost only five members in that time, and only two of those five disappeared mysteriously.

(Strier, 1992)

Known Predators:

  • humans (Homo sapiens)
  • jaguars (Panthera onca)
  • Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)
  • harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja)
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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Reproduction

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There does not appear to be much competition between males for mating oportunities. Often, males will wait in line for their chance to mate with a receptive female. Both males and females have multiple mating partners. Females are able to exert more choice in mates than in many primate species, because of the minimal sexual dimorphism in this species. Females also exert some mate choice when they decide what group of males to join when they disperse from their natal group at adolescence.

(Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001)

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

The age of sexual maturity has been recorded as approximately 11 years for a female and 5.5 years for a male. Their courtship is extremely passive. There is very little agression between males, and they seem extremely tolerant of each other. The males sometimes wait in line for their opportunity to mate with a receptive female.

When it comes to choosing a mate, females are very much in charge, which is unusual for primates. Since both sexes are approximately the same size, the males cannot bully the females into giving in. After mating, gestation lasts 7-8.5 months, when the female gives birth to a single young in the dry season (May though September). A baby muriqui is born 7-8 ½ months after it is conceived.

(Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001)

Breeding season: Most births occur during the dry season, from May to September.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 7 to 8.5 months.

Range weaning age: 18 to 30 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 6 to 11 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 6 to 11 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average number of offspring: 1.

Parental care is prinicpally the business of females. Young are quite helpless when born, although able to cling to their mother's fur. For the first few weeks of life, the infant clings to its mother's side, under her arm and near the nipple. By 6 months of age, the baby rides "jockey style" on its mother's back as she goes off to forage. After 6 months, an infant muriqui will begin to assert some independence, exploring the surrounding world but never leaving its Mom’s side by more than a few feet.

After the toddler has reached a year, it will wander off for longer periods and interact with other toddlers. At times its mother will leave it while she goes to forage. The mother will call her baby back when she is done. By this time the toddler is starting to eat some on its own. This idyllic existence between mother and baby ends abruptly when weaning occurs and the mother chases off her child. Weaning time varies, from 18 to 30 months of age, averaging 24 months. Often weaning involves pecking and nipping by the mother, with loud cries from the confused baby, who may go on screaming for 15 minutes or more. The baby will often find comfort with other confused weanlings who are going through a similar experience.

In adolescence (4-6 years) the youngsters will start to move their own separate ways. The young males will attempt to make stronger bonds with the other males in the group and the young females will begin to distance themselves as they prepare to leave and join another troop.

The male role in parental care in this species has not been reported.

(Strier, 1992; Massicot, 2001)

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Bladh, A. 2003. "Brachyteles arachnoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Brachyteles_arachnoides.html
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Biology

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Muriquis are arboreal and active during the day (7). They live in multimale-multifemale groups that may number between 5 and 25 individuals (5). Groups are not territorial; there is little aggression between members and related males often cooperate with each other (5). There is no evidence of social grooming between group members but embracing is thought to help maintain bonds (5). Females tend to give birth to a single offspring in the dry season that runs between May and September (7). Males remain with their natal group but once they have reached adolescence at 5 – 7 years old, female offspring will disperse to join other groups (7). Young leaves and fruits constitute a large component of the muriqui diet; individuals often feed by hanging from the branches of a tree with their prehensile tail (5). Fruits and seeds are also eaten during the more abundant rainy season (7).
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Conservation

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The muriqui has been a flagship species for the conservation of Brazil's fragile Atlantic Forest Region (8). Conservation efforts are still imperative and “Programme Muriqui” will continue to undertake research on populations within the Serra dos Organos National Park; the possibility of reintroductions is being investigated and an ongoing education programme has been established (9).
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Description

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The muriqui, or woolly spider monkey, is the largest New World primate, and in the late 1980s was recognised as two distinct species: the southern (Brachyteles arachnoides) and northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus) respectively (4). One of the differences between these species is the presence of a small thumb in the northern variety (2), which is lacking in the southern species. Muriquis have long limbs and a long prehensile tail, allowing them to be particularly agile amongst the trees (5). The thick coat is greyish-brown in colour; males may have a more yellow tinge (6) and they have particularly large testicles, which may be related to sperm competition (5).
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Habitat

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Inhabit primary and secondary Atlantic coastal forest that comprises Brazil's Atlantic Forest Region (4), and found at altitudes from sea level to 1,000 metres (6).
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Range

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Found in south-eastern Brazil, in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (2).
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Status

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Classified as Endangered (EN C2a(i)) on the IUCN Red List 2003 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Threats

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The muriqui was once widespread in the Atlantic Forest Region, but today the southern species is thought to number just under 1,000 individuals (4). This region of Brazil has been devastated by habitat destruction as it is the most populated and industrious region of the country (4). Vast tracts of forest have been lost. In addition, these large primates were an important food source for people in the region and have been widely hunted (4).
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Mona aranya llanosa meridional ( Catalan; Valencian )

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La mona aranya llanosa meridional (Brachyteles arachnoides) és un primat atèlid endèmic del Brasil, on viu als estats de Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo i Minas Gerais. En portuguès se'l coneix com a mono carvoeiro, que significa mico carboner.[1][2]

És l'espècie més gran de mico del Nou Món. Els mascles mesuren uns 55–78 cm, sense comptar la cua, que mesura uns 74–80 cm, i pesen uns 9,6–15 kg. Les femelles tenen una longitud de 46–63 m, la cua de 65–74 cm i un pes de 8–11 kg.[3][4] Tenen la cua completament prènsil.

Referències

 src= A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Mona aranya llanosa meridional Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata


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Mona aranya llanosa meridional: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )

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La mona aranya llanosa meridional (Brachyteles arachnoides) és un primat atèlid endèmic del Brasil, on viu als estats de Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo i Minas Gerais. En portuguès se'l coneix com a mono carvoeiro, que significa mico carboner.

És l'espècie més gran de mico del Nou Món. Els mascles mesuren uns 55–78 cm, sense comptar la cua, que mesura uns 74–80 cm, i pesen uns 9,6–15 kg. Les femelles tenen una longitud de 46–63 m, la cua de 65–74 cm i un pes de 8–11 kg. Tenen la cua completament prènsil.

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Chápan pavoučí ( Czech )

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Chápan pavoučí (Brachyteles arachnoides) je ploskonosá opice (Platyrrhini) z čeledi chápanovití (Atelidae) a podčeledi chápani (Atelinae).

Výskyt

 src=
Chápan pavoučí

Primát je endemickým druhem Brazílie. Vyskytuje se v listnatých lesích na jejím jihovýchodě.

Popis a způsob života

 src=
Tento chápan v zajetí používá ocas jako pátou končetinu

Samci mohou vážit až 15 kg, měřit mohou téměř 80 cm. Chápan patří mezi největší americké opice. Ocas je dlouhý, silný, na konci olysalý. Srst je mimo černého obličeje a rudých genitálií šedavá až zlatá. Chápani se zdržují pouze na stromech, ze kterých slézají pouze občas a velice neradi. Svůj název dostali díky chápavému ocasu, který používají jako další končetinu a s jehož pomocí se dokáží zavěsit za větve a mít všechny čtyři nohy ve vzduchu. Obratnost a způsob pohybu ve stromoví jim také vysloužila druhové jméno "pavoučí". Mezi nepřátele chápanů patří především šelmy. Tato opice se živí pouze rostlinnou potravou, například plody. Členové tlupy k sobě nejsou příliš agresivní, toto chování je patrně zapříčiněno tím, že chápan pavoučí tráví většinu času na stromech a potyčky by mohly skončit pádem.

