dcsimg

Description

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

Thorius infernalis is a small salamander species with a snout-vent length of 18.6 - 18.8mm. It has a pointed snout and a fairly broad head in comparison to the width of its body. The nostrils are ovate, and the eyes project slightly past the jaw when viewed from above. A groove underneath each eye extends to the lip. The limbs are short, and the feet and hands are narrow with fused digits and pointed digit tips. The relative lengths of the fingers are as follows, from longest to shortest: III > II > IV > I. The relative lengths of the toes are as follows, from longest to shortest: III > IV > II > V > I. The tail is stocky and narrows out at the end. There is a noticeable postiliac gland (Hanken et al 1999).

Thorius infernalis is distinguished from similar species in this genus by its relatively long tail in comparison to its small body size, shorter limbs, pointed toe tips with fused toes, and narrower head with a more pointed snout. It is differentiated from T. omiltemi and T. grandis, which are the other Thorius species found in Guerrero, Mexico, by its small size, and lack of maxillary teeth. When compared to T. minutissimus, T. infernalis can be differentiated by having less protuberant nostrils and lacking rounded toe tips. It is distinguished from T. pennatulus, T. narismagnus, and T. smithi, by lacking rounded nostrils (Hanken et al. 1999).

In life, the sides are fairly dark. A pale stripe runs from the back of the neck down to the tail, though it fades in color as it reaches the tail. The underside is lighter than the sides, and is noticeably lighter at the throat. In preservative, it is golden brown overall, though with darker sides and a lighter back and underside. A faint stripe runs from the head to the base of the tail. The throat is spotted white, with markings interspersed throughout the underside. Its irises are gray (Hanken et al 1999).

The male has one premaxillary tooth and five vomerine teeth, whereas the female lacks premaxillary teeth and has seven vomerine teeth (Hanken et al 1999).

The species authority is: Hanken, J., Wake, D. B., Freeman, H. L. (1999). "Three New Species of Minute Salamanders (Thorius: Plethodontidae) from Guerrero, México, Including the Report of a Novel Dental Polymorphism in Urodeles." Copeia, 1999(4), 917-931.

As there are only two known specimens to represent this species, no molecular analysis has been conducted to genetically compare this species to others. However, Thorius species can be grouped by the presence of maxillary teeth, which T. infernalis lacks. This absence of maxillary teeth is thought to represent an ancestral trait among the genus, suggesting that T. infernalis is a more ancestral species within Thorius (Hanken et al. 1999, Rovito et al. 2013).

The species epithet, infernalis, is derived from Latin meaning “of the lower world” and refers to the lower elevation in which this species was found. Its common name refers to the nearby city of Atoyac de Álvarez, which is among the hottest geographical locations in North America (Hanken et al. 1999).

Further surveys are needed to determine if this species still exists in the wild. Field verification is needed to better predict potential distributional ranges in order to effectively protect land that is suitable for T. infernalis in hopes of saving the species (Ochoa-Ochoa et al. 2009).

license
cc-by-3.0
author
Jennifer Schoener
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Distribution and Habitat

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

This species is known from a single location in Sierra Madre del Sur of central Guerrero, Mexico. It was found at a lower montane region with an elevation of 1140m. This species is believed to be predominantly terrestrial, occupying riparian habitats along hillsides in forested areas. The site where T. infernalis was found is near an area used for growing coffee, and much of the surrounding hillsides have been cleared of undergrowth (Hanken et al. 1999).

license
cc-by-3.0
author
Jennifer Schoener
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

Little is known about this species. Thorius infernalis is only known from 2 individuals collected in the late 1970s. Like other plethodontid salamanders, it is lungless and breathes through its skin. It is presumably terrestrial and displays direct development (Parra-Olea et al. 2014, Wake and Hanken 1996).

license
cc-by-3.0
author
Jennifer Schoener
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

This species may be extinct as a result of habitat loss and degradation. The site where T. infernalis was known to occur, near Atoyac, is primarily used for coffee cultivation. Further human encroachment on suitable habitat continues to decrease the area in which this species is likely to be found. The small body and limb size of T. infernalis suggests that they disperse short distances. Therefore, loss of suitable habitat may eradicate the population in that area (Ochoa-Ochoa et al. 2009, Parra-Olea et al. 2014, Rovito et al. 2013).

license
cc-by-3.0
author
Jennifer Schoener
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Thorius infernalis

provided by wikipedia EN

Thorius infernalis, commonly known as the Atoyac minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is only known from its type locality in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero.[2] Its natural habitat is riparian vegetation along hillsides, presumably in forest. It is only known from two specimens, and it has not been seen since the early 1980s. Much of the potential habitat is already converted into coffee plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by expanding agriculture and human settlements.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Gabriela Parra-Olea; David Wake; Mario García-París; James Hanken (2008). "Thorius infernalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T59412A11933830. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T59412A11933830.en.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Thorius infernalis Hanken, Wake, and Freeman, 1999". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Thorius infernalis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Thorius infernalis, commonly known as the Atoyac minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is only known from its type locality in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero. Its natural habitat is riparian vegetation along hillsides, presumably in forest. It is only known from two specimens, and it has not been seen since the early 1980s. Much of the potential habitat is already converted into coffee plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by expanding agriculture and human settlements.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN