Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 6.5 years (wild)
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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum is thought by the Caboclo people of the Amazon to be very beneficial to women after they have recently given birth. In fact, they are one of the few things women are allowed to eat during this vulnerable point in life (Goulding 1980).

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Unknown

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are of great economic value to the local fisherman. According to Junk (1976) these fish provide the largest source of protein in comparison to other Amazon fish. Also, because of its low fat content, they are considered the most digestable and least likely to bring about sickness. Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are also of great value in the aquarium business, as noted by the sale of them on many commercial internet sites (Foeshe 2000, Smith 1981).

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are not picky eaters. In a study of their stomach contents, the majority of food items included insects and spiders, most of which were beetles. Also found in the stomachs were crabs, snails, fish, birds, snakes, monkey feces and plant material. It is thought that the snakes and monkey feces were consumed during a flooding. The plant material was probably a result of the predatory behavior of the fish, as explained below (Goulding 1980).

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are native to the Amazon drainage system, the western Orinoco and the Rupununi and Essequibo systems of the Guianas. When found in other locations it is because of introduction by man. For example, they have been introduced in secluded areas of California and Nevada. It is also thought that the fish have not distributed themselves further up river because they cannot pass through rapids successfully.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum live in both the white and black water floodplains of the Amazon as documented in a recent study of the fish communities. In both types of water they were most abundant in the flooded/swamp areas. Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are usually found in the shallower of these waters because of their predatory behavior.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: rivers and streams

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
6.5 years.

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are characterized by remarkable scale arrangements in which the scales are large, stout, bony and ornamented in a way that the radii form a course pattern. The scales are a pearly silver in color and change to reds, blues and greens as the fish ages. They are also well known for their bony tongue, after which it is named. Osteoglossum bicirrhosum are laterally compressed with a huge oblique mouth. Many oral bones bear teeth, including the jaw, palate, tongue and pharynx. They reach a maximum length of about 120 cm.

Average mass: 4600 g.

Range length: 120 (high) cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 2530 g.

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Osteoglossum bicirrhosum spawn at the beginning of the floods, December and January. The females produce a rather small number of large eggs. The males carry the eggs, larvae and early juveniles in their mouths until the yolk sac has been absorbed, which is about 2 months.

Breeding interval: These fish breed once a year.

Breeding season: Osteoglossum bicirrhosum spawn at the beginning of the floods, December and January

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

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Birchmeier, K. 2000. "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Osteoglossum_bicirrhosum.html
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Kelly Birchmeier, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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William Fink, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Diagnostic Description

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Body covered with very big scales; dorsal and anal fins almost fused with the caudal fin; 2 barbels at the extremity of the lower jaw; adult silvery, juvenile with blue glints and a yellow-orange bar (Ref. 12225).
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Recorder
Philippe Béarez
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Diseases and Parasites

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Camallanus Infection 14. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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The male carries eggs, larvae and early juveniles (alevinos) in his mouth (Ref. 1672), which lasts for nearly six weeks (Ref. 102836).
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Trophic Strategy

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Is an omnivore with a tendency to feed on fish at the surface. The superior position of the mouth allows it to capture its prey while swimming from below. Also jumps out of the water to feed on large insects (Coleoptera; Ref. 27548). It is capable of adapting to environments with low oxygen levels (Ref. 12225).
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Biology

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Is an omnivore with a tendency to feed on fish at the surface. The superior position of the mouth allows it to capture its prey while swimming from below. Also jumps out of the water to feed on large insects (Coleoptera; Ref. 27548). It is capable of adapting to environments with low oxygen levels (Ref. 12225).
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Rainer Froese
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
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Rainer Froese
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Silver arowana

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The silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is a South American freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae. Silver arowanas are sometimes kept in aquariums, but they are predatory and require a very large tank.[1]

The generic name Osteoglossum means "bone-tongued" and the specific name bicirrhosum means "two barbels" (from the Greek language).