Rozmnožování

Pohlavní dospělosti je u samic dosaženo okolo 11. roku věku, u samců okolo 5,5 roků věku. Porody probíhají v období sucha mezi květnem až zářím. Po 7−8,5 měsících gravidity se samici narodí průměrně jedno mládě. Mládě je zpočátku bezmocné, první týdny žije zachycené na matčině srsti blízko prsních bradavek, poté je zhruba od šesti měsíců nošeno na hřbetě matky. Odstav od mateřského mléka nastává okolo 18.−30. měsíce věku mláděte. Po jednom roce se začne pomalu od samice odpoutávat a vydávat se od ní na větší vzdálenosti do okolí, ovšem vždy připravené přiběhnout na matčino přivolání. Kolem 4−6 let jsou již pohlavně dospělá a odpoutávají se od matky.[2]

Ohrožení

Kvůli ničení přirozeného prostředí těchto primátů ubývá, nebezpečí představuje těžba písku, bauxitu, žuly a jílu a další faktory, ale také sportovní lov. Populace chápanů je klesající, odhadovaný počet jedinců z roku 2005 je 1300. Přestože se chápan vyskytuje v řadě národních parků, dle IUCN jde o ohrožený druh.[3][4]

Synonyma

  • Mirikï
  • Opice pavoučí [5]

Reference

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Southern muriqui na anglické Wikipedii.

  1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-09]
  2. BLADH, Anni. Brachyteles arachnoides muriqui (Also: woolly spider monkey) [online]. Animal Diversity Web [cit. 2016-01-03]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
  3. VIERING, Kersting; KNAUER, Roland. Ohrožené druhy zvířat. 2011. vyd. [s.l.]: Knižní klub 304 s. ISBN 978-80-242-3180-8.
  4. Brachyteles arachnoides [online]. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, duben 2014 [cit. 2016-01-03]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
  5. Chápan pavoučí na biolib.cz [online]. Dostupné online.

Externí odkazy

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Chápan pavoučí: Brief Summary ( Czech )

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Chápan pavoučí (Brachyteles arachnoides) je ploskonosá opice (Platyrrhini) z čeledi chápanovití (Atelidae) a podčeledi chápani (Atelinae).

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Sydlig muriqui ( Danish )

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Den sydlige muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), også kaldet sydlig uldedderkopabe, er en art i slægten muriquier blandt vestaberne. Det er en af de største aber i den nye verden. Kropslængden er 55-61 centimeter. Den sydlige muriqui lever i regnskov langs kysten i et mindre område i det sydøstlige Brasilien. Her bevæger den sig langsomt omkring i trækronerne, hvor den æder frugt, frø og blade. Pelsen er lysebrun og tyk og tæt. Ansigtet er sort. Hænderne mangler tommelfinger.[2]

Noter

  1. ^ Mendes, S.L.; et al. (2008). "Brachyteles arachnoides". IUCN's Rødliste. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
  2. ^ Bengt Holst (2003), Politikens bog om pattedyr, side 108. Politikens Forlag. ISBN 87-567-6830-3.


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Sydlig muriqui: Brief Summary ( Danish )

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Den sydlige muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), også kaldet sydlig uldedderkopabe, er en art i slægten muriquier blandt vestaberne. Det er en af de største aber i den nye verden. Kropslængden er 55-61 centimeter. Den sydlige muriqui lever i regnskov langs kysten i et mindre område i det sydøstlige Brasilien. Her bevæger den sig langsomt omkring i trækronerne, hvor den æder frugt, frø og blade. Pelsen er lysebrun og tyk og tæt. Ansigtet er sort. Hænderne mangler tommelfinger.

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Südlicher Spinnenaffe ( German )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)

Der Südliche Spinnenaffe (Brachyteles arachnoides) ist eine Primatenart aus der Familie der Klammerschwanzaffen (Atelidae): Er lebt im südöstlichen Brasilien und ist stark gefährdet.

Merkmale

Gemeinsam mit dem Nördlichen Spinnenaffen sind Südliche Spinnenaffen die größten Neuweltaffen. Sie erreichen eine Kopfrumpflänge von 45 bis 78 Zentimeter, der Schwanz ist mit 65 bis 80 Zentimetern länger als der Körper. Er ist als Greifschwanz ausgebildet und an der Unterseite der Spitze unbehaart. Männchen sind etwas größer als Weibchen, sie sind mit 12 bis 15 Kilogramm auch schwerer, Weibchen wiegen 9,5 bis 11 Kilogramm. Das Fell dieser Primaten ist gelbgrau gefärbt und kurz. Arme und Beine sind lang und schlank, im Gegensatz zu ihren nördlichen Verwandten ist der Daumen vollständig zurückgebildet.

Verbreitung und Lebensraum

 src=
Verbreitungsgebiet des Südlichen Spinnenaffen

Südliche Spinnenaffen bewohnen die – heute stark verkleinerten – Wälder an der Atlantikküste der brasilianischen Bundesstaaten Rio de Janeiro und São Paulo, in Paraná sind sie möglicherweise bereits ausgestorben. Ihr Lebensraum sind feuchte Regenwälder, wo sie bis zu einer Seehöhe von 1800 Metern vorkommen.

Lebensweise

Südliche Spinnenaffen sind tagaktiv und halten sich meist auf den Bäumen, bevorzugt im oberen Kronenbereich, auf. Sie sind geschickte Kletterer, die sich häufig suspensorisch – an den Armen schwingend oder am Schwanz hängend – oder auf allen vieren fortbewegen.

Sie leben in Gruppen zusammen, die rund 5 bis 25 Tiere umfassen und sich aus mehreren Männchen und Weibchen zusammensetzen. Das Verhalten der Gruppenmitglieder untereinander ist sehr friedlich und kaum von Aggression geprägt. Das Streifgebiet einer Gruppe umfasst 70 bis 170 Hektar.

Südliche Spinnenaffen sind Pflanzenfresser, die sich von Blättern (rund 50 % der Nahrung), Früchten (30 %, insbesondere in der Regenzeit) und anderem Pflanzenmaterial ernähren.

Fortpflanzung

Das Fortpflanzungsverhalten ist promiskuitiv, Männchen und Weibchen paaren sich mit so vielen Tieren wie möglich. Nach sieben- bis achtmonatiger Tragzeit bringt das Weibchen meist ein einzelnes Jungtier zur Welt, das nach zwei Jahren entwöhnt wird. Männchen bleiben bei Eintreten der Geschlechtsreife in der Geburtsgruppe, während die Weibchen diese zu diesem Zeitpunkt (mit fünf bis sieben Jahren) verlassen müssen.

Bedrohung

Südliche Spinnenaffen zählen zu den gefährdeten Arten, wenngleich sie noch nicht in dem Ausmaß wie ihre nördlichen Verwandten bedroht sind. Ihr Lebensraum ist durch fortgeschrittenen Waldrodungen und starke Besiedlung stark verkleinert und zerstückelt worden. Hinzu kommt die Jagd, die auch heute noch ausgeübt wird. Der Gesamtbestand wird auf 1000 bis 1500 Tiere geschätzt, die IUCN listet die Art als „stark gefährdet“ (endangered).

Literatur

Weblinks

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Südlicher Spinnenaffe: Brief Summary ( German )

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Der Südliche Spinnenaffe (Brachyteles arachnoides) ist eine Primatenart aus der Familie der Klammerschwanzaffen (Atelidae): Er lebt im südöstlichen Brasilien und ist stark gefährdet.

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Southern muriqui

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The southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) is a muriqui (woolly spider monkey) species endemic to Brazil. It is found in the Brazilian states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. This New World monkey is known locally as mono carvoeiro, which translates to "charcoal monkey".[3][4]

Muriquis are the largest New World monkeys and largest non-human native primates in the Americas. Male muriquis have a head-body length of 55–78 cm (21.5–30.5 in), with a tail of 74–80 cm (29–31.5 in) and a body weight of 9.6–15 kg (21–33 lb). Females have a head-body length of 46–63 cm (18–25 in), a tail length of 65–74 cm (25.5–29 in) and a body weight of 8–11 kg (18–24 lb).[5][6] The tails are fully prehensile.

The southern muriqui, B. arachnoides, has a solid black face, distinguishing it from the northern species, B. hypoxanthus, which has a black face mottled with pink.[7]

Southern muriqui are frugivores, which means that fruit is the preferred food type. They have been claimed to possess the most diverse fruit diet in the Atlantic, and also consume leaves and flowers.[8]

This species is considered endangered because of habitat destruction, hunting pressures, and historic population declines. Only two captive populations of the southern muriqui exist. They are housed at the zoos of Curitiba and Sorocaba. The latter is located 80 km from the only long-term investigation of the southern muriqui in continuous forest, the Carlos Botelho State Park. The wild population was estimated at 1,300 in 2005.[9]

Like chimpanzees, male southern muriquis are philopatric, while females immigrate to spread genetic diversity and avoid incestuous breeding with their relatives. They preferentially eat fruit, flowers, and buds and rely on tree bark and leaves as fallback food.

