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Look Alikes

provided by CoralReefFish

Analogues: Larval Xyrichtys have no melanophores and often markedly-narrowed eyes. The absence of external melanophores is shared with larval Doratonotus megalepis, which are distinctly wider-bodied and have large round eyes. All other regional labrid and scarid larvae have melanophores. X. novacula recruits have a lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal fin spines are extended while X. martinicensis recruits have an intact stripe and no extended first dorsal fin spines. X. splendens recruits develop a complex pattern of bars and reticulations.

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Comprehensive Description

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Description: Body thin and long with a markedly narrowed eye (pre-transitional) to large and round (recruits) with a pointed snout and a terminal small mouth. Pectoral fins medium, reach to vent. Pelvic fins stubs. Dorsal and anal-fin bases long, caudal peduncle short. There are no surface or internal melanophores. Transitional recruits show a lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal-fin spines are extended.

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Diagnostic Description

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Diagnosis: The fin-ray count of D-IX,12 A-III,12 and Pect-12 indicates the razorfish genus Xyrichtys. One other regional labrid, Halichoeres cyanocephalus, shares the median-fin ray count, but has 13 pectoral-fin rays and a clearly different body shape. The three Caribbean razorfishes, X. martinicensis, X. novacula, and X. splendens, share fin-ray counts and the larvae overlap in appearance. The species become distinct as they develop juvenile markings: X. novacula recruits are recognized by lateral stripe broken up into patches or spots and the first two dorsal fin spines are extended. The extended dorsal fin spines persist until juveniles reach about 25 mm SL.

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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
An elongate, very compressed fish with front of head forming a sharp edge. Snout very blunt; profile steep. Pale greenish, usually with no conspicuous markings on body (Ref. 26938). Head with alternating vertical lines of light blue and light yellow-orange (Ref. 13442).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 12
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Biology

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Inhabits clear shallow areas with sandy bottoms, usually in the vicinity of seagrass beds and corals (Ref. 2683). Feeds mainly on mollusks; also crabs and shrimps (Ref. 3726). A protogynous hermaphrodite; sexual dimorphism apparent in head shape and length of pelvic fin (Ref. 5292). Builds nests with coral debris. Dives head first into the sand when frightened (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3726).
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Susan M. Luna
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Pearly razorfish

provided by wikipedia EN

The pearly razorfish or cleaver wrasse, Xyrichtys novacula, is a species of wrasse. It is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries and is popular as a game fish. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

Description

Xyrichtys novacula can reach 38 cm (15 in) in total length, though most do not exceed 20 cm (7.9 in). Its body is elongate and very compressed laterally, the head is flattened, with a steep profile and sharp teeth. Its long dorsal fin extends along most of its back. It has 9 dorsal spines, 12 dorsal soft rays, 3 anal spines and 12 anal soft rays. This wrasse has a yellow-orange or reddish-pink color that is darker on the back and lighter on the belly, sometimes marked with green and gray stripes. Head shows vertical narrow light blue lines and there are scales with brisk reflexes on the abdomen. Upon capture, this fish has been known to turn its mouth and sharp protruding teeth past 90 degrees to either side in relationship to its own body as an attempt to be released from capture.[2]

Distribution and habitat

The pearly razorfish is widespread throughout the western and eastern subtropical and tropical Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It inhabits clear, shallow littoral areas with sandy or muddy bottoms, at depths of 1 to 20 m. In winter it migrates to greater depths, up to 90–150 m.

Behavior and diet

Xyrichtys novacula buries itself rapidly in the bottom when disturbed. It feeds on small invertebrates such as crustaceans, mollusks and echinoderms.[2]

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X. novaculae caught in Santorini, Greece

Synonyms

A large number of specific names have been determined to refer to this species as junior synonyms:[2]

  • Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus, 1758
  • Hemipteronotus novacula (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Novacula novacula (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Coryphaena psittacus Linnaeus, 1766
  • Hemipteronotus psittacus (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Xyrichthys psittacus (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Coryphaena lineata J. F. Gmelin, 1789
  • Novacula lineata (J. F. Gmelin, 1789)
  • Coryphaena lineolata Rafinesque, 1810
  • Novacula lineolata (Rafinesque, 1810)
  • Amorphocephalus granulatus S. Bowdich, 1825
  • Novacula coryphena A. Risso, 1827
  • Novacula coryphaena A. Risso, 1827
  • Xyrichthys uniocellatus Agassiz, 1831
  • Xyrichthys cultratus Valenciennes, 1840
  • Novacula cultrata (Valenciennes, 1840)
  • Xyrichthys vitta Valenciennes, 1840
  • Xyrichthys vermiculatus Poey, 1860
  • Xyrichthys argentimaculata Steindachner, 1861
  • Xyrichthys rosipes D. S. Jordan & C. H. Gilbert, 1884
  • Xyrichthys jessiae D. S. Jordan, 1888
  • Hemipteronotus copei Fowler, 1900
  • Xyrichthys binghami Mowbray, 1925

Predators

The Pearly razorfish has been shown to be successful bait for the Greater Amberjack species (aka reef donkey).

References

  1. ^ Pollard, D., Rocha, L., Ferreira, C.E., Francini-Filho, R. & Moura, R.R. 2010. Xyrichtys novacula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Xyrichtys novacula" in FishBase. October 2013 version.

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Pearly razorfish: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The pearly razorfish or cleaver wrasse, Xyrichtys novacula, is a species of wrasse. It is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries and is popular as a game fish. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.

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Distribution

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Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico through the Caribbean to Brazil
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North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

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benthic
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North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Mary Kennedy [email]