Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Millieria dolosana (Herrich-Schäffer)

Choreutis dolosalis Heydenreich, 1851:63 [nomen nudum].

Choreutis dolosana Herrich-Schäffer, 1854:95.

Choreutes [sic] dolasona [sic].—Desmarest, [1857]:228.

ADULT MALE (Figure 15).—4.0–4.8 mm forewing length.

Head: Dark buff, with white eye border on frons. Labial palpus white, with black scales intermixed on ventral scale tuft of middle segment; apical segment smooth, black and white, pointed. Venter of head white.

Thorax: Bronze fuscous to buff. Patagia bronze fuscous. Venter white. Legs white with dark fuscous on ends of all segments.

Forewing: Bronze fuscous on basal half of wing, dark fuscous on distal half; horizontal white line along radius from base to of wing; white crescent mark at midwing from dorsal margin to center of wing; another white mark at midwing on costal margin, with silver between it and dorsal crescent mark; irregular cross mark of dark fuscous on apical of wing, with silver on central parts of it; two white marks on costal margin near apex; white tornal mark, with silver mark basad of it. Fringe silver, dark fuscous more distally, and white on extremities. Ventral side fuscous with white marks near apex of costal margin, at tornus, and white over anal field.

Hindwing: White with fuscous distal border. Fringe fuscous, white distally and along anal margin. Ventral side similar to dorsal side.

Abdomen: Fuscous, with white ring on each segment. Venter mostly white.

Male Genitalia (Figure 21): Tegumen fused with reduced vinculum. Saccus absent. Uncus present as round sclerotized ring with a median notched uplift. Gnathos present as paired arm, partially fused as a transtilla, bending upward to large densely setaceous socius; gnathos connected to strongly sclerotized scaphium fused to uncus and projecting posteriorly to a bulbous end. Valva elongate, with rounded end, with a short pointed spine on dorsal margin near distal end; distal of valva setaceous. Anellus triangular with concave dorsal margin and broad convex ventral margin merging into short setaceous lateral process at base of valva. Aedeagus (Figure 22) short, slightly curved to narrowed distal end; phallobase absent. Cornutus a small tube.

FEMALE (Figure 16).—Similar to male except hindwing fuscous. Fringe fuscous and white distally.

Female Genitalia (Figure 23): Ovipositor short, with small setaceous papilla analis. Apophyses slender, with anterior pair length of posterior pair. Ostium a large ovate opening surrounded by a sclerotized sterigma projected posteriorly to a truncated edge, with a similar round flat projection on the 8th tergite. Ductus bursae narrow, membranous to slightly bulbous area where ductus seminalis joins, then continuing with a gradual widening to bursa. Corpus bursae ovate with a bifurcate signum (Figure 24) projected from a ventral cestum where ductus bursae meets corpus bursae.

Larva and pupa as described for the genus.



ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS (135 , 90 ).—Albania: Durazzo, 24 Apr 1917 (), NHMV. Kula Ljums, 18–28 May 1918 (), NHMV.

Algeria: Punta Pescade, Algiers, 27 Apr 1893 (2 ), Eaton, BMNH.

Austria: Austria, no date (3 ), IEEM; no date (, 2 ), Mann coll., MGAB. Bozen, Tirol, no date (), NHMV. Gumpoldskirchen, 23 Jun 1979 (, 3), 5–15 Jul 1966 (), NHMV. Himberg, 2 Jul 1967 (), NHMV. Leiser Berge, 1 Jun 1913 (), NHMV. Marchauen, 12–13 Jul 1939 (2 ), NHMV. Vienna, no date (2 , 2 ), BMNH; no date (), NHMV; 1872 (3 ), NHMV; 25 May 1938 (), 12 Jul 1939 (2 ), 13 Jul 1939 (2 ), 15 Jul 1939 (), 16 Jul 1939 (), 21 Jul 1939 (), NHMV; 12 Jul 1898 (), Hamfeldt, USNM; 18 Nov 1901 (), USNM.

Czechoslovakia: “Slovakia,” no date (Diakonoff, in press).

France: Bergheim, Dept. Alsace, Jul () (Fettig, 1882:113). Cannes, Dept. Alpes-Maritimes, 22 Mar 1896 (2 ), 11 Apr 1896 (2 ), 5 May 1890 (), Walsingham, BMNH; no date (), Jourdheuille, MHNP; no date (, ), IEEM. Diene, Dept. Basses-Alpes, 16–23 Apr 1897 (), Tutt, BMNH. Douelle, Dept. Lot, 27 May 1940 (14 , 5 ), 26 Jul 1937 (), Lhomme, MHNP. Golfe Juan, Dept. Alpes-Maritimes, Aug 1882 (3 , 3 ), Constant, BMNH. Lyon, Dept. Rhone, no date (), BMNH; 31 May 1858 (), 6 Jun 1858 (), 12–21 Jun 1858 (2 ), 19 Jun 1858 (), Milliee, ex Aristolochia clematitis, BMNH. Olèron, Dept. Charente-Maritime, 15 Aug 1920 (4 ), Dumont, ex A. clematitis MHNP. Paris, Dept. Seine, no date (2 , 2 ), BMNH; no date (), USNM; 1 Apr 1880 (2 , ), Ragonot, USNM; 1874 (3 , 2 ), 29 Apr 1880 (, 2 ), Ragonot, BMNH. Pont du Gard, Dept. Gard, 30 May 1936 (), G. Praviel, MHNP. Punta Parata, Dept. Corsica, 7 Jun 1899 (2 ), Walsingham, BMNH.