Males within a community are tolerant of each other and intergroup aggression is rare.[10] Although this species is nicknamed the "hippie monkey", due to their relaxed intergroup relationships, their attitude towards outsider males is far from harmonious, as group of males was observed killing a male from outside their group(a trait shared with chimpanzees), though it is not known if this degree of aggression is natural or induced due to a lack of recourses. It is also unclear if northern muriquis also exhibit this degree of aggression.[11]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Talebi, M.; Melo, F.; Rylands, A.B.; Ferraz, D. da S.; Ingberman, B.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Martins, M.; Jerusalinsky, L. (2019). "Brachyteles arachnoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T2993A17927228. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  3. ^ APA – Serra do Mar Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. ambiente.sp.gov.br
  4. ^ Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso: modelo de Gestão Ambiental Archived 2011-01-07 at the Wayback Machine. ambiente.sp.gov.br
  5. ^ Southern muriqui videos, photos and facts – Brachyteles arachnoides Archived 2009-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. ARKive (2006-02-13). Retrieved on 2012-06-11.
  6. ^ southern muriqui (primate) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-11.
  7. ^ Chaves, Paulo B.; Magnus, Tielli; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Talebi, Maurício; Strier, Karen B.; Breves, Paula; Tabacow, Fernanda; Teixeira, Rodrigo H. F.; Moreira, Leandro; Hack, Robson O. E.; Milagres, Adriana; Pissinatti, Alcides; Melo, Fabiano R.; Pessutti, Cecília; Mendes, Sérgio L.; Margarido, Tereza C.; Fagundes, Valéria; Di Fiore, Anthony; Bonatto, Sandro L. (December 2019). "Phylogeographic evidence for two species of muriqui (genus Brachyteles )". American Journal of Primatology. 81 (12): e23066. doi:10.1002/ajp.23066. PMID 31736121. S2CID 182008678.
  8. ^ Jordano, P. (2017). Atlantic frugivory: A plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest. Ecology, 98(6), 1729–1729. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1818/suppinfo
  9. ^ Melo, F. R. & Dias, L. G. (2005). "Muriqui populations reported in the literature over the last 40 years". Neotropical Primates. 13: 19–24.
  10. ^ Farrows. "Southern Woolly Spider Monkey (Muriqui): Species in World Land Trust reserves". World Land Trust. Retrieved 2020-12-07.
  11. ^ Mccleod, Mairi. "'Hippy' monkey is a killer when starved of sex". New Scientist. Retrieved 2020-12-07.

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Southern muriqui: Brief Summary

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The southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) is a muriqui (woolly spider monkey) species endemic to Brazil. It is found in the Brazilian states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. This New World monkey is known locally as mono carvoeiro, which translates to "charcoal monkey".

Muriquis are the largest New World monkeys and largest non-human native primates in the Americas. Male muriquis have a head-body length of 55–78 cm (21.5–30.5 in), with a tail of 74–80 cm (29–31.5 in) and a body weight of 9.6–15 kg (21–33 lb). Females have a head-body length of 46–63 cm (18–25 in), a tail length of 65–74 cm (25.5–29 in) and a body weight of 8–11 kg (18–24 lb). The tails are fully prehensile.

The southern muriqui, B. arachnoides, has a solid black face, distinguishing it from the northern species, B. hypoxanthus, which has a black face mottled with pink.

Southern muriqui are frugivores, which means that fruit is the preferred food type. They have been claimed to possess the most diverse fruit diet in the Atlantic, and also consume leaves and flowers.

This species is considered endangered because of habitat destruction, hunting pressures, and historic population declines. Only two captive populations of the southern muriqui exist. They are housed at the zoos of Curitiba and Sorocaba. The latter is located 80 km from the only long-term investigation of the southern muriqui in continuous forest, the Carlos Botelho State Park. The wild population was estimated at 1,300 in 2005.

Like chimpanzees, male southern muriquis are philopatric, while females immigrate to spread genetic diversity and avoid incestuous breeding with their relatives. They preferentially eat fruit, flowers, and buds and rely on tree bark and leaves as fallback food.

Males within a community are tolerant of each other and intergroup aggression is rare. Although this species is nicknamed the "hippie monkey", due to their relaxed intergroup relationships, their attitude towards outsider males is far from harmonious, as group of males was observed killing a male from outside their group(a trait shared with chimpanzees), though it is not known if this degree of aggression is natural or induced due to a lack of recourses. It is also unclear if northern muriquis also exhibit this degree of aggression.

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Brachyteles arachnoides ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El mono araña muriqui del sur (Brachyteles arachnoides), es un primate platirrino perteneciente a la familia Atelidae endémico en Brasil. Habita en los estados brasileros de Paraná, São Paulo, Río de Janeiro, Espírito Santo y Minas Gerais. A este primate del Nuevo Mundo se le conoce en portugués como mono carvoeiro, que significa mono carbonero.[3][4]

Descripción

La especie es la más grande de los monos del Nuevo Mundo (platirrinos). Los machos tienen una longitud de 55–78 cm, que excluye la cola, la cual mide de 74–80 cm y tienen un peso corporal de entre 9,6 y 15 kg. Las hembras tienen una longitud de 46 a 63 cm, la cola de 65 a 74 cm y un peso de 8 a 11 kg.[5][6]​ La cola es completamente prensil. Tiene el rostro de color negro, lo que le distingue de la especie, B. hypoxanthus, que habita más al norte y tiene el rostro negro moteado con manchas color rosa.

Conservación

Se considera como especie en peligro de extinción en la Lista Roja de la UICN.[2]​ La especie se considera amenazada a raíz de la destrucción de su hábitat, la caza y la disminución en su población. Solamente existen dos grupos en cautiverio del mono araña muriqui, en el zoológico de Curitiba y el de Sorocaba, ambos en Brasil. Este último se ubica a 80 km del centro de investigación del Parque Estatal Carlos Botelho. La población libre en la naturaleza se estimó en 1.300 individuos en 2005.[7]

Referencias

  1. Groves, Colin (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3ª edición). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 151. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
  2. a b Mendes, S.L., de Oliveira, M.M., Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). «Brachyteles arachnoides». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2020 (en inglés). ISSN 2307-8235. Consultado el 4 de noviembre de 2012.
  3. APA - Serra do Mar «Copia archivada». Archivado desde el original el 6 de julio de 2011. Consultado el 16 de marzo de 2010.
  4. Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso: modelo de Gestão Ambiental «Copia archivada». Archivado desde el original el 7 de enero de 2011. Consultado el 16 de marzo de 2010.
  5. Arkive. muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). Consultado el 4 de noviembre de 2012.
  6. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1051848/southern-muriqui
  7. Melo, F. R. and Dias, L. G. (2005). «Muriqui populations reported in the literature over the last 40 years». Neotropical Primates 13: 19-24.
  • Talebi, M. and P. Soares (2005). "Conservation research on the southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in São Paulo State, Brazil." Neotropical Primates 13(Supplement, Special Issue “The Ecology and Conservation of the Muriqui (Brachyteles): Reports from 2002–2005): 53-59.

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Brachyteles arachnoides: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El mono araña muriqui del sur (Brachyteles arachnoides), es un primate platirrino perteneciente a la familia Atelidae endémico en Brasil. Habita en los estados brasileros de Paraná, São Paulo, Río de Janeiro, Espírito Santo y Minas Gerais. A este primate del Nuevo Mundo se le conoce en portugués como mono carvoeiro, que significa mono carbonero.​​

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Brachyteles arachnoides ( Basque )

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Brachyteles arachnoides Brachyteles generoko animalia da. Primateen barruko Atelinae azpifamilia eta Atelidae familian sailkatuta dago

Erreferentziak

  1. (Ingelesez)Mammals - full taxonomy and Red List status Ugaztun guztien egoera 2008an
  2. É. Geoffroy (1806) 7 Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 271. or..

Ikus, gainera

(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
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Brachyteles arachnoides: Brief Summary ( Basque )

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Brachyteles arachnoides Brachyteles generoko animalia da. Primateen barruko Atelinae azpifamilia eta Atelidae familian sailkatuta dago

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Atèle arachnoïde ( French )

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Brachyteles arachnoidesSinge-araignée laineux, Muriqui

L'Atèle arachnoïde[1] (Brachyteles arachnoides) est une espèce de singe-araignée endémique du Brésil. Ce platyrhinien est appelé localement Mono Carvoeiro, qui peut se traduire singe de charbon de bois.

Il se distingue du muriqui du Nord (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) par sa face entièrement noire, alors que son cousin du Nord présente une face noir moucheté de rose.

Il n'existe actuellement que deux populations captives de cette espèce. L'une se trouve partagée entre les zoos de Curitiba et de Sorocaba, tous deux au Brésil. L'autre est d'après une longue enquête zoologique sur ce singe dans la forêt du Parc d'État de Carlos Botelho.

Dénominations

Brachytèle araignée[2], Atèle araignée[2], Singe-araignée laineux[2],[3], Muriqui[2], Eroïde[3],[4].

Répartition géographique

 src=
Carte de répartition.

Son aire de répartition recouvre les États brésiliens du Paraná, de São Paulo, de Rio de Janeiro, de l'Espírito Santo et du Minas Gerais.

Notes et références

  1. Annexes au Journal officiel des Communautés européennes du 18 décembre 2000. Lire en ligne.
  2. a b c et d (en) Murray Wrobel, Elsevier's Dictionary of Mammals : in Latin, English, German, French and Italian, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2007, 857 p. (ISBN 978-0-444-51877-4, lire en ligne), entrée N°643
  3. a et b UICN, consulté le 19 juin 2014
  4. Meyer C., ed. sc., 2009, Dictionnaire des Sciences Animales. consulter en ligne. Montpellier, France, Cirad.

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Atèle arachnoïde: Brief Summary ( French )

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Brachyteles arachnoides • Singe-araignée laineux, Muriqui

L'Atèle arachnoïde (Brachyteles arachnoides) est une espèce de singe-araignée endémique du Brésil. Ce platyrhinien est appelé localement Mono Carvoeiro, qui peut se traduire singe de charbon de bois.

Il se distingue du muriqui du Nord (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) par sa face entièrement noire, alors que son cousin du Nord présente une face noir moucheté de rose.

Il n'existe actuellement que deux populations captives de cette espèce. L'une se trouve partagée entre les zoos de Curitiba et de Sorocaba, tous deux au Brésil. L'autre est d'après une longue enquête zoologique sur ce singe dans la forêt du Parc d'État de Carlos Botelho.

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Južni vunasti majmun pauk ( Croatian )

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Južni vunasti majmun pauk (lat. Brachyteles arachnoides) je vrsta primata iz porodice hvataša. Živi u kišnim šumama jugoistočnog Brazila na nadmorskoj visini do 1600 metara.

Izgled

Zajedno sa sjevernim vunastim majmunom paukom najveći je među majmunima Novog svijeta. Dug je 45-78 centimetara, a rep je dug 65-80 centimetara. Mužjaci su teški 12-15 kilograma, dok su ženke lakše sa svojih 9,5 do 11 kilograma. Krzno mu je žućkasto-sive boje i kratko je. Noge i ruke su im duge su i mršave, prilagođene načinu života na stablima.

Način života

Dnevna je i arborealna životinja. Živi u skupinama sastavljenim od 5 do 25 životinja. Biljojed je, oko 50% njegove prehrane bazira se na listovima, 30% na plodovima, a ostatak čine drugi biljni dijelovi.

Poligaman je; mužjaci se često pare s više jedinki. Gestacija traje sedam ili osam mjeseci, te se najčešće rodi jedno mladunče, koje majka doji dvije godine, a spolnu zrelost postiže s pet do sedam godina. Kad postanu spolno zrele, ženke moraju napustiti skupniu unutar koje su rođene, dok mužjaci ostaju u njoj.

Literatura

  • Thomas Geissmann: Vergleichende Primatologie. Springer-Verlag, Berlin u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-540-43645-6.
  • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD 1999, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.


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Južni vunasti majmun pauk: Brief Summary ( Croatian )

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Južni vunasti majmun pauk (lat. Brachyteles arachnoides) je vrsta primata iz porodice hvataša. Živi u kišnim šumama jugoistočnog Brazila na nadmorskoj visini do 1600 metara.

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Brachyteles arachnoides ( Italian )

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Il murichi meridionale (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Géoffroy, 1806) è un primate platirrino della famiglia degli Atelidi.

Distribuzione

Il loro areale è frammentato fra gli stati di Paraná e San Paolo: si tratta di animali endemici della foresta atlantica brasiliana.

Descrizione

Dimensioni

Misura più di un metro e mezzo di lunghezza, di cui la metà spetta alla coda, per un peso che raggiunge i 15 kg: queste misure ne fanno una delle platirrine di maggiori dimensioni.

Aspetto

Il pelo è uniformemente grigio dorato, ad eccezione della faccia, che è nerastra, come se fosse coperta di fuliggine (da qui il nome comune brasiliano di mono carvoeiro, "scimmia carbone") e della zona dei genitali, dove il pelo tende al rossastro.
La coda è assai lunga, prensile e sensibile, dalla zona terminale glabra: le braccia, anch'esse molto lunghe, presentano mani a forma di uncino con pollici opponibili solo sugli arti posteriori, mentre quelli posteriori sono regrediti ed in forma vestigiale.
Il ventre è molto prominente, ed i genitali hanno grandi dimensioni sia nel maschio che nella femmina, che ha un grosso clitoride ricoperto da una rada peluria rossiccia.

Biologia

Sono animali diurni ed essenzialmente arboricoli: si muovono in fila indiana nella volta della foresta, in modo tale che il primo esemplare testa i rami migliori per procedere e si evitano movimenti casuali che potrebbero portare a cadute e ferimenti anche gravi. Il movimento fra i rami avviene tramite brachiazione, con la coda che funge da quinto braccio.
Le femmine hanno un ruolo importante nella vita dei gruppi: avendo grossomodo le stesse dimensioni dei maschi, questi ultimi non possono sottometterle con la forza. I gruppi tendono a non suddividersi mai in sottogruppi, come accade ad esempio nelle scimmie ragno, ma restano sempre uniti e si muovono assieme alla ricerca di cibo. I combattimenti fra animali sia dello stesso gruppo che di gruppi diversi raramente ricorrono alla violenza, probabilmente perché trattandosi di animali arboricoli è molto facile per loro cadere da grandi altezze.
Questi animali sono stati cacciati in massa dall'uomo: i primi europei si fermavano sulle coste brasiliane all'unico fine di ucciderne in quantità, per fare una buona scorta di carne. Al giorno d'oggi, rimangono meno di 500 esemplari di questa specie, frammentati in numerosi gruppi anche molto distanti fra loro.

Alimentazione

Si nutrono di frutta, foglie, fiori ed alcune specie di semi (Bicuiba e Jatoba): quando un gruppo trova una fonte di cibo, come ad esempio un grosso albero da frutto, tende a scacciare tutte le altre specie animali che si trovano nelle vicinanze di questa al fine di eliminare ogni forma di concorrenza. Qualora invece il gruppo trovi una fonte di cibo non ancora matura, i vari esemplari si accampano nei pressi di quest'ultima, mangiando foglie in attesa che i frutti maturino al punto giusto.

Riproduzione

Il periodo riproduttivo cade durante la stagione secca, fra marzo e settembre. I maschi non competono per potersi accoppiare, ma spesso aspettano semplicemente che una femmina recettiva gli si avvicini, a volte messi in fila: vi è una certa promiscuità, in quanto sia le femmine che i maschi si accoppiano con più esemplari.
La gestazione dura circa 8 mesi, al termine dei quali viene dato alla luce un unico cucciolo che viene accudito principalmente dalle femmine, che inizialmente si attacca al ventre materno, mentre attorno ai sei mesi si arrampica sul dorso.
I cuccioli vengono svezzati attorno ai due anni d'età: a questo punto, la madre caccia via il cucciolo, che solitamente se maschio resta nel proprio gruppo natio, mentre se femmina abbandona il gruppo per andare ad unirsi a nuovi gruppi.
La maturità sessuale viene raggiunta attorno ai 5 anni dalle femmine, mentre i maschi sono più tardivi ed impiegano circa 8 anni prima di potersi dire maturi sessualmente.

