Euphorbia nicaeensis is a perennial, herbaceous plant or a shrub, reaching a height of about 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in). It has erect, simple, ocher-orange stems, usually leafless and covered with leaf scars on most of its length. Leaves are glaucous gray, narrowly lanceolate, oblong or ovate, about 10–75 millimetres (0.39–2.95 in) long, arranged in apical rosettes and inflorescences. The flowering period extends from June to August.
This species can be found in southern and eastern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia), in Turkey, in the Caucasus and in Algeria.