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Scrabrous Black Sedge

Carex atratiformis Britton

Comments

provided by eFloras
Carex raymondii is a minor variant consisting of specimens with yellow-brown perigynia and light brown scales with midribs lighter in color than the bodies of the scales. The hybrid taxon Carex ×quirponensis Fernald (= C. atratiformis × C. norvegica) is known from Newfoundland and Quebec.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Plants loosely cespitose. Culms 20–70 cm, distally finely scabrous. Leaves 2.5–5 mm wide. Inflorescences: proximal bracts shorter than or exceeding inflorescences; spikes distinct, spreading or the proximal pendent and often separate, elongate, 10–25 × 5–8 mm; lateral 3–6 spikes pistillate, long-pendunculate; terminal spike gynecandrous. Pistillate scales light to dark brown with hyaline margins, lanceolate, longer than and as broad as perigynia, midvein same color as body, inconspicuous or lighter in color, conspicuous, raised, prominent, sometimes short-mucronate. Perigynia ascending, yellow brown or chestnut, veinless, ovate or elliptic, 2.5–3 × 1.5–1.75 mm, apex abruptly beaked, distally papillose; beak 0.4–0.5 mm, bidentate, smooth. Achenes filling proximal 1/2 or less of perigynia.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Distribution

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Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Maine, Mich., N.H., N.Y., Vt.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Flowering/Fruiting

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Fruiting Jun–Aug.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat

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Forest margins, open woodlands, calcareous ledges, stream banks, lakeshores, wet cliffs, high elevation seeps; 10–1500m.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Synonym

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Carex ovata Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 7: 96, plate 9, fig. 1. 1804, not Burman f. 1768; C. atrata Linnaeus subsp. atratiformis (Britton) Kükenthal; C. atratiformis subsp. raymondii (Calder) A. E. Porsild; C. raymondii Calder
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 403, 404, 405 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Carex atratiformis Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 222. 1895
Carex ovata Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: 96. pi. 9. f. /. 1804. (Type from Newfoundland.) Not
C. ovala Burm. /. 1768. Carex atrata var. ovata Boott, 111. Carex 114. pi. 362. 1862. (Based on C. ovata Rudge.) Carex atrata subsp. atratiformis "Britton" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 399. 1909.
(Based on C. atratiformis Britton.) X Carex quirponensis Fernald (C. atratiformis X Halleri), Rhodora 28: 164. 1926. (Type from
Quirpon Island, Newfoundland.)
Cespitose, the rootstocks slender, short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms slender, 2-9 dm. high, much exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, more or less roughened above, phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 6-15 to a fertile culm, clustered above the base, not septatenodulose, the blades flat with revolute margins, glaucous-green, thin but firm, erect or ascending, 1-2.5 dm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, short-attenuate, much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths white-hyaline ventrally, often yellowish-tinged, concave at mouth, the ligule wider than long; spikes 3-6, the lateral pistillate with a very few basal staminate flowers, the terminal gynaecandrous, approximate or little separate, the lower nodding on slender, rough peduncles 1-2 times the length of the spikes, the upper more erect on shorter peduncles, the spikes narrowly oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, or the terminal one slightly wider, densely flowered, the 10-30 closely appressed perigynia ascending in several to many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, mostly shorter than the culm, scarcely sheathing, slightly darkened at base ; upper bracts much reduced; scales ovate, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute to shortcuspidate, dull, not shining, dark-reddish-brown to brownish-black with nearly obsolete midrib and minutely hyaline margins, the pistillate about as wide as and slightly longer than the perigynium; perigynia ovoid to orbicular-ovoid, flattened-oval in cross-section, 2-edged, distended over achene, slightly inflated, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), nerveless or few-nerved, membranaceous, granular, puncticulate, purplish-brown, or straw-colored below, obscurely very short-stipitate, rounded at base, round-tapering and abruptly short-beaked at apex, the beak apiculate, 0.5 mm. long, shallowly bidentate; achenes small, obovoid, 1.5-1.75 mm. long, 0.75-1 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower part of perigynium, triangular with lightly concave sides, nearly sessile, silvery-black and shining, strongly granular, apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short.
Type locality (of C. ovata Rudge, on which C. atratiformis is based): "Habitat in Newfoundland."
Distribution: Sunny banks and meadows along streams in calcareous districts, Labrador and Newfoundland to Yukon, and southward to Maine, Michigan, and Alberta. (Specimens examined from Labrador, Newfoundland, Quebec, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Michigan, Alberta.)
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bibliographic citation
Kenneth Kent Mackenzie. 1935. (POALES); CYPERACEAE; CARICEAE. North American flora. vol 18(6). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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