Bibliografia

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Brachyteles arachnoides: Brief Summary ( Italian )

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Il murichi meridionale (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Géoffroy, 1806) è un primate platirrino della famiglia degli Atelidi.

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Zuidelijke spinaap ( Dutch; Flemish )

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De zuidelijke spinaap (Brachyteles arachnoides) of wolspinaap is een zoogdier uit de familie van de grijpstaartapen (Atelidae). De wetenschappelijke naam van de soort werd voor het eerst geldig gepubliceerd door É. Geoffroy in 1806.

Kenmerken

De wolspinaap heeft een zware romp met lange armen en benen. De handen hebben haakvormige vingers, maar de duim ontbreekt. Het is de grootste aap van de Nieuwe Wereld, met een lichaamslengte van 55 tot 61 cm, staartlengte van 67 tot 84 cm en een gewicht van 9,5 tot 12 kg.

Leefwijze

Zijn voedsel bestaat voornamelijk uit bladen.

Bedreiging

De soort wordt ernstig bedreigd door vernietiging van de Atlantische kustbossen.

Verspreiding

Deze soort komt voor in de tropische wouden van Zuid-Amerika, met name in het zuidoosten van Brazilië.

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Zuidelijke spinaap: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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De zuidelijke spinaap (Brachyteles arachnoides) of wolspinaap is een zoogdier uit de familie van de grijpstaartapen (Atelidae). De wetenschappelijke naam van de soort werd voor het eerst geldig gepubliceerd door É. Geoffroy in 1806.

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Edderkoppape ( Norwegian )

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Muriki pajęczy ( Polish )

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Muriki pajęczy[3], muriki szary[4] (Brachyteles arachnoides) – gatunek małpy szerokonosej z rodziny czepiakowatych.

Występowanie

Występuje na niewielkich obszarach wschodniej Brazylii, od Bahia na północy do São Paulo na południu. Czasami zamieszkują także niewielkie niewielkie lasy u wybrzeży Atlantyku. Zwierzę to preferuje wiecznie zielone nizinne lasy tropikalne. Większość życia spędzają w koronach drzew. Schodzą na ziemię, gdy chcą przejść z jednej gęstwiny drzewnej do drugiej.

Taksonomia

Gatunek po raz pierwszy naukowo opisał w 1806 roku francuski zoolog Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire nadając mu nazwę Ateles arachnoides[5]. Jako miejsce typowe Geoffroy wskazał Rio de Janeiro w Brazylii[5].

Cechy morfologiczne

Muriki szary jest największą małpą Ameryki Południowej. Dorosłe osobniki ponad 75 cm długości ciała i 12-15 kg wagi. Wisząc na gałęzi, łącznie z kończynami przednimi mierzą prawie 1,5 metra. Zwierzęta te posiadają bardzo długie chwytne ogony, pomagające w poruszaniu czy zwisaniu w trakcie pożywiania się[6]. Podobnie jak u innych prymitywnych naczelnych, ich kciuki są znacznie mniejsze niż u małp człekokształtnych. Zarówno samce jak i samice, mają dobrze zbudowaną klatkę piersiową. Sierść koloru żółtego, jaskrawopomarańczowego lub złotego. Okolice jasnoszarego pyska nie są pokryte włosami. Genitalia muriki są dobrze widoczne, samce posiadają dużego penisa, a samice długie wargi sromowe, pokryte czerwonawym włosiem.

Rozmnażanie

Samce muriki nie konkurują pomiędzy sobą o względy jednej samicy. Ich pokazy są rzadkie i niezbyt okazałe. Nie obserwuje się agresji u zalotników. Zarówno samce jak i samice odbywają w jednym sezonie godowym wiele stosunków, jednakże samica selektywnie wybiera partnerów. Ponieważ osobniki obu płci są podobnej wielkości to samce nie mają przewagi nad samicami, dlatego nie mogą zmusić ich do stosunku (jak na przykład u goryli) Samce osiągają dojrzałość płciową po około 5,5 roku, samice po 10-12 latach. Ciąża trwa około 7-8,5 miesiąca[7]. Samica rodzi jedno młode (rzadziej dwa) pomiędzy majem a wrześniem w porze suchej. Opieka nad nim jest zadaniem matki. Jest całkowicie bezbronny, choć zdolny do utrzymania się na ciele matki podczas gdy ona przemieszcza się między drzewami. Przez pierwsze kilka tygodni umiejscawia się pod ramieniem samicy, na brzuchu w okolicy sutka. W późniejszym czasie podróżuje na grzbiecie matki. Po upływie około 6 miesięcy po raz pierwszy próbuje własnych sił, lecz nie odchodzi od matki na więcej niż kilka metrów. Po skończeniu 12 miesięcy samica zaczyna pozostawiać młode na coraz dłużej w poszukiwaniu pożywienia. Po około 18-30 miesiącach matka zaprzestaje karmienia mlekiem[8]. W tym czasie dziecko coraz częściej przebywa z rówieśnikami. Dojrzałość płciową osiąga po około 5,5-12 lat, w zależności od płci. Wtedy też młode samice próbują nawiązywać mocniejsze więzi z innymi samicami w stadzie, a młode samce przygotowują się do opuszczenia grupy[9].

Pożywienie

Dieta muriki szarego składa się z owoców, liści, kwiatów oraz nasion niektórych gatunków roślin. Głównym składnikiem diety pozostają jednak owoce, będąc najpożywniejszym z nich. Z powodu wielkości osobników i liczebności stad, zwierzęta muszą często poszukiwać nowych obszarów żywieniowych. Jednak nie są zbyt wybredne. Podczas gdy owoce dopiero dojrzewają, muriki żywią się kwiatami i liśćmi. Dużą rolę odgrywają rodzaje roślin jak Sapucainha, Amexia, Inga, Bicuiba i Jatoba[10][7].

Zagrożenia

Muriki nie mają zbyt wielu naturalnych wrogów. Kłusownicy nie stanowią dużego problemu, ze względu na obszar występowania tego gatunku. Uważa się, że na małpy te mogą polować takie drapieżniki jak jaguary, oceloty, harpie czy duże węże. Tubylcy polują na muriki dla mięsa i skóry, lecz w tak małym stopniu by nie narażać wielkości populacji[11]. W ostatniej dekadzie XX wieku odnotowano jedynie 5 niewyjaśnionych przypadków zgonów muriki, z czego 2 z nich spowodowane były prawdopodobnie przez ataki drapieżników. Innym zagrożeniem są choroby przenoszone przez ludzi, które atakują małpy, doprowadzając w 95% przypadków do zgonu. Jest to spowodowane małą odpornością na bakterie i wirusy przywiezione przez osadników[9].

Znaczenie

Małpy odgrywają wielką rolę w budowie lasu tropikalnego rozsiewając nasiona na dużych obszarach. Badania wykazały, że nasiona pochodzące z kału muriki szarego, prawie zawsze kiełkują po umieszczeniu w ściółce. Uważa się też, że mogą wpływać na wielkość populacji dużych drapieżników, poprzez spadek liczebności własnej populacji. Jest to jeden z podstawowych gatunków łownych ludności tubylczych. Ich mięso uważane jest za przysmak.

Od wczesnych lat 90. XX wieku wzrasta zainteresowanie fauną Ameryki Południowej. Turyści coraz częściej przekazują datki na ochronę tych stworzeń[12].

Ochrona

Ocenia się, że przed kolonizacją obszarów tropikalnych Ameryki Południowej przez osadników żyło kilkaset tysięcy muriki szarych. Obecnie obszar na którym występują zmniejszył się o ponad 85%. W 2001 roku żyło jedynie 500 dorosłych osobników. Przez Międzynarodową Unię Ochrony Przyrody i Jej Zasobów został uznany w 2000 roku za gatunek krytycznie zagrożony (Critically Endangered) i wpisany na Czerwoną listy gatunków zagrożonych wyginięciem. Obecnie jednak od 2003 roku uważa się go jedynie za zagrożony (Endangered)[13]. Również Służba Połowu i Dzikiej Przyrody Stanów Zjednoczonych uznała muriki szarego za gatunek zagrożony wyginięciem[14]. Zwierzę to zostało także wpisane do I Aneksu Konwencji o Międzynarodowym Handlu Gatunków Zagrożonych Wyginięciem (CITES)[15].

