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Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G. L. Nesom

Brief Summary

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G L Nesom. (formerly Aster novae-angliae L.), commonly known as the New England aster, hairy Michaelmas-daisy or Michaelmas daisy, is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant in the Asteraceae family. It is native to almost every area in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, but excluding the far north of Canada as well as some of the southern United States.

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae was introduced to Europe in 1710; a common garden escape, it has naturalized along roadsides and on disturbed ground.

Comprehensive Description

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
    provided by wikipedia

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G L Nesom. (formerly Aster novae-angliae L.), commonly known as the New England aster,[2] hairy Michaelmas-daisy[3] or Michaelmas daisy, is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant in the Asteraceae family. It is native to almost every area in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, but excluding the far north of Canada as well as some of the southern United States.

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae was introduced to Europe in 1710;[4] a common garden escape, it has naturalized along roadsides and on disturbed ground.

    Description

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    Bees on Symphyotrichum novae-angliae flowers

    The plant grows up to 120 cm (47 in) with a stout, hairy stem and clasping, lance-shaped leaves with entire margins. The flower heads are showy with yellow disc florets at the center and ray florets that range from a deep purple or rose to rarely white.

    This species inhabits a wide variety of habitats and soil types, though it does not tolerate strong shade.

    Uses among Native Americans

    The Cherokee use a poultice of the roots for pain, an infusion of the roots for diarrhea, and sniff the ooze from the roots for catarrh. They also take an infusion of the plant for fever.[5] The Chippewa smoke the roots in pipes to attract game.[6] The Iroquois use a decoction of the plant for weak skin, a decoction of the roots and leaves for fevers, the plant as a "love medicine",[7] and an infusion of whole plant and rhizomes from another plant to treat mothers with intestinal fevers.[8] The Meskwaki smudge the plant and use it to revive unconscious people,[9] and the Prairie Potawatomi use it as a fumigating reviver.[10]

    Cultivation

    Owing to its attractive flowers, numerous cultivars have been developed. Moreover, as a result of its increased horticultural popularity, it has been introduced to many areas beyond its natural range, including Europe and several western US states.[11]

    Cultivars

    See List of Symphyotrichum novae-angliae cultivars.

    Over 70 cultivars of Symphyotrichum novae-angliae have been raised, although only about 50 survive in commerce today. There is less diversity of habit and flower than in novi-belgii, whose cultivars are often derived from hybrids. The novae-angliae cultivars grow to between 90 and 180 cm in height, with the notable exception of "Purple Dome", at <60 cm.[4]

    Collections

    In the United Kingdom, there is one NCCPG national collection of Symphyotrichum novae-angliae.

    • Avondale Nursery, Mill Hill, Baginton, nr. Coventry CV5 6AG. 07979 093096. www.avondalenursery.co.uk

    See also

    References

    1. ^ "Symphyotrichum novae-angliae". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2007-06-18..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Symphyotrichum novae-angliae". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
    3. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
    4. ^ a b "Aster novae-angliae (New England Aster; Michaelmas Daisy)". Colwall, United Kingdom: The Picton Garden and Old Court Nurseries.
    5. ^ Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses – A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 24)
    6. ^ Densmore, Frances 1928 Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379 (p. 376)
    7. ^ Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (p. 463)
    8. ^ Rousseau, Jacques 1945 Le Folklore Botanique De Caughnawaga. Contributions de l'Institut botanique l'Université de Montréal 55:7-72 (p. 65)
    9. ^ Smith, Huron H. 1928 Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4:175-326 (p. 212)
    10. ^ Smith, Huron H. 1933 Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7:1-230 (p. 50)
    11. ^ Brouillet, Luc; Semple, John C.; Allen, Geraldine A.; Chambers, Kenton L.; Sundberg, Scott D. (2006). "Symphyotrichum novae-angliae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae is escaped from cultivation and introduced in Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, and has been reported as an ephemeral escape in British Columbia. It possibly escaped from cultivation elsewhere. The Michaelmas daisy is widely sold in the horticultural trade, where cultivars have been developed. Forms have been described that correspond to color genetic variants within natural populations {Aster novae-angliae forma roseus (Desfontaines) Britton; A. novae-angliae forma geneseensis House}; they are not recognized here.

    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae resembles Canadanthus modestus, but the ranges of the two do not overlap, and the latter has sparsely hairy cypselae with dark ribs. Symphyotrichum novae-angliae hybridizes with S. ericoides, forming the F 1 intersectional hybrid S. ×amethystinum.

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennials, 30–120 cm, cespitose; with thick, woody, branched caudices, or short, fleshy rhi­zomes, sometimes with woody cormoid portions. Stems 1–5+, erect (stout, light to dark brown, sometimes purplish distally), proximally sparsely to moderately hispiduloso-hirsute or pilose, distally moderately to densely so, stipitate-glandular. Leaves (light to dark green) thin, often stiff, margins entire or sometimes with shallow teeth, ciliate; basal withered or withering by flowering, sessile, blades (3-nerved) usually spatulate, sometimes oblanceolate, 20–60 × 5–15 mm, bases attenuate, apices acute, faces sparsely hirsute; proximal cauline withering by flowering, sessile, blades oblong or lanceolate, 50–100 × 5–15(–20) mm, bases auriculate-clasping, margins entire, pustulate-scabrous, apices acute, mucronulate, faces stipitate-glandular, abaxial thinly strigose, adaxial hirsute or hispidulous; distal sessile, blades oblanceolate, 30–80 × 6–15 mm, gradually reduced distally, bases auriculate-clasping, apices acute to obtuse, mucronate to minutely white-spinulose, faces moderately to densely short-soft-hairy, sparsely to moderately stipitate-glandular. Heads in leafy, often crowded, paniculo-corymbiform arrays. Peduncles dilated distally, 0.3–4 cm, densely short-hairy, stipitate-glandular, bracts 1–4, foliaceous, linear to narrowly lanceolate, densely short-hairy, stipitate-glandular, grading into phyllaries. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric, (5–)7–9(–15) mm. Phyllaries in 3–5(–6) series (dark green to purple-tinged), linear-lanceolate, subequal, outer foliaceous, mid and inner scarious in basal 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 , margins stipitate-glandular, apices long-acuminate to acuminate, spreading to reflexed or squarrose, faces glabrous, outer densely stipitate-glandular. Ray florets (40–)50–75(-100); corollas dark rose to deep purple (pale pink or white), laminae 9–13 × 0.8–1.3 mm. Disc florets 50–110; corollas light yellow becoming purple, (4–)4.5–5.5(–7) mm, tubes ± 1 / 2 narrowly funnelform throats (glabrous or thinly puberulent), lobes triangular, 0.4–0.7 mm. Cypselae dull purple or brown, oblong or obconic, not compressed, 1.8–2.5(–3) × 0.6–1 mm, 7–10-nerved, faces densely sericeous, sparsely stipitate-glandular; pappi tawny (barb tips sometimes rose-tinged), 4.5–6 mm. 2n = 10.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Aster novae-angliae Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 875. 1753; Virgulus novae-angliae (Linnaeus) Reveal & Keener