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Neodiapsida ( Finnish )

provided by wikipedia FI

Neodiapsida on sauropsidien kladi, joka on toinen kahdesta diapsidien alaryhmästä; toinen on sukupuuttoon kuollut Araeoscelidia.

Varhaiset permikauden neodiapsidit muistuttivat nykyisiä liskoja, mutta jotkin niistä alkoivat jo palata veteen (Claudiosaurus) ja liitämään (Weigeltisauridae). Ensimmäiset Sauria-kladin (Archosauromorpha ja Lepidosauromorpha) edustajat kehittyivät permikauden lopulla ennen joukkotuhoa.

Kladogrammi

Alla oleva kladogrammi M.S Leen (2013) mukaan kuvaa neodiapsidien sukulaisuussuhteita. Kladogrammista on jätetty pois Pantestudines, sillä sen sukulaissuhde muiden matelijoiden välillä on yhä kiistanalainen.


Diapsida

Araeoscelidia Spinoaequalis schultzei reconstruction.jpg


Neodiapsida

ClaudiosaurusClaudiosaurus white background.jpg




YounginiformesHovasaurus BW flipped.jpg


Sauria Lepidosauromorpha

KuehneosauridaeIcarosaurus white background.jpg


Lepidosauria

RhynchocephaliaHatteria white background.jpg



SquamataZoology of Egypt (1898) (Varanus griseus).png




Archosauromorpha

ChoristoderaHyphalosaurus mmartyniuk wiki.png




ProlacertiformesProlacerta broomi.jpg





TrilophosaurusTrilophosaurus buettneri (flipped).jpg



RhynchosauriaHyperodapedon BW2 white background.jpg




ArchosauriformesDescription des reptiles nouveaux, ou, Imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caractères des reptiles (1852) (Crocodylus moreletii).jpg










Katso myös

Aiheesta muualla

Käännös suomeksi
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Neodiapsida: Brief Summary ( Finnish )

provided by wikipedia FI

Neodiapsida on sauropsidien kladi, joka on toinen kahdesta diapsidien alaryhmästä; toinen on sukupuuttoon kuollut Araeoscelidia.

Varhaiset permikauden neodiapsidit muistuttivat nykyisiä liskoja, mutta jotkin niistä alkoivat jo palata veteen (Claudiosaurus) ja liitämään (Weigeltisauridae). Ensimmäiset Sauria-kladin (Archosauromorpha ja Lepidosauromorpha) edustajat kehittyivät permikauden lopulla ennen joukkotuhoa.

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Neodiapsida ( Polish )

provided by wikipedia POL




Testudines


Sauropterygia Placodontia

Placodus



Cyamodus




Eosauropterygia





Archosauromorpha

Choristodera






Rhynchosauria



Trilophosaurus




Archosauriformes




Prolacertiformes








Drzewo zgodności wygenerowane na podstawie 12 najbardziej oszczędnych drzew metodą 50% majority rule consensus według Bickelmann, Müllera i Reisza (2009)[23]:

Diapsida

Araeoscelidia


Neodiapsida

Kenyasaurus



Lanthanolania



Thadeosaurus



Galesphyrus



Youngina




Tangasaurus




Hovasaurus



Acerosodontosaurus






Claudiosaurus





Palaeagama



Saurosternon





Coelurosauravus






Ichthyopterygia



Hupehsuchus



Thalattosauriformes

Askeptosaurus




Clarazia



Thalattosaurus





Sauria Archosauromorpha

Tanystropheus




Macrocnemus




Prolacerta




Trilophosaurus




Rhynchosauria



Archosauriformes







Lepidosauromorpha

Choristodera





Testudines




Kuehneosauridae


Lepidosauria

Rhynchocephalia



Squamata







Helveticosaurus


Sauropterygia

Placodus


Eosauropterygia

Pachypleurosauria




Simosaurus



Pistosauridae















Alternatywne drzewo zgodności według Bickelmann, Müllera i Reisza (2009), wygenerowane na podstawie 12 najbardziej oszczędnych drzew metodą konsensusu Adamsa[23]:

