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Brief Summary

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If you ever try walking close to the waterline on a sea dike, you surely have noticed how slippery it can be. This slipperiness is caused by gutweed, a green seaweed. Green seaweed gets its bright green color from the dominating chlorophyll pigment. There are more than sixty species found in the Netherlands. All 'higher plants', from eelgrass to trees, find their origin in one-celled green algae. Just like red seaweed, green seaweeds degrade more rapidly than brown seaweeds. They make a good source of nutrients for annual seablite.
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Brief Summary

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The Chlorophyceae are one of the lineages of primarily freshwater green algae.

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Diagnostic Description

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  • Motile cells with radial or near-radial external symmetry
  • Flagella attached at the anterior end of the cell
  • The possibility of a rhizoplast
  • No multilayered structure
  • Eyespots common
  • Glycolate breaddown by glycolate dehydrogenase
  • Urea breakdown by urea amidolyase
  • Theca covering the cells (some of the flagellates have lost this characteristic)
  • Collapsing telophase spindle that brings daughter cells close together, followed by cell-division by a phycoplast*
  • Flagellar root system cruciate

*”type of cell division in which the mitotic spindle disperses after nuclear division with the two daughter nuclei coming close together, another set of microtubules arising perpendicular to the former position of the microtubules of the mitotic spindle, and the new cell wall forming along these microtubules.”

(Lee, 1999)

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Habitat

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Primarily freshwater or terrestrial (soils, tree bark, etc.) some in brackish or marine water (Graham & Wilcox, 2000).

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Life Cycle

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Meiosis occurs when the zygote germinates, so that most of the lifecycle is haploid (Lee, 1999).

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Morphology

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There are a variety of thallus types among the chlorophyceans.

  • Unicells:
    • Flagellated
      • individuals or
      • colonies
    • unflagellated except in reproductive state
    • with unflagellated asexual reproductive cells
  • Sarcinoid aggregations of nonmotile cells in which daughter cells fail to separate after division
  • Coenobium, a colony in which the number and arrangement of cells can be constant
  • Filaments:
    • unbranched or
    • branched
  • Multinucleate siphonous

(Graham & Wilcox, 2000)

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Reproduction

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Those taxa for which the sexual reproductive process is known produce a dormant zygote, with meiosis usually occurring when the zygote germinates (Lee, 1999).

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Systematics and Taxonomy

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Under the old five kingdom system of classification, all the algae were placed within the Kingdom Protista. However, the molecular research of the last decades has resulted in major reclassifications, and at least for now, some uncertainty and disagreement. There is no debate about the placement of the algae in the Domain Eukarya – they have eukaryote cells. And, for the most part, there seems to be agreement that the green algae are members of the plant kingdom. However, classification into lower taxa is less clear.

For example, Lee (1999) defines Chlorophyceae as a taxon within the class(?) Chlorophyta and with the following orders:

  • Volvocales – can be unicellular or multicellular; the vegetative cells are flagellated & motile
  • Tetrasporales – non-filamentous colonies with immobile vegetative cells capable of cell division; pseudocilia may be present
  • Schizogoniales – foliose marine algae with stellate choroplasts
  • Chlorococcales – unicellular or non-filamentous colonial algae; if colonial, daughter colonies formed as coenobia; vegetative cells non-motile
  • Sphaerophleales – unbranched filaments with new walls formed inside the old filament walls, resulting in H-shaped wall pieces
  • Chlorosarcinales – daughter cells retained within parent cell wall; no plasmodesmata present
  • Chaetophorales – branched or unbranched filaments; plasmodesmata present
  • Oedogoniales – uninucleate filamentous freshwater algae with a unique type of cell division; motile spores and gametes with a whorl of flagella at one pole

In Graham and Wilcox (2000), the Chlorophyceans are a lineage of green algae, encompassing the following clades:

  • DO (flagellar basal bodies are directly opposed)
    • Sphaeropleales
  • CW (flagellar basal bodies are displaced in a clockwise direction)
    • Volvocales
    • Tetracystis
    • Dunaliella
    • Chaetophorales
    • Oedogoniales
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Uses

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“Chlamydomonas and Volvox are important laboratory model systems, Selensastrum capricornutum is widely recognized for its utility as a bioassay organism, and Dunaliella and Botryococcus can be valuable in production of industrially useful materials.” (Graham & Wilcox, 2000)

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Chlorophyceae

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The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. For example, the chlorophycean CW clade, and chlorophycean DO clade, are defined by the arrangement of their flagella. Members of the CW clade have flagella that are displaced in a "clockwise" (CW, 1–7 o'clock) direction e.g. Chlamydomonadales. Members of the DO clade have flagella that are "directly opposed" (DO, 12–6 o'clock) e.g. Sphaeropleales. They are usually green due to the dominance of pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The chloroplast may be discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in different species. Most of the members have one or more storage bodies called pyrenoids located in the chloroplast. Pyrenoids contain protein besides starch. Some algae may store food in the form of oil droplets. Green algae usually have a rigid cell wall made up of an inner layer of cellulose and outer layer of pectose.

