dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Seven subspecies of Syconycteris australis are recognized.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats, similar to other pteropodids, have excellent visual and olfactory perception, which they use to find the flowers on which they feed. Some flower species have likely co-evolved with southern blossom bats and emit a musty "bat odor" and open only during the night. Little is known of auditory communication, as few studies focus on the vocalizations of southern blossom bats. However, they do use chirps to communicate with conspecifics. Southern blossom bats do not use echoloctaion or any other type of vocalization for navigation. Scent glands on their shoulders are used for identifying individuals during mating, and females identify their offspring by their scent.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones ; scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats are widely distributed and abundant. As a result, they are classified as a species of "least concern" on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. Coastal development around Fraser Island, Queensland has lead to locally reduced numbers, and inappropriate fire regimes in local heathland habitats have been noted as potential threats, as they lead to reduced flowering in the plant species on which southern blossom bats feed.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known adverse effects of Syconycteris australis on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats are very important in the pollination of many wild and agricultural fruits, such as guavas and bananas. Thus, many farmers throughout this species' geographic range depend on southern blossom bats for their financial well-being. In addition, the structure, distribution, and composition of forests throughout the southern blossom bat's geographic range may significantly depend on pollination by species. Southern blossom bats can also be used as an indicator species, as they have few predators and are relatively intolerant of environmental change.

Positive Impacts: pollinates crops

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

As strict nectarivores, southern blossom bats are important pollinators. Evidence suggests a coevolutionary relationship between southern blossom bats and some of the plants they feed from. For example, the flowers of some plant species omit a musty "bat odor" and only open during the night. A number of plants are pollinated only by southern blossom bats. Law and Lean (1999) indicated that southern blossom bats carry six times more pollen than birds, but spend considerably less time at individual feeding flowers. In comparison to birds, the quality of pollen (defined by the geographic, and therefore genetic, distance moved) carried by southern blossom bats is much greater, as they are more mobile than birds and visit more fragmented landscapes. Syzygium cormiflorum, Grevillea pteridifolia, and certain Musaceae species depend on southern blossom bats for pollination.

Although little information is available regarding parasites specific to southern blossom bats, known parasites include Toxocara pteropodis, Cyclopodia albertisii, Meristaspis, and Ixodes holocyclus.

Ecosystem Impact: pollinates

Mutualist Species:

  • Syzygium cormiflorum
  • Grevillea pteridifolia
  • Musaceae

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Toxocara pteropodis
  • Cyclopodia albertisii
  • Meristaspis
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats are nectarivores and feed exclusively on pollen and nectar, which makes them unique among pteropodids. While feeding, they use their long, bristled tongue to extract nectar and pollen. Preferred forage includes pollen and nectar from evergreen flowering plants such as Grevillea pteridifolia, though they feed on many species of tropical plants, including bananas. They do not supplement their diets with additional plant materials or insects, as all of their dietary requirements are met by consuming pollen and nectar, including hydration requirements.

Plant Foods: nectar; pollen

Primary Diet: herbivore (Nectarivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Syconycteris australis (Southern blossom bat) can be found from the Moluccan Islands of Indonesia to the islands of Salawati, Biak and Yapen and throughout a majority of the island of New Guinea. It can also be found along the eastern coast of Australia, where it ranges from Queensland to New South Wales.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats, unlike most chiropterans, do not roost in a specific centralized location, but instead change roosts daily. They roost individually during the day in the dense foliage of the subcanopy and move to nearby heathlands during the night to feed. Preferred habitat includes tropical moist forests, eucalyptus forests, moss forests, and Melaleuca swamps that are adjacent to heathland-like habitats. Southern blossom bats do not migrate like many other flower bats; instead, they change roosting locations from the rainforest's edge in the winter to the rainforest interior during spring and autumn. It is thought that they do this in order to be closer to their food source during the colder winter months. They can be found from sea level to 3000 m in elevation.