Diapsida

Araeoscelidia


Neodiapsida

Lanthanolania



Kenyasaurus




Tangasaurus



Youngina




Galesphyrus



Thadeosaurus





Hovasaurus



Acerosodontosaurus






Claudiosaurus





Palaeagama



Saurosternon





Coelurosauravus






Ichthyopterygia



Hupehsuchus



Thalattosauriformes

Askeptosaurus




Clarazia



Thalattosaurus





Sauria Archosauromorpha

Tanystropheus



Macrocnemus




Prolacerta




Rhynchosauria



Archosauriformes



Trilophosaurus





Lepidosauromorpha

Choristodera





Testudines




Kuehneosauridae


Lepidosauria

Rhynchocephalia



Squamata







Helveticosaurus


Sauropterygia

Placodus


Eosauropterygia

Pachypleurosauria




Simosaurus



Pistosauridae















Na wszystkich kladogramach Neodiapsida to Neodiapsida sensu Laurin 1991. Przy stosowaniu definicji filogenetycznej proponowanej przez Gauthiera i współpracowników (1988) do Neodiapsida według kladogramu Rieppela i Reisza (1999) należałby także rodzaj Claudiosaurus.

Przypisy

  1. a b Michael J. Benton. Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles. „Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society”. 84, s. 97-164, 1985. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01796.x (ang.).
  2. a b c Michel Laurin. The osteology of a Lower Permian eosuchian from Texas and a review of diapsid phytogeny. „Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society”. 101, s. 59–95, 1991. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1991.tb00886.x (ang.).
  3. a b c d e Michael deBraga, Olivier Rieppel. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. „Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society”. 120, s. 281–354, 1997. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1997.tb01280.x (ang.).
  4. a b c d e f Olivier Rieppel, Robert R. Reisz. The Origin and Early Evolution of Turtles. „Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics”. 30, s. 1–22, 1999. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.1 (ang.).
  5. a b c d e f g h Johannes Müller: The relationships among diapsid reptiles and the influence of taxon selection. W: Gloria Arratia, Mark V. H. Wilson, Richard Cloutier (red.): Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, 2004, s. 379-408.
  6. Susan E. Evans. The Early Triassic ‘lizard’ Colubrifer campi: A Reassessment. „Palaeontology”. 44 (5), s. 1033–1041, 2001. DOI: 10.1111/1475-4983.00214 (ang.).
  7. Obecnie zaliczany do synapsydów, patrz: Robert R. Reisz, Sean P. Modesto. Heleosaurus scholtzi from the Permian of South Africa: a varanopid synapsid, not a diapsid reptile. „Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”. 27 (3), s. 734-739, 2007 (ang.).
  8. Jacques Gauthier, Arnold G. Kluge, Timothy Rowe: The early evolution of the Amniota. W: Michael J. Benton (red.): The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods. 1, Amphibians, reptiles, birds. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988, s. 103-155.
  9. a b c Robert R. Reisz, Sean P. Modesto, Diane M. Scott. A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution. „Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences”. 278 (1725), s. 3731–3737, 2011. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0439 (ang.).
  10. David W. Dilkes. The Early Triassic rhynchosaur Mesosuchus browni and the interrelationships of basal archosauromorph reptiles. „Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences”. 353, s. 501-541, 1998. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1998.0225 (ang.).
  11. a b c d Robert V. Hill. Integration of Morphological Data Sets for Phylogenetic Analysis of Amniota: The Importance of Integumentary Characters and Increased Taxonomic Sampling. „Systematic Biology”. 54 (4), s. 530–547, 2005. DOI: 10.1080/10635150590950326 (ang.).
  12. Keqin Gao, Richard C. Fox. New choristoderes (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Upper Cretaceous and Palaeocene, Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada, and phylogenetic relationships of Choristodera. „Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society”. 124, s. 303–353, 1998. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998.tb00580.x (ang.).
  13. Phil Senter. Phylogeny of Drepanosauridae (Reptilia: Diapsida). „Journal of Systematic Palaeontology”. 2 (3), s. 257-268, 2004. DOI: 10.1017/S1477201904001427 (ang.).
  14. a b John Merck. An arboreal radiation of non-saurian diapsids. „Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”. 23 (Suppl.), s. 78A, 2003 (ang.).
  15. a b John W. Merck. A phylogenetic analysis of the euryapsid reptiles. „Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”. 17 (suppl.), s. 65A, 1997 (ang.).
  16. a b Ryosuke Motani, Nachio Minoura, Tatsuro Ando. Ichthyosaurian relationships illuminated by new primitive skeletons from Japan. „Nature”. 393, s. 255-257, 1998. DOI: 10.1038/30473 (ang.).
  17. Michael W. Maisch. Phylogeny, systematics, and origin of the Ichthyosauria – the state of the art. „Palaeodiversity”. 3, s. 151–214, 2010 (ang.).
  18. Rafael Zardoya, Axel Meyer. Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles. „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America”. 95, s. 14226-14231, 1998 (ang.).
  19. Yoshinori Kumazawa, Mutsumi Nishida. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of the Green Turtle and Blue-Tailed Mole Skink: Statistical Evidence for Archosaurian Affinity of Turtles. „Molecular Biology and Evolution”. 16, s. 784-792, 1999 (ang.).
  20. Naoyuki Iwabe, Yuichiro Hara, Yoshinori Kumazawa, Kaori Shibamoto, Yumi Saito, Takashi Miyata, Kazutaka Katoh. Sister Group Relationship of Turtles to the Bird-Crocodilian Clade Revealed by Nuclear DNA–Coded Proteins. „Molecular Biology and Evolution”. 22, s. 810-813, 2005. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msi075 (ang.).
  21. a b Robert R. Reisz, Michel Laurin, David Marjanović. Apsisaurus witteri from the Lower Permian of Texas: yet another small varanopid synapsid, not a diapsid. „Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”. 30 (5), s. 1628-1631, 2010. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2010.501441 (ang.).
  22. Sean P. Modesto, Robert R. Reisz. An enigmatic new diapsid reptile from the Upper Permian of Eastern Europe. „Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology”. 22 (4), s. 851–855, 2002 (ang.).
  23. a b c Constanze Bickelmann, Johannes Müller, Robert R. Reisz. The enigmatic diapsid Acerosodontosaurus piveteaui (Reptilia: Neodiapsida) from the Upper Permian of Madagascar and the paraphyly of “younginiform” reptiles. „Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences”. 46, s. 651–661, 2009. DOI: 10.1139/E09-038 (ang.).
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wikipedia POL