Przypisy

  1. Brachyteles arachnoides, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
  2. S.L. Mendes, M.M. de Oliveira, R.A. Mittermeier & A.B. Rylands 2016, Brachyteles arachnoides [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017 [online], wersja 2016-3 [dostęp 2017-04-05] (ang.).
  3. W. Cichocki, A. Ważna, J. Cichocki, E. Rajska-Jurgiel, A. Jasiński & W. Bogdanowicz: Polskie nazewnictwo ssaków świata. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, 2015, s. 44. ISBN 978-83-88147-15-9. (pol.ang.)
  4. Zygmunt Kraczkiewicz: SSAKI. Wrocław: Polskie Towarzystwo Zoologiczne - Komisja Nazewnictwa Zwierząt Kręgowych, 1968, s. 81, seria: Polskie nazewnictwo zoologiczne.
  5. a b É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Mémoire Sur les Singes à main imparfaite ou les Atéles. „Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle”. 7, s. 271, 1806 (fr.).
  6. Napier, J., P. Napier.. The natural history of the primates.. „The MIT Press.”, 1985.
  7. a b Strier, K. Faces in the Forest. „Oxford University Press.”, 1992.
  8. Strier & da Fonseca.. The endangered muriqui in Brazil's Atlantic forest.. „Primate Cons.”. 131 (17), 1996.
  9. a b Massicot, P.. Brachyteles arachnoides (Southern Muriqui) and Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Northern Muriqui). „Cambridge Universitety Press.”, 2001.
  10. Strier, K.B.. Demography and conservation of an endangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides.. „Cons. Biol.”. 125 (5), 1991.
  11. Rylands, A.B.. Brachyteles arachnoides.. „IUCN 2004”, 2004.
  12. Nowak, R.M.. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th Ed.. „The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press”, 1999.
  13. Brachyteles arachnoides (Woolly Spider Monkey). IUCN Red List, 2009. [dostęp 2009-11-15].
  14. Woolly Spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2008. [dostęp 2009-11-15].
  15. Appendices I, II and III of CITES (ang.). cites.org, 12 czerwca 2013. [dostęp 2013-07-03].
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Muriki pajęczy: Brief Summary ( Polish )

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Muriki pajęczy, muriki szary (Brachyteles arachnoides) – gatunek małpy szerokonosej z rodziny czepiakowatych.

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Muriqui-do-sul ( Portuguese )

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Nome binomial Brachyteles arachnoides
(Geoffroy, 1806) Distribuição geográfica Distribuição de Muriqui-do-sul
Distribuição de Muriqui-do-sul

O muriqui-do-sul, mono-carvoeiro ou simplesmente muriqui (nome científico: Brachyteles arachnoides) é uma espécie de primata da família Atelidae e do gênero Brachyteles endêmico da mata atlântica brasileira. É uma das duas espécies existentes de Muriqui, sendo a outra o Muriqui do norte. Ocorre principalmente nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo e Minas Gerais. Com até 0,63cm de tamanho corporal, uma cauda preênsil de até 1,10cm e massa corporal de até 10 kg, o muriqui do sul é o maior macaco do Novo Mundo, e o maior primata não Humano das Américas. É considerado uma espécie em Perigo pela União Internacional para a conservação da Natureza (UICN), sobre tudo devido a destruição e fragmentação de seu habitat e pela caça ilegal.

Etimologia

Muriqui vem do tupi muri'ki e significa gente que bamboleia, que vai e vem. A espécie é conhecida como o povo manso da floresta, graças a seus hábitos pacíficos e de permanência em grupo.[3][4]

Características

É um animal dócil, de pelagem bege espessa e macia, com anel de pêlos mais claros ao redor da face. Não possui polegar. A coloração da pele da face, das mãos, pés, planta da cauda e do escroto é preta. Os machos tem caninos consideravelmente mais longos que as fêmeas. De braços e pernas longos e finos, gosta de se balançar nas árvores segurando-se apenas pela cauda, que é preênsil.[1]

 src=
um individuo em cativeiro no zoológico de Sorocaba

De ventre bastante protuberante, os muriquis machos medem entre 55-78 cm de comprimento (sem contar com a cauda), que acrescenta mais 74-80 cm no comprimento e podem pesar de 9,6 a 15 kg quando adulto, os indivíduos do sexo feminino são relativamente menores tendo entre 46-63 cm de comprimento do corpo e mais 65-74 da cauda, pesando entre 8-11 kg.

Comportamento e ecologia

Diurnos os muriquis geralmente vivem em altitudes que variam do nível do mar a até 1500 m (5000 pés). Se alimentam sobre tudo de folhas, mas também podem consumir quantidades significativas de frutas, flores, cascas, bambus, samambaias, néctar, pólen, e sementes. De hábitos gregários vive em grupos que possuem entre 4-43 indivíduos, com um grande numero de machos e fêmeas, muriquis machos ao contrario de muitos outros primatas passam grandes períodos de tempo juntos, sem comportamento agressivo significativo, como tal também não são territoriais, extremamente ágeis chegam a dar saltos de até dez metros na copa das árvores, eles também podem dormir durante parte do dia.

Conservação

Endêmico da Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil (do sul da Bahia até o Paraná), sofre os efeitos do antropismo por várias vertentes:

  • destruição da floresta que é seu habitat original
  • caça ilegal nas áreas estatais preservadas
  • comércio ilegal em áreas privadas

Segundo estimativas, existiam aproximadamente cerca de 1.300 muriquis do sul vivendo no Brasil em 2005, são considerados um dos primatas mais ameaçados do mundo.

Iniciativas de conservação

A Associação Pró-Muriqui desenvolve pesquisas com o Muriqui do Sul no estado de São Paulo (Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho)desde 1993. Este é o único estudo de longo prazo com mono-carvoeiro em florestas não fragmentadas do Brasil. O principal foco de atuação destas pesquisas situa-se no continuum ecológico de Paranapiacaba, o maior remanescente natural do bioma Mata Atlântica ainda existente no país (210 000 hectares de floresta contínua). Promove treinamento de jovens estudantes em primatologia de campo, visando à formação de recursos humanos que serão os futuros tomadores de decisão nas áreas de conservação e pesquisa.

O Programa Muriqui, do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, no Rio de Janeiro, acompanha grupos da espécie, estudando suas rotas e hábitos. O projeto conta com o apoio do centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, localizado em Guapimirim.[5]

Outros estudos importantes foram desenvolvidos com monos-carvoeiros existentes nas matas da fazenda Barreiro Rico, em Anhembi, no estado de São Paulo, de propriedade da família Reis de Magalhães.

Mascote dos Jogos Olímpicos

Outra importante iniciativa que pode contribuir para alertar o público em geral sobre o perigo de extinção em que o Muriqui se encontra é a sua candidatura a mascote dos Jogos Olímpicos a serem realizados no Rio de Janeiro em 2016.[4][6]

Em Cativeiro

Existem apenas duas populações cativas de Muriquis do sul, ambas das quais se encontram no Brasil, no zoológico municipal de Curitiba e no zoológico de Sorocaba, com este ultimo estando localizado a 80 km do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, considerado um dos maiores santuários para o Muriqui do sul, e o único no qual a espécie foi devidamente estudada em um ambiente de floresta contínua.