Range elevation: 0 to 3,000 m.

Average elevation: 1,500 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

Wetlands: swamp

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats live 2 to 6 years in captivity, with an average of 5 years. Little is known of their lifespan in the wild, though it is generally thought that members of Syconycteris live longer in the wild than they do in captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
2 to 6 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
5 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
2 to 6 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
5 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats are the smallest known species of Pteropodidae, ranging in size from 40 to 60 mm long, with a wingspan of 72.4 to 92.7 mm and weighing between 18.9 and 20.5 g. The dorsum is covered in light brown to reddish hair, and the venter is slightly lighter colored than the rest of the body. They also have relatively long, rounded ears with no tragi as well as large, black eyes and no tail. Southern blossom bats exhibit the fox-like face shape that is characteristic of members of the family Pteropodidae. Their long, pointed muzzles house a very long, thin tongue with brush-like projections that allows them to pick up nectar and pollen from the flowers they feed on. They have a basal metabolic rate of 4 cm^3 oxygen/hour. Sexual dimorphism has not been documented in this species.

Range mass: 18.9 to 20.5 g.

Range length: 40 to 60 mm.

Range wingspan: 72.4 to 92.7 mm.

Average basal metabolic rate: 4 cm3.O2/g/hr.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Major predators of Syconycteris australis include birds of prey and tree snakes. Additionally, foxes and feral cats sometimes prey on Syconycteris australis while they feed on low hanging flowers. More studies are needed to identify the major predators of this species. THeir nocturnal lifestyle likely helps reduce risk of predation.

Known Predators:

  • snakes (Boidae)
  • raptors (Falconiformes)
  • feral Cats (Felis catus)
  • red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Southern blossom bats form small groups for 2 to 4 weeks in early March and October in order to mate. They produce one offspring per mating period for a total of two offspring per year. The mating system is thought to be a form of resource defense polygyny, in which males defend areas with abundant resources that attract females, as opposed to defending the females themselves. This information is based solely on sex ratios at different locations throughout the year, however, and direct observations of their social behavior is needed.

Mating System: polygynous

Southern blossom bats are polygynous and form small mating aggregations during early March and October. Males and females identify each other based on sight and the scent glands located on their shoulders. Little is known of the mating behavior of southern blossom bats, however, females give birth to one offspring at a time. Male southern blossom bats do not provide any parental care, leaving the female soon after copulation. Males reach sexual maturity by 1 year old and females reach sexual maturity by 6 to 8 months old. Juveniles are weaned by 6 to 8 weeks of age, at which point they are independent and separate from the mother.

Southern blossom bats undergo torpor. Pregnant females also undergo torpor and are able to lower their metabolic rate equal to that of non-pregnant bats, but remain in torpor for half the time of their non-pregnant counterparts.

Breeding interval: Southern blossom bats breed twice a year

Breeding season: Early March and October

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 3.5 to 4 months.

Average gestation period: 3.6 months.

Range weaning age: 6 to 8 weeks.

Range time to independence: 6 to 8 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 6 to 8 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

The parental care of southern blossom bats is provided solely by females, as males leave soon after copulation. Gestation lasts 3.5 to 4 months and during this time the fetus can account for up to 25% of the mother's body weight. After birth, females carry their young on the venter and nurse for 6 to 8 weeks. By the time weaning is complete, young are completely independent.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Pioch, Z. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Syconycteris_australis.html
author
Zach Pioch, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Berini, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Common blossom bat

provided by wikipedia EN

The common blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) also known as the southern blossom bat or Queensland blossom bat, is a megabat in the family Pteropodidae. The common blossom bat feeds mostly on nectar and pollen rather than fruit.[1] It is one of eight Pteropodidae species on mainland Australia. It is one of the smallest of all nectarivorous megabats.

Description

Syconycteris australis photo 2.jpg
Syconycteris australis photo 3.jpg

They are small, weighing only 17.5–21 g (0.62–0.74 oz).[2] Body length excluding legs is around 60 mm (2.4 in) long.[3]

Distribution and habitat

They are found in the Maluku Islands, Salawati, Biak, Yapen, New Guinea, the Aru Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, Manus Island, the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, the Louisiade Archipelago, New South Wales, Australia, and eastern Queensland, Australia. They range from 0–3,000 m (0–9,843 ft) above sea level.[1] They are found in upland tropical rainforests and the Littoral Rainforests of New South Wales.[4]

Behaviour

They roost singly or in small groups, which makes estimating population based on visual observation difficult.[1] They generally roost in the rainforest subcanopy. They may change roosts daily however (when food was available) distances between subsequent roosts in NSW were short (average 42m at Iluka or 125m at Harrington).[5] They are probably important pollinators, as they carry six times as much pollen as birds while also traveling further in a night. The bumpy satinash tree is an important food source for this species in North Queensland, as 95% of all pollen observed on their fur comes from this species on bats caught near flowering trees. Their home ranges are 12–1,796 ha (0.046–6.934 sq mi). When foraging, they prefer to fly along riparian zones.[6] Because their energy demands are high and the energy content of a single flower is low, they must visit the equivalent of 36-48 coast banksia flowers every night.[2] To meet their energy requirements, they are active for a large proportion of the night.[5] During the full moon, they will delay their departure from their roosts. This suggests that they are afraid of predators such as owls that hunt by sight.[7] Other potential predators include goannas and arboreal snakes.[5] Domestic cats are known to capture and injure them.[8] They will enter torpor when food availability is low, or when the ambient temperature is below 26 °C (79 °F). Contrary to other bat species, torpor is more common and pronounced in the summer than in the winter.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Aplin, K.; Armstrong, K. (2016). "Syconycteris australis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T21185A22130860. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T21185A22130860.en.
  2. ^ a b Law, Bradley S (1992). "The Maintenance Nitrogen Requirements of the Queensland Blossom Bat (Syconycteris australis) on a Sugar/Pollen Diet: Is Nitrogen a Limiting Resource?". Physiological Zoology. 65 (3): 634–648. doi:10.1086/physzool.65.3.30157974.
  3. ^ Churchill, S. (1998). Australian bats. New Holland.
  4. ^ Law, Bradley S (2001). "The diet of the common blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) in upland tropical rainforest and the importance of riparian areas". Wildlife Research. 28 (6): 619. doi:10.1071/WR00058.
  5. ^ a b c Law, BS (1993). "Roosting and foraging ecology of the Queensland blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) in north-eastern New South Wales: Flexibility in response to seasonal variation". Wildlife Research. 20 (4): 419. doi:10.1071/WR9930419.
  6. ^ Law, Bradley S; Lean, Merrilyn (1999). "Common blossom bats (Syconycteris australis) as pollinators in fragmented Australian tropical rainforest". Biological Conservation. 91 (2–3): 201. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00078-6.
  7. ^ Law, B. S. (1997). The lunar cycle influences time of roost departure in the common blossom bat, S. australis. Australian Mammalogy, 20, 21-24.
  8. ^ Phillips, S; Coburn, D; James, R (2001). "An Observation of Cat Predation Upon an Eastern Blossom Bat Syconycteris Australis". Australian Mammalogy. 23: 57. doi:10.1071/AM01057.
  9. ^ Coburn, Dionne K; Geiser, Fritz (1998). "Seasonal changes in energetics and torpor patterns in the subtropical blossom-bat Syconycteris australis (Megachiroptera)". Oecologia. 113 (4): 467–473. doi:10.1007/s004420050399. PMID 28308026.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Common blossom bat: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The common blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) also known as the southern blossom bat or Queensland blossom bat, is a megabat in the family Pteropodidae. The common blossom bat feeds mostly on nectar and pollen rather than fruit. It is one of eight Pteropodidae species on mainland Australia. It is one of the smallest of all nectarivorous megabats.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN