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California Nutmeg

Torreya californica Torr.

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 20(--25) m; trunk to 9(--12) dm diam.; crown conic or, in age, round-topped. Branches spreading to slightly drooping; 2-year-old branches reddish brown. Leaves 3--8 cm, abaxial side with 2 deeply impressed, glaucous bands of stomates, flattened on adaxial side, emitting pungent odor when crushed. Pollen cones whitish. Seed (including aril) 2.5--3.5 cm; aril light green streaked with purple. 2 n = 16.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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Calif.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Rare and local along mountain streams, protected slopes, creek bottoms, and moist canyons of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada; 0--2000m.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Synonym

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Torreya myristica Hooker; Tumion californicum (Torrey) Greene
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

California nutmeg
California torreya
stinking cedar
stinking nutmeg
stinking yew

TAXONOMY:
The currently accepted scientific name of California nutmeg is Torreya
californica Torr.; it is in the yew family (Taxaceae) [12,16]. There
are no subspecies, varieties, or forms [3].

LIFE FORM:
Tree

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
NO-ENTRY





DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Torreya californica
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
California nutmeg is endemic to California. Its range has two distinct
parts: one in the Coast Ranges and one in the Cascade-Sierra Nevada
foothills. In the Coast Ranges, it is distributed from southwest
Trinity County south to Monterey County. In the Cascade-Sierra Nevada
foothills, it is distributed from Shasta County south to Tulare County
[8]. Although not rare, it is not an abundant species. Local
occurrence is widely scattered throughout its range [3], and trees are
often infrequent in these localities [8].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forest

California nutmeg is endemic to California. Its range has two distinct
parts: one in the Coast Ranges and one in the Cascade-Sierra Nevada
foothills. In the Coast Ranges, it is distributed from southwest
Trinity County south to Monterey County. In the Cascade-Sierra Nevada
foothills, it is distributed from Shasta County south to Tulare County
[8]. Although not rare, it is not an abundant species. Local
occurrence is widely scattered throughout its range [3], and trees are
often infrequent in these localities [8].



Distribution of California nutmeg. Map from USGS: 1971 USDA, Forest Service map provided by Thompson and others [30].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
California nutmeg is plastic is its habitat requirements, and occurs in
many diverse plant communities. In the Coast Ranges, it grows in
chaparral and various coastal forests such as redwood (Sequoia
sempervirens). It is associated with canyon live oak (Quercus
chrysolepis) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) woodlands in
both coastal and inland foothill regions [10]. Inland populations are
most commonly found in the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) belt [3,8].
It is rare in chaparral communities of the Cascade-Sierra Nevada. It is
not a dominant or indicator species in community or vegetation typings.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Tree
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: natural

If thinning of California nutmeg stands is necessary, care should be
taken to preserve both male and female trees as near to each other as
possible in order to facilitate natural regeneration [24]. Favorable
sites for potential natural regeneration such as canyon bottoms and
lowland flats are unlikely to support seedlings if there is heavy
logging or other disturbance above catchment areas [3].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

Stamens and arils are produced from March through May [16,21]. Seeds
ripen from August until October and are released from September through
November [15,21,27].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: geophyte

Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name of California nutmeg is Torreya
californica Torr.; it is in the yew family (Taxaceae) [12,16]. There
are no subspecies, varieties, or forms [3].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 1992. Torreya californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Tree, Evergreen, Dioecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins entire (use magnification), Leaf apex acute, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Leaves white-striped, Scale leaves without raised glands, Needle-like leaves flat, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 1, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Seeds within arils or fleshy coating, Seeds within scales, Aril dark green, Berry-like cones reddish, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds tan, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless.
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Stephen C. Meyers
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Aaron Liston
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Steffi Ickert-Bond
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Damon Little
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USDA PLANTS text

Torreya californica

provided by wikipedia EN

Torreya californica is species of conifer endemic to California, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. It is commonly known as California torreya or California nutmeg tree[2] (although not closely related to true nutmeg).

California nutmeg is an evergreen tree growing to 15–25 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 0.5–1 m (exceptionally 2 m); the crown is conical in overall shape, with whorled branches. The leaves are needle-like, stiff, sharp pointed, 3–5 cm long and 3 mm broad; they are arranged spirally, but twisted at the base to lie flat either side of the shoots.

The male (pollen) cones are 5–7 mm long, grouped in lines along the underside of a shoot. The female (seed) cones are single or grouped two to five together on a short stem; minute at first, they mature in about 18 months to a drupe-like structure with the single large nut-like seed 2.5–4 cm long surrounded by a fleshy covering, dark green to purple at full maturity in the fall.

Uses

The seeds were used by Native Americans in Northern California as food. The seeds were once mentioned in pharmacognostic literature under the Latin name nux moschata Californica.[3] The wood was used for making bows.[4]

The wood is sometimes used in making Go game boards, as a cheaper substitute for the prized kaya (Torreya nucifera) of Japan and Southeast Asia.

Cultivation

The tree is planted as a specimen ornamental tree in gardens; and in groves in larger native plant and traditional landscape projects.

 src=
Torreya californica, with young shoots,
PAN Botanical Garden, Warsaw, Poland

References and external links

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Torreya californica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T34026A2840781. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T34026A2840781.en.
  2. ^ "Torreya californica". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  3. ^ Wiggers, H. A. L. (1855). "Bericht über die Leistungen in der Pharmacognosle und Pharmacie". Canstatt's Jber. Fortschr. Pharm. 4 (1): 1–210. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  4. ^ Whitney, Stephen (1985). Western Forests (The Audubon Society Nature Guides). New York: Knopf. p. 416. ISBN 0-394-73127-1.

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Torreya californica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Torreya californica is species of conifer endemic to California, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. It is commonly known as California torreya or California nutmeg tree (although not closely related to true nutmeg).

California nutmeg is an evergreen tree growing to 15–25 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 0.5–1 m (exceptionally 2 m); the crown is conical in overall shape, with whorled branches. The leaves are needle-like, stiff, sharp pointed, 3–5 cm long and 3 mm broad; they are arranged spirally, but twisted at the base to lie flat either side of the shoots.

The male (pollen) cones are 5–7 mm long, grouped in lines along the underside of a shoot. The female (seed) cones are single or grouped two to five together on a short stem; minute at first, they mature in about 18 months to a drupe-like structure with the single large nut-like seed 2.5–4 cm long surrounded by a fleshy covering, dark green to purple at full maturity in the fall.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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