Neodiapsida: Brief Summary ( Polish )

provided by wikipedia POL

Na wszystkich kladogramach Neodiapsida to Neodiapsida sensu Laurin 1991. Przy stosowaniu definicji filogenetycznej proponowanej przez Gauthiera i współpracowników (1988) do Neodiapsida według kladogramu Rieppela i Reisza (1999) należałby także rodzaj Claudiosaurus.

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Neodiapsida ( Ukrainian )

provided by wikipedia UK

Філогенія

Кладограма згідно з Bickelmann et al., 2009[1] і Reisz et al., 2011:[2]

Diapsida

Araeoscelidia


Neodiapsida

Orovenator




Lanthanolania




Tangasauridae




Younginidae




Claudiosaurus





Palaeagama



Saurosternon





Coelurosauravus





Thalattosauria




Hupehsuchia



Ichthyopterygia





Sauria












Примітки

  1. Constanze Bickelmann, Johannes Müller and Robert R. Reisz (2009). The enigmatic diapsid Acerosodontosaurus piveteaui (Reptilia: Neodiapsida) from the Upper Permian of Madagascar and the paraphyly of younginiform reptiles. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 49 (9): 651–661. doi:10.1139/E09-038.
  2. Robert R. Reisz, Sean P. Modesto and Diane M. Scott (2011). A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278 (1725): 3731–7. PMC 3203498. PMID 21525061. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0439.

Посилання

  • Callaway, J.M. (1997), Ichthyosauria: Introduction, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press, pp. 3-16.
  • Laurin, Michel and Gauthier, Jacques A. (2000) Autapomorphies of Diapsid Clades

Джерела


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新雙弓類 ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

新雙弓類(Neodiapsida)是個演化支,或是爬行動物分類樹中的主要分支,包含除了早期原始物種(如纖肢龍目)以外的所有雙孔動物

親緣分支分類法研究中,新雙弓類被定義為:楊氏蜥形目(始鳄目)與現存爬行動物(蜥蜴鱷魚)以及鳥類的最近共同祖先與其最近共同祖先的所有後代。換句話說,是雙孔亞綱之中,所有親緣關係接近蜥類(Sauia),而離纖肢龍目較遠的所有動物。

二疊紀的早期或基礎新雙弓類,外表類似蜥蜴,但已有特化的水生克勞迪歐蜥,以及滑翔動物的空尾蜥,還有常見的類似蜥蜴物種(楊氏蜥...等)。在二疊紀末之前,新雙弓類已演化出雙孔動物演化樹的主要分支:蜥類魚龍超目

新雙弓類演化支可以從許多頭顱骨與骨骸的特徵來鑑定,可見於Michel Laurin與嘉克斯·高斯特(Jacques Gauthier)在2000年的研究。

分类

双孔亚纲

纤肢龙目 Spinoaequalis schultzei reconstruction.jpg

新雙弓類

克劳迪欧蜥属Claudiosaurus white background.jpg

   

鸟首龙目

   

鱼龙超目

     

始鳄目Hovasaurus BW flipped.jpg

蜥类 鳞龙形下纲

孔耐蜥科Icarosaurus white background.jpg

   

鳍龙超目

鳞龙超目

喙头目 (喙头蜥)Hatteria white background.jpg

   

有鳞目 (蜥蜴蚓蜥)Zoology of Egypt (1898) (Varanus griseus).png

      主龙形下纲    

离龙目Champsosaurus BW flipped.jpg

     

原蜥形目Prolacerta broomi.jpg

       

三稜龍屬 Trilophosaurus buettneri (flipped).jpg

   

喙头龙目Hyperodapedon BW2 white background.jpg

     

主龙形类-主龙类鳄目翼龙目Description des reptiles nouveaux, ou, Imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caractères des reptiles (1852) (Crocodylus moreletii).jpg

                  新雙弓類 名称 学名 分类 学名 说明 爬行动物演化支 沧龙科 Mosasauridae 鳞龙超目 Lepidosauria 有重叠鳞片 Monophyletic2.png
由现代爬行类鸟类的共同祖先及其后代所组成的单系群 鱼龙科 Ichthyosauridae 鱼龙超目 Ichthyopterygia 蛇颈龙科 Plesiosauridae 鳍龙超目 Sauropterygia 幻龙科 Nothosauridae 鳍龙超目 Sauropterygia 翼龙目 Pterosauria 主龙类 Archosauria 鳄目 Crocodilia 主龙类鳄形超目 Crocodylomorpha

參考資料

  • Callaway, J.M. (1997), Ichthyosauria: Introduction, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press, pp. 3-16.
  • Laurin, Michel and Gauthier, Jacques A. (2000) Autapomorphies of Diapsid Clades
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
维基百科作者和编辑

新雙弓類: Brief Summary ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

新雙弓類(Neodiapsida)是個演化支,或是爬行動物分類樹中的主要分支,包含除了早期原始物種(如纖肢龍目)以外的所有雙孔動物

親緣分支分類法研究中,新雙弓類被定義為:楊氏蜥形目(始鳄目)與現存爬行動物(蜥蜴鱷魚)以及鳥類的最近共同祖先與其最近共同祖先的所有後代。換句話說,是雙孔亞綱之中,所有親緣關係接近蜥類(Sauia),而離纖肢龍目較遠的所有動物。

二疊紀的早期或基礎新雙弓類,外表類似蜥蜴,但已有特化的水生克勞迪歐蜥,以及滑翔動物的空尾蜥,還有常見的類似蜥蜴物種(楊氏蜥...等)。在二疊紀末之前,新雙弓類已演化出雙孔動物演化樹的主要分支:蜥類魚龍超目

新雙弓類演化支可以從許多頭顱骨與骨骸的特徵來鑑定,可見於Michel Laurin與嘉克斯·高斯特(Jacques Gauthier)在2000年的研究。

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신이궁류 ( Korean )

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
클라우디오사우루스속
이크티오사우루스목
Sauria
Weigeltisauridae
Younginiformes

신이궁류(Neodiapsida)는 이궁류의 한 분류군이다.

 src= 위키생물종에 관련된
분류 및 자료가 있습니다.
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