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Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family Tremellaceae. All Tremella species are parasites of other fungi and most produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Over 100 species of Tremella (in its wide sense) are currently recognized worldwide. One species, Tremella fuciformis, is commercially cultivated for food.



Tremella was one of the original genera created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753. The name comes from the Latin tremere meaning "to tremble".[1] Linnaeus placed Tremella in the algae, including within it a variety of gelatinous growths, including seaweeds, cyanobacteria, and myxomycetes, as well as fungi. Subsequent authors added additional species to this mix, until Persoon revised Tremella in 1794 and 1801, repositioning the genus within the fungi.[2]

Persoon's reinterpretation of Tremella was sufficiently radical to be considered a separate genus (Tremella Pers.) from that originally created by Linnaeus (Tremella L.).[2] Tremella Pers. has now been conserved under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, with Tremella mesenterica as the type species.[3]

Current status

Molecular research, based on cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, has shown that Tremella (as previously understood) is polyphyletic (and hence artificial), with most species not closely related to the type.[4][5][6][7] Accordingly, some species have been transferred to new genera and new families: Tremella foliacea and related species are now placed in the genus Phaeotremella within the family Phaeotremellaceae; Tremella encephala and related species are now placed in the genus Naematelia within the Naemateliaceae; Tremella moriformis and related species are now placed in the genus Pseudotremella within the Bulleraceae; and Tremella polyporina is now placed in the genus Carcinomyces within the Carcinomycetaceae.[8] Several other species groups have not yet been renamed, pending further research.[8]

More than 500 species have been described in Tremella, but most of these are old names of doubtful application or old names for species later transferred to other genera. In its strict sense, the genus Tremella now contains some 30-40 species, including the type Tremella mesenterica and the cultivated species T. fuciformis.[9]


Fruit bodies (when present) are gelatinous. In some species they are small (under 5 mm across) and pustular to pulvinate (cushion-shaped). In others they are much larger (up to 150 mm across) and may be variously lobed, cephaliform (like a brain, with folds and ridges), or foliose (with leaf-like or seaweed-like fronds). Many Tremella species, however, are hymenial parasites, producing spores within the fruit bodies of their hosts, and are only visible microscopically.[4]

Microscopic characters

Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host.[10] The basidia are "tremelloid" (globose to ellipsoid, sometimes stalked, and vertically or diagonally septate), giving rise to long, sinuous sterigmata or epibasidia on which the basidiospores are produced. These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells.[4]

Habitat and distribution

Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota,[11] particularly on species that occur on dead attached branches. Hosts include members of the corticioid fungi and Dacrymycetales in the Basidiomycota and species of Diaporthe, other Sordariomycetes, and lichens in the Ascomycota. Some Tremella species parasitize the fruit bodies of their hosts, others parasitize the mycelium within the wood.

As a group, Tremella species occur worldwide, though individual species may have a more restricted distribution.

Species and hosts

The list below includes species of Tremella (in the wide sense) that have recently been described or redescribed based on fruit bodies. Species based on yeasts are not included. Some additional older species may also be valid, but lack a modern description. The type locality (but not the wider distribution) is given for each species together with the host fungus, where known. Species belonging to Tremella in the strict sense are marked as such, as are those that have been transferred to new genera.