Referências

  1. a b «Primatas Brasileiros ameaçados de extinção: Brachyteles arachnoides». Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Primatas Brasileiros do Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (CPB/ICMBio). 3 de janeiro de 2012. Consultado em 3 de janeiro de 2012
  2. «Brachyteles arachnoides (Muriqui, Southern Muriqui, Woolly Spider Monkey)». IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (em inglês). International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 3 de janeiro de 2012. Consultado em 3 de janeiro de 2012
  3. FERREIRA, A. B. H. Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa. Segunda edição. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1986. p.1 172
  4. a b Alves, Thaís (31 de outubro de 2011). «Muriqui é candidato a mascote das Olimpíadas 2016». Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Primatas Brasileiros do Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (CPB/ICMBio). Consultado em 3 de janeiro de 2012
  5. «Programa de Conservação do Muriqui - Introdução». Programa Muriqui. Consultado em 31 de julho de 2014
  6. «Projeto Muriqui». Projeto Muriqui 2016. Consultado em 3 de janeiro de 2012

Ligações externas

 src=
O Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Muriqui-do-sul
Espécies viventes da família Atelidae Alouattinae Alouatta
(Bugios ou guaribas) Atelinae Ateles
(Macacos-aranhas) Brachyteles
(Muriquis) Lagothrix
(Macacos-barrigudos) Oreonax WikispeciesWikispecies CommonsCommons
Macacos do Novo Mundo
Espécies de primatas brasileiros ameaçados - MMA (2003) Atelidae VU EN CR Brachyteles hypoxanthus.jpg Cebidae VU EN CR Pitheciidae VU EN CR Macacos do Novo Mundo
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Muriqui-do-sul: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

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O muriqui-do-sul, mono-carvoeiro ou simplesmente muriqui (nome científico: Brachyteles arachnoides) é uma espécie de primata da família Atelidae e do gênero Brachyteles endêmico da mata atlântica brasileira. É uma das duas espécies existentes de Muriqui, sendo a outra o Muriqui do norte. Ocorre principalmente nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo e Minas Gerais. Com até 0,63cm de tamanho corporal, uma cauda preênsil de até 1,10cm e massa corporal de até 10 kg, o muriqui do sul é o maior macaco do Novo Mundo, e o maior primata não Humano das Américas. É considerado uma espécie em Perigo pela União Internacional para a conservação da Natureza (UICN), sobre tudo devido a destruição e fragmentação de seu habitat e pela caça ilegal.

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Muriki južný ( Slovak )

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Muriki južný[1] (iné názvy: pavučiak muriki[1], pavučiak miriki[2]; lat. Brachyteles arachnoides) je druh z čeľade pavučiakovité, ktorý obýva pobrežné lesy v brazílskych štátoch São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro a Paraná. Z dôvodu straty prirodzeného prostredia a lovu patrí medzi ohrozené druhy. Samce tejto sivohnedej opice merajú bez chápavého chvosta 55 – 78 cm, samice 46 – 63 cm. Pavučiak muriki je aktívny cez deň a potravu tvoria listy a ovocie.[3][4]

Referencie

  1. a b LUPTÁK, Peter. Slovenské mená cicavcov sveta. [1. vyd.] Bojnice : Zoologická záhrada, 2003. 218 s. ISBN 80-969059-9-6. S. 55.
  2. Svet živočíšnej ríše: ilustrovaná encyklopédia. Preklad Anna Gutteková. dotlač 1. vyd. Martin : Osveta, 1984. 606 s. S. 318.
  3. MENDES, S. L. & kol. Brachyteles arachnoides [online]. IUCN, 2008, [cit. 2018-02-04]. Dostupné online. (po anglicky)
  4. Southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) [online]. Arkive.org, [cit. 2018-02-04]. Dostupné online. (po anglicky)

Iné projekty

Ei1.jpg Tento článok týkajúci sa živočíchov je zatiaľ „výhonok“. Pomôž Wikipédii tým, že ho doplníš a rozšíriš.
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Muriki južný: Brief Summary ( Slovak )

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Muriki južný (iné názvy: pavučiak muriki, pavučiak miriki; lat. Brachyteles arachnoides) je druh z čeľade pavučiakovité, ktorý obýva pobrežné lesy v brazílskych štátoch São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro a Paraná. Z dôvodu straty prirodzeného prostredia a lovu patrí medzi ohrozené druhy. Samce tejto sivohnedej opice merajú bez chápavého chvosta 55 – 78 cm, samice 46 – 63 cm. Pavučiak muriki je aktívny cez deň a potravu tvoria listy a ovocie.

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Brachyteles arachnoides ( Swedish )

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Brachyteles arachnoides[2][3][4] är en däggdjursart som först beskrevs av É. Geoffroy 1806. Brachyteles arachnoides ingår i släktet ullspindelapor och familjen cebusliknande brednäsor.[5][6] IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som starkt hotad.[1] Inga underarter finns listade.[5]

Utseende

Arten har en ljusbrun till guldfärgad ullig päls som är mer rödaktig nära individernas könsdelar. Som kontrast har ansiktet en svartgrå färg. Hos Brachyteles arachnoides finns tummar bara rudimentär. Djuret har en lång svans som används som gripverktyg. I käkarna förekommer små hörntänder och kindtänder som är anpassade för föda som består av blad.[7][8]

Hanar väger omkring 10 kg och honor cirka 8,5 kg.[1]

Utbredning

Denna primat förekommer i sydöstra Brasilien nära kusten. Arten vistas i kulliga områden och bergstrakter som ligger 600 till 1800 meter över havet. Regionen är täckt av olika slags skogar.[1]

Ekologi

Brachyteles arachnoides är aktiv på dagen och klättrar nästan uteseslutande i träd. Flera hannar och honor bildar flockar med 15 till 25 medlemmar. I motsats till flera andra primater är flockens hannar inte aggressiva mot varandra. Som nämnd tidigare äter denna ullspindelapa främst blad som kompletteras med frukter, frön, blommor, nektar, pollen, bark, bambu och ormbunkar.[7] Under vandringar bildar flocken ofta en linje där den första testar grenarnas lämplighet för klättring.[8]

Arten markerar reviret med urin men territoriet försvaras inte mot andra flockar. Det registrerades inte heller ömsesidig pälsvård.[7] Parningen sker 7 till 8,5 månader före den torra perioden (maj till september) och en hona parar sig med flera hannar vis versa. Honan föder bara en unge per kull. Den håller sig under den första tiden fast i pälsen nära moderns bröst. Efter cirka 6 månader kan den rida på moderns rygg. Ungen börjar efter cirka ett år med fast föda och 18 till 30 månader efter födelsen slutar honan helt med digivning.[8]

I motsats till de flesta andra primater lämnar honor flocken efter 4 till 6 år. Könsmognaden infaller efter 6 till 11 år.[8]

Källor

  1. ^ [a b c d] 2008 Brachyteles arachnoides Från: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>. Läst 2012-10-24.
  2. ^ Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. (1992) , Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  3. ^ (2005) , website Brachyteles arachnoides, Mammal Species of the World
  4. ^ Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole (2000) , Common Names of Mammals of the World
  5. ^ [a b] Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (13 april 2011). ”Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.”. Species 2000: Reading, UK. http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/search/all/key/brachyteles+arachnoides/match/1. Läst 24 september 2012.
  6. ^ ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Orrell T. (custodian), 2011-04-26
  7. ^ [a b c] Sean Flannery (2007). ”Woolly Spider Monkey” (på engelska). Primate Fact Sheets. http://www.theprimata.com/brachyteles_arachnoides.html. Läst 17 augusti 2017.
  8. ^ [a b c d] Anni Bladh (2003). ”Muriqui” (på engelska). Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Brachyteles_arachnoides/. Läst 17 augusti 2017.

Externa länkar

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Brachyteles arachnoides: Brief Summary ( Swedish )

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Brachyteles arachnoides är en däggdjursart som först beskrevs av É. Geoffroy 1806. Brachyteles arachnoides ingår i släktet ullspindelapor och familjen cebusliknande brednäsor. IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som starkt hotad. Inga underarter finns listade.

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Khỉ nhện lông mượt ( Vietnamese )

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Khỉ nhện lông mượt,[3] danh pháp hai phầnBrachyteles arachnoides, là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Atelidae, bộ Linh trưởng. Loài này được É. Geoffroy mô tả năm 1806.[2]

Hình ảnh

Chú thích

  1. ^ Mendes, S.L., de Oliveira, M.M., Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). Brachyteles arachnoides. Sách Đỏ IUCN các loài bị đe dọa. Phiên bản 2011.2. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 1 năm 2012.
  2. ^ a ă Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. biên tập (2005). “Brachyteles arachnoides”. Mammal Species of the World . Baltimore: Nhà in Đại học Johns Hopkins, 2 tập (2.142 trang). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ “Thông tư số 40/2013/TT-BNNPTNT của Bộ Nông nghiệp và Phát triển nông thôn: Ban hành Danh mục các loài động vật, thực vật hoang dã quy định trong các Phụ lục của Công ước về buôn bán quốc tế các loài động vật, thực vật hoang dã nguy cấp” (Thông cáo báo chí). Truy cập ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 2016.

Tham khảo

Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết liên quan đến Bộ Linh trưởng này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
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Khỉ nhện lông mượt: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )

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Khỉ nhện lông mượt, danh pháp hai phần là Brachyteles arachnoides, là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Atelidae, bộ Linh trưởng. Loài này được É. Geoffroy mô tả năm 1806.

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Паукообразная обезьяна ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
Царство: Животные
Подцарство: Эуметазои
Без ранга: Вторичноротые
Подтип: Позвоночные
Инфратип: Челюстноротые
Надкласс: Четвероногие
Подкласс: Звери
Инфракласс: Плацентарные
Надотряд: Euarchontoglires
Грандотряд: Euarchonta
Миротряд: Приматообразные
Отряд: Приматы
Инфраотряд: Обезьянообразные
Подсемейство: Atelinae
Род: Мирики
Вид: Паукообразная обезьяна
Международное научное название

Brachyteles arachnoides I. Geoffroy, 1806

Ареал

изображение

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Систематика
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Изображения
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ITIS 572959NCBI 30594EOL 323939FW 232531

Паукообразная обезьяна[1][2], или мохнатая паукообразная обезьяна[2], или бурая мирики[2], или бурый брахителес[2] (лат. Brachyteles arachnoides) — примат семейства паукообразных обезьян.

Описание

Паукообразные обезьяны — одни из крупнейших приматов Нового Света. Самцы имеют в длину 55—78 см, самки 46—63 см. Хвост у самцов 74—80 см, у самок 65—74 см. Вес самцов составляет 9,6—15 кг, вес самок 8—11 кг.[3][4] Хвост хватательного типа. Лицо полностью чёрное, этим отличается от родственного вида Brachyteles hypoxanthus, имеющего на лице розовые крапины.

Распространение

Этот вид является эндемиком Бразилии. Встречается в штатах Парана, Сан-Паулу, Рио-де-Жанейро, Эспириту-Санту и Минас-Жерайс. В Бразилии этот примат известен как «моно карвоэйро» (порт. mono carvoeiro, что означает «угольная обезьяна».[5][6]

Статус популяции

Вид находится под угрозой, основной угрозой является разрушение среды обитания. В 2005 году численность вида в дикой природе оценивалась в 1300 особей. Существуют также две группы, содержащиеся в неволе — в зоопарках Куритибы и Сорокабы в Бразилии.[7]

Примечания

  1. Полная иллюстрированная энциклопедия. «Млекопитающие» Кн. 2 = The New Encyclopedia of Mammals / под ред. Д. Макдональда. — М.: Омега, 2007. — С. 457. — 3000 экз.ISBN 978-5-465-01346-8.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Соколов В. Е. Пятиязычный словарь названий животных. Млекопитающие. Латинский, русский, английский, немецкий, французский. / под общей редакцией акад. В. Е. Соколова. — М.: Рус. яз., 1984. — С. 88. — 10 000 экз.
  3. Southern muriqui videos, photos and facts — Brachyteles arachnoides. ARKive (2006-02-13).
  4. southern muriqui (primate) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com.
  5. APA — Serra do Mar Архивировано 6 июля 2011 года.. ambiente.sp.gov.br
  6. Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso: modelo de Gestão Ambiental Архивировано 7 января 2011 года.. ambiente.sp.gov.br
  7. Melo, F. R. and Dias, L. G. (2005). “Muriqui populations reported in the literature over the last 40 years”. Neotropical Primates. 13: 19—24.
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Паукообразная обезьяна: Brief Summary ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

Паукообразная обезьяна, или мохнатая паукообразная обезьяна, или бурая мирики, или бурый брахителес (лат. Brachyteles arachnoides) — примат семейства паукообразных обезьян.

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褐絨毛蛛猴 ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科
二名法 Brachyteles arachnoides
(É. Geoffroy, 1806)

褐絨毛蛛猴Brachyteles arachnoides),又名絨毛蛛猴捲毛蜘蛛猴,是巴西特有的一種猴子。牠們分佈在巴西的巴拉那州聖保羅州里約熱內盧州聖埃斯皮里圖州米納斯吉拉斯

褐絨毛蛛猴與北方絨毛蛛猴不同之處是牠們的面部全部都是黑色的。

只有兩個圈養的褐絨毛蛛猴群族,分別在古里提巴索羅卡巴動物園內。

參考

  1. ^ Groves, Colin. Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds), 编. Mammal species of the world 3rd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press. 16 November 2005: 151. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 引文格式1维护:冗余文本 (link)
  2. ^ Brachyteles arachnoides. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2008.

外部連結

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褐絨毛蛛猴: Brief Summary ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

褐絨毛蛛猴(Brachyteles arachnoides),又名絨毛蛛猴或捲毛蜘蛛猴,是巴西特有的一種猴子。牠們分佈在巴西的巴拉那州聖保羅州里約熱內盧州聖埃斯皮里圖州米納斯吉拉斯

褐絨毛蛛猴與北方絨毛蛛猴不同之處是牠們的面部全部都是黑色的。

只有兩個圈養的褐絨毛蛛猴群族,分別在古里提巴索羅卡巴動物園內。

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남부양털거미원숭이 ( Korean )

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
학명 Brachyteles arachnoides
(É. Geoffroy, 1806)  src= 위키생물종에 관련된
분류 및 자료가 있습니다.

남부양털거미원숭이 또는 남부무리키(Brachyteles arachnoides)는 브라질이 원산지인 무리키의 일종이다. 브라질파라나, 상파울루, 리우데자네이루, 이스피리투산투 그리고 미나스제라이스 에서 발견된다. 이 신세계원숭이는 현지에서는 "모노 카보에이로"(mono carvoeiro, 번역하면 숯원숭이)라는 이름으로 불린다.

신세계원숭이 중 가장 크다. 수컷 무리키는 머리에서 발끝까지 55–78 cm이며, 꼬리는 74-80 cm이고 몸무게는 9.6-15 kg이다. 암컷은 머리에서 발끝까지 46-63 cm이며, 꼬리는 65-74 cm이고 몸무게는 8-11 kg이다.[3][4]

북부무리키(B. hypoxanthus)는 핑크색 반점의 검은 얼굴을 지닌 반면에, 남부무리키(B. arachnoides)는 반점이 없는 검은 얼굴을 지니고 있어 북부 종과 구별된다.

사육 상태에 있는 남부무리키 개체군은 겨우 2곳에 불과하다. 이들은 브라질의 쿠리치바 동물원과 소로카바 동물원에 수용되어 있다.

각주

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남부양털거미원숭이: Brief Summary ( Korean )

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

남부양털거미원숭이 또는 남부무리키(Brachyteles arachnoides)는 브라질이 원산지인 무리키의 일종이다. 브라질파라나, 상파울루, 리우데자네이루, 이스피리투산투 그리고 미나스제라이스 에서 발견된다. 이 신세계원숭이는 현지에서는 "모노 카보에이로"(mono carvoeiro, 번역하면 숯원숭이)라는 이름으로 불린다.

신세계원숭이 중 가장 크다. 수컷 무리키는 머리에서 발끝까지 55–78 cm이며, 꼬리는 74-80 cm이고 몸무게는 9.6-15 kg이다. 암컷은 머리에서 발끝까지 46-63 cm이며, 꼬리는 65-74 cm이고 몸무게는 8-11 kg이다.

북부무리키(B. hypoxanthus)는 핑크색 반점의 검은 얼굴을 지닌 반면에, 남부무리키(B. arachnoides)는 반점이 없는 검은 얼굴을 지니고 있어 북부 종과 구별된다.

사육 상태에 있는 남부무리키 개체군은 겨우 2곳에 불과하다. 이들은 브라질의 쿠리치바 동물원과 소로카바 동물원에 수용되어 있다.

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