General characteristics

  • Plant body may be unicellular, colonial, filamentous, or multicellular.
  • They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and beta-carotene.
  • The chloroplast may be discoid, cup-shaped (e.g. Chlamydomonas), spiral or ribbon shaped (e.g. Spirogyra)
  • Most chlorophytes have one or more storage bodies called pyrenoids (central proteinaceous body covered with a starch sheath) that are localised around the chloroplast.
  • The inner cell wall is made of cellulose and the outer layer is pectose.
  • Asexual reproduction is by zoospores. They are flagellates produced from the parent cells by mitosis. Also by aplanospores, hepnospores, akinetes, Palmella stage, etc.
  • Sexual reproduction of plants is isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.

Reproduction

Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by fragmentation. Asexual reproduction is by flagellated zoospores. And haplospore, perrination (akinate and palmellastage). Asexual reproduction by mytospore absent in spyrogyra. Sexual reproduction shows considerable variation in the type and formation of sex cells and it may be isogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas,ulothrix, Spirogyra. anisogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas, Eudorina or Oogamous e.g. Chlamydomonas, Volvox. Chlamydomonas has all three types of sexual reproduction.

They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle.[3]

the sole method of reproduction is asexual and azosporic. The content of the cell divide into 2,4 (B), 8(C) sometimes daughter protoplasts. Each daughter protoplast rounds off to form a non-motile spore. These autospores (spores having the same distinctive shape as the parent cell) are liberated by the rupture of the parent cell wall (D). On release each autospore grows to become a new individual. the presence of sulphur in the culture medium is considered essential for cell division. it takes place even in the dark with sulphur alone as the source material but under light conditions nitrogen also required in addition. Pearsal and Loose (1937) reported the occurrence of motile cells in Chlorella. Bendix (1964) also observed that Chlorella produces motile cells which might be gametes. These observations have an important bearing on the concept of the life cycle of Chlorella, which at present is considered to be strictly asexual in character.

Asexual reproduction in Chlorella ellipsoides has been studied in detail and the following four phases have been observed during the asexual reproduction.

(i) Growth Phase- During this phase the cells grow in size by utilizing the photosynthetic products.

(ii) Ripening phase- In this phase the cells mature and prepare themselves for division.

(iii) Post ripening phase- During this phase, each mature cell divides twice either in dark or in light. The cells formed in dark are known as dark to light phase, cells again grow in size.

(iv) Division Phase- During this phase the parent cell wall ruptures and unicells are released.

Classification

The following orders are typically recognised:

In older classifications, the term Chlorophyceae is sometimes used to apply to all the green algae except the Charales, and the internal division is considerably different.

The Orders of the Chlorophyceae as listed by: in Hoek, Mann and Jahns (1995)[4]

  • Volvocales
  • Chlorococcales
  • Chaetophorales
  • Oedogoniales

See also

References

  1. ^ Warming, E., 1884. Haandbog i den systematiske botanik. Anden gjennemsete udgave. 2nd ed. Kjøbenhavn, 434 pp. German translation (1890) of the 2nd Danish edition available at archive.org: [1]. English translation (1895) of the 3rd Danish edition (1892) available at archive.org: [2].
  2. ^ Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2007). "Class: Chlorophyceae taxonomy browser". AlgaeBase version 4.2 World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
  3. ^ Raven, Evert and Eichhorn. The Biology of Plants 7th edition, pg. 335. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2005.
  4. ^ Hoek, C.van den, Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 1995. Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

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Chlorophyceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. For example, the chlorophycean CW clade, and chlorophycean DO clade, are defined by the arrangement of their flagella. Members of the CW clade have flagella that are displaced in a "clockwise" (CW, 1–7 o'clock) direction e.g. Chlamydomonadales. Members of the DO clade have flagella that are "directly opposed" (DO, 12–6 o'clock) e.g. Sphaeropleales. They are usually green due to the dominance of pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The chloroplast may be discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in different species. Most of the members have one or more storage bodies called pyrenoids located in the chloroplast. Pyrenoids contain protein besides starch. Some algae may store food in the form of oil droplets. Green algae usually have a rigid cell wall made up of an inner layer of cellulose and outer layer of pectose.

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