  1. ^ Rea C. (1922). 'British Basidiomycetaceae. A handbook of the larger British fungi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 799.
  2. ^ a b Donk MA. (1958). "The generic names proposed for hymenomycetes – VIII". Taxon. 7 (8): 236–250. doi:10.2307/1217280. JSTOR 1217280.
  3. ^ International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Appendix III http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Chen C-J. (1998). Morphological and molecular studies in the genus Tremella. Berlin: J. Cramer. p. 225. ISBN 978-3-443-59076-5.
  5. ^ Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A (2000). "Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (3): 1351–1371. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-3-1351. PMID 10843082. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  6. ^ Sampaio JP, Weiss M, Gadanho M, Bauer R (2002). "New taxa in the Tremellales: Bulleribasidium oberjochense gen. et sp. nov., Papiliotrema bandonii gen. et sp. nov. and Fibulobasidium murrhardtense sp. nov". Mycologia. 94 (5): 873–887. doi:10.2307/3761703. JSTOR 3761703. PMID 21156562.
  7. ^ Findley K, Rodriguez-Carres M, Metin B, Kroiss J, Fonseca A, Vilgalys R, Heitman J (2009). "Phylogeny and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species and Closely Related Saprobic Taxa in the Tremellales" (PDF). Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353–361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247. PMID 19151324.
  8. ^ a b Liu XZ, Wang QM, Göker M, Groenewald M, Kachalkin AV, Lumbsch HT, Millanes AM, Wedin M, Yurkov AM, Boekhout T, Bai FY (2015). "Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes". Studies in Mycology. 81: 85–147. doi:10.1016/j.simyco.2015.12.001.
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  10. ^ Zugmaier W, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1994). "Mycoparasitism of some Tremella species". Mycologia. 86 (1): 49–56. doi:10.2307/3760718. JSTOR 3760718.
  11. ^ Bills GF, Mueller GM, Foster MS (2004). Biodiversity of Fungi: Inventory and Monitoring Methods. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-12-509551-8. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  12. ^ a b c Bandoni RJ, Oberwinkler F (1983). "On some species of Tremella described by Alfred Möller". Mycologia. 75 (5): 854–863. doi:10.2307/3792776. JSTOR 3792776.
  13. ^ Roberts P. (2003). "Tremella arachispora: a new species from Mount Cameroon". Kew Bulletin. 58 (3): 763–764. doi:10.2307/4111158. JSTOR 4111158.
  14. ^ a b c d Bandoni R, Carranza J, Bandoni AA (1996). "Four new species of Tremella (Tremellales: Basidiomycotina) from Costa Rica". Revista de Biología Tropical. 44 (Suppl. 4): 15–24.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Roberts P, de Meijer AA (1997). "Macromycetes from the state of Paraná, Brazil. 6. Sirobasidiaceae & Tremellaceae". Mycotaxon. 64: 261–283.
  16. ^ Bandoni RJ, Zang M (1990). "On an undescribed Tremella from China". Mycologia. 82 (2): 270–273. doi:10.2307/3759859. JSTOR 3759859.
  17. ^ a b c d Fan L, Alvarenga RL, Gibertoni TB, Wu F, Dai Y (2021). "Four new species in the Tremella fibulifera complex (Tremellales, Basidiomycota)". MycoKeys. 82: 33–56. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.82.63241.
  18. ^ a b c Bandoni R, Ginns J (1998). "Notes on Tremella mesenterica and related species". Canadian Journal of Botany. 76 (9): 1544–1557. doi:10.1139/b98-094.
  19. ^ a b c d e Roberts P. (2001). "British Tremella species III: Tremella callunicola sp, nov., T. invasa, T. sarniensis sp, nov.,T. simplex & T. versicolor". Mycologist. 15 (4): 146–150. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(01)80002-1.
  20. ^ a b c d Hauerslev K. (1999). "New and rare species of heterobasidiomycetes". Mycotaxon. 72: 465–486.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Diederich P. (1996). The lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. Berlin: J. Cramer. p. 198.
  22. ^ a b Bandoni RJ. (1958). "Some tremellaceous fungi in the C.G. Lloyd collection". Lloydia. 21: 137–151.
  23. ^ Zamora JC. (2009). "Tremella dactylobasidia, una nueva especie de Tremella con basidios de morfología peculiar". Boletín de la Sociedad Micológica de Madrid (in Spanish). 33: 49–58.
  24. ^ Van de Put K. (2004). "Drie nieuwe heterobasidiomyceten uit Noord-België". Sterbeeckia. 24: 12–16.
  25. ^ a b Roberts P. (1999). "British Tremella species II: T. encephala, T. steidleri & T. foliacea". Mycologist. 13 (3): 127–131. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(99)80044-5.
  26. ^ Stamets, Paul (2000). "Chapter 21: Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species". Growing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms = [Shokuyo oyobi yakuyo kinoko no sabai] (3rd ed.). Berkeley, California, USA: Ten Speed Press. pp. 402–405. ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7.
  27. ^ a b Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Ju, Yu-Ming; Rogers, Jack D. (July–August 2005). Natvig, Don (ed.). "Molecular phylogeny of Hypoxylon and closely related genera". Mycologia. 97 (4): 844–865. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.4.844. ISSN 1557-2536. PMID 16457354. Print ISSN: 0027-5514.
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  29. ^ a b c d Roberts P. (2007). "British Tremella species IV: Tremella obscura, T. penetrans, T. giraffa & T. polyporina". Field Mycology. 8 (4): 127–133. doi:10.1016/S1468-1641(10)60385-4.
  30. ^ a b Bandoni RJ. (1961). "The genus Naematelia". American Midland Naturalist. 66 (2): 319–328. doi:10.2307/2423032. JSTOR 2423032.
  31. ^ Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena (2015). "The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii". Fungal Biology. 119 (9): 844–856. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2015.06.005.
  32. ^ a b Dueñas M. (2001). "Iberian intrahymenial species of Platygloeales, Tremellales and Tulasnellales". Nova Hedwigia. 72: 441–459.
  33. ^ a b c Pippola E, Kotiranta H (2008). "The genus Tremella (Basidiomycota, Tremellales) in Finland". Annales Botanici Fennici. 45 (6): 401–434. doi:10.5735/085.045.0601. S2CID 86032093.
  34. ^ Diederich P. (2003). "Neue Arten und neue Funde von amerkanischen lichenicolen Pilzen". Herzogia. 16: 41–90.
  35. ^ a b c d e Bandoni R, Ginns J (1993). "On some species of Tremella associated with Corticiaceae". Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan. 34: 21–36.
  36. ^ a b c Diederich P. (2007). "New or interesting lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes". Opuscula Philolichenum. 4: 11–22.
  37. ^ Chen C-J.; Oberwinkler, Franz; Chen, Zuei-Ching (1999). "Tremella occultifuroidea sp. nov., a new mycoparasite of Dacrymyces". Mycoscience. 40 (2): 137–143. doi:10.1007/BF02464292. S2CID 86538058.
  38. ^ Roberts P. (2001). "Heterobasidiomycetes from Korup National Park, Cameroon'". Kew Bulletin. 56 (1): 163–187.
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  40. ^ a b Bandoni RJ, Buchanan PK (1990). "Two new species of Tremella from New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 28 (4): 451–454. doi:10.1080/0028825X.1990.10412328.
  41. ^ Bandoni RJ. (1985). "Sirotrema: a new genus in the Tremellaceae". Canadian Journal of Botany. 64 (3): 668–676. doi:10.1139/b86-085.
  42. ^ Fan LF, Pu JB, Wu F, Dai YC (2021). "A new species of Tremella s.s. (Tremellaceae, Basidiomycota) from southeastern China". Phytotaxa. 502: 208–216. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.502.2.9.
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Tremella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family Tremellaceae. All Tremella species are parasites of other fungi and most produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Over 100 species of Tremella (in its wide sense) are currently recognized worldwide. One species, Tremella fuciformis, is commercially cultivated for food.

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