Range and habitat

This South American species is native to the Amazon, Essequibo and Oyapock basins.[2][3] It is absent from the Rio Negro basin, except the Branco River, which is inhabited by both silver and black arowanas.[3]

The silver arowana occurs in both black- and whitewater habitats, including flooded forests.[1][4]

Description

This fish has relatively large scales, a long body, and a tapered tail, with the dorsal and anal fins extending all the way to the small caudal fin, with which they are nearly fused. Its maximum total length is typically considered to be 0.9 m (3.0 ft),[2] but there are reports of individuals up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft).[1] Unlike the black arowana, the silver arowana has the same coloring throughout its lifespan. Adults of the two species are very similar, but can be separated by meristics.[5]

Arowanas are sometimes called 'dragon fish' by aquarists because their shiny, armor-like scales and double barbels are reminiscent of descriptions of dragons in East Asian folklore.

Behavior

The species is also called 'monkey fish' because of its ability to jump out of the water and capture its prey. It usually swims near the water surface waiting for potential prey. Although specimens have been found with the remains of birds, bats,[6] mice,[7] and snakes in their stomachs, its main diet consists of crustaceans, insects, smaller fish, and other animals that float on the water surface, which its drawbridge-like mouth is exclusively adapted for feeding on.

Conservation status

The silver arowana is currently not listed on any CITES appendix [8] nor on the 2004 IUCN Red List.[9] It is one of the most popular ornamental fish from South America, however, and therefore its conservation status merits attention.[10]

As reported by Environment News Service in August 2005, shared use of the silver arowana population was a cause for a dispute between Brazilian and Colombian authorities. Juvenile silver arowanas are caught in Colombia for sale as aquarium fish, while the people of Brazilian Amazonia catch adult fish for food. A sharp drop in the number of arowanas had caused Brazilian authorities to prohibit fishing of them between September 1 and November 15; the Colombians would prohibit capturing them between November 1 and March 15.[11]

The silver arowana is often kept as a pet by experienced aquarists, being considered an accessible substitute for the Asian arowana, which is listed on CITES Appendix I and is therefore difficult and expensive to obtain legally.

See also

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Hill, N. (13 June 2016). "Predators: South American Arowana". Practical Fishkeeping. Retrieved 25 October 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum" in FishBase. October 2017 version.
  3. ^ a b Escobar; Farias; Taphorn; Landines; Hrbek (2013). "Molecular diagnosis of the arowanas Osteoglossum ferreirai Kanazawa, 1966 and O. bicirrhossum (Cuvier, 1829) from the Orinoco and Amazon River basins". Neotrop. Ichthyol. 11 (2): 335–340. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252013000200011.
  4. ^ Saint-Paul; Zuanon; Correa; García; Fabré; Berger; Junk (2000). "Fish communities in central Amazonian white-and blackwater floodplains". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 57 (3): 235–250. doi:10.1023/a:1007699130333.
  5. ^ Schofield, P.J.; L.G. Nico; P.L. Fuller; W.F. Loftus; M. Neilson (6 August 2013). "Osteoglossum bicirrhosum". U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  6. ^ Mikula P (2015). "Fish and amphibians as bat predators". European Journal of Ecology. 1 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1515/eje-2015-0010.
  7. ^ Julia Tovar Verba; Manoela Lima de Oliveira Borges; Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva; Lorena Costa Pinto; José Gurgel Rabello Neto (2018). "Mice on menu: opportunistic feeding behaviour of the Amazonian silver arowana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum". Journal of Fish Biology. 93 (1). doi:10.1111/jfb.13665.
  8. ^ CITES Appendices
  9. ^ IUCN Red List
  10. ^ International meeting on ornamental fish boosts regional conservation and sustainable resource management initiatives (WWF)
  11. ^ Brazil, Colombia at Odds Over Silver Amazon Fish. A meeting between the representatives of the Amazon Basin countries in August 2005 was meant to discuss the dispute.
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Silver arowana: Brief Summary

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The silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is a South American freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae. Silver arowanas are sometimes kept in aquariums, but they are predatory and require a very large tank.

The generic name Osteoglossum means "bone-tongued" and the specific name bicirrhosum means "two barbels" (from the Greek language).

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