Germany: “Germany,” no date (4 , 5 ), Hoffman, Hamfeldt, and Staudinger, USNM. Stuttgart, 25 Feb 1933 (2 ), 28 Feb 1933 (, ), 7 Mar 1933 (2 ), 6 Apr 1938 (, ), 6 Jun 1938 (2 , ), 10 Jun 1935 (), 10 Jun 1938 (2 ), 15 Jun 1939 (), 25 Jun 1938 (), J. Klimesch, ex A. clematitis, JK; 16 Jun 1939 (2 ), J. Klimesch, BMNH. Württemberg, 12 Mar 1933 (2 ), 4 Apr 1934 (2 ), 24 May 1938 (), no date (), A. Wörz, ex A. clematitis, E. Jäckh, USNM; 25 May 1940 (, ), A. Wörz, ex A. clematitis, E. Jäckh, JBH.

Greece: “Attica,” Sep 1954, F. Kasy, larvae on Aristolochia sp. (Klimesch, 1968:149); 20 Nov (2 ) (Staudinger, 1870:272).

Hungary: “Hungary,” 3 Oct 1896 (2 ), USNM; no date (), J. Schlumberger, MHNP; no date (), Mann, MGAB. Csterspai, 23 Aug 1964 (), Stamm, USNM. Pecs, 27 Jun 1937 (3 , 3 ), 28 Jun 1937 (2 , 2 ), J. Klimesch, ex. A. clematitis, JK.

Israel: Iriskam, 1947 (2 ), BMNH. Jerusalem, no date (), MGAB.

Italy: Conconello, Trieste, Prov. Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 22 Apr 1964 (3 ), J. Klimesch, JK. Livorno, Prov. Tuscany, no date (), NHMV. Monfalcone, Prov. Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 24 Apr 1909 (), NHMV. Ragusa, Sicily, 1868 (2 ), NHMV. Trento, Prov. Trentino-Alto Adige, 2 Jul 1945 (), J. Klimesch, JK. Vigevano, Pavia, Prov. Lombardy, 15 Apr 1945 (), J. Klimesch, JK. Rubiana, Valle di Susa (Torino), Prov. Piedmont, no date (2 ), PPE. Ladino, Forli, Prov. Emilia Romagna, June (1 ), Zangheri, MNV.

Lebanon: Beirut, Mar 1886 (), Pratt, BMNH; 1893 (, ), NHMV.

Morocco: Tangier, 6 May 1902 (), 10 Dec 1901 (), Walsingham, BMNH.

Poland: Myszkow, Katowice Prov., 22 Jun 1934 (), P. Zaleszczyki, BMNH.

Portugal: Portas de Rodan, Beira Baixa Prov., May (Zerkowitz, 1946:129).

Romania: Walouikoi, 28 Jun 1888 (), NHMV.

Spain: “Andalusia,” no date (, ), J. Schlumberger, MHMP. La Linea de la Concepcion, Adiz Prov., no date (), T. Mendez, IEEM. “Castilia,” no date, ZIL (Diakonoff, in press). Albarracin, Teruel Prov., July 1924 (), NHMV; no date, (), IEEM. La Granja, Granada Prov., no date (2 ), Dumont, MHNP. Valdealgorfa, Teruel Prov., 6 Apr 1912 (), Joannis, MHNP. Puebla de Don Fabrique, Granada Prov., 24 May 1929 (), Schmidt, IEEM. Cuenca, Cuenca Prov., no date (), MGAB.

Switzerland: Ofen, no date (3, ), MGAB.

Syria: “Syrie,” no date (), Joannis, MHNP. Damascus, 20 Mar 1962 (2 ), NHMV. Ghaziv, no date (5 ), Joannis, MHNP.

Turkey: Beysehir golii, 4 Jun 1954 (4 ), J. Klimesch, 1100 m, JK. “Brussa” (=Bursa, Prov. Bursa), 1851 (3 , ), NHMV; Mar 1878 (2 ), Zeller, BMNH. “Taurus,” no date (6 ), IEEM.

USSR: Belbek, Crimea, Ukrainian SSR, no date, ZIL (Diakonoff, in press). “Sarepta” (=Krasnoarmeysk), Volgograd, Russia SSR, no date, ZIL (Diakonoff, in press]; Nov 1860 (, 4), Christoph, BMNH.

Yugoslavia: Gravosa, Dalmatia, Croatia, 28 May 1908 (), NHMV. Istra Peninsula, Croatia, 1893 (), NHMV. Ohrid, Macedonia, Sep 1954 (), F. Kasy, NHMV. “Slovenia,” no date (), NHMV.

Not every available specimen of this species has been searched for in the museums of the world, but the above specimens comprise the holdings of the larger collections. In his palearctic revision Diakonoff (in press) studied available specimens and noted the same maximum distribution for the species as below.

DISTRIBUTION (Figure 2).—Morocco north to Poland, east to Southern Russia and Israel.

FLIGHT PERIOD.—March to December in the south; April to November in the north. Overlapping voltinism; at least two generations in the north (Toll, 1938:164).

HOST.—Aristolochia clematitis Linnaeus and Aristolochia pistolochia Linnaeus (Aristolochiaceae) (Hering, 1957:114).

BIOLOGY.—The larvae are gregarious leaf miners of Aristolochia and make irregular blotch-like mines (Figure 37) on the dorsal surface of the leaves, with several larvae occupying one leaf mine. This larval behavior and biology is unique in the family as far as is known, although communal larvae are known in the hollow-stemmed host plants of Tebenna carduiella (Kearfott) from the United States. Except for the other Millieriinae, typical Choreutidae are leaf skeletonizers.

Pupation is within a lentil-shaped pupal case formed within the leaf mine. Millière (1856:39) gave the first description of the biology of this species. The biology or rearing record has also been noted by Hartmann (1880:54), Hering (1927:34, 1957:114), Spuler (1910:298), and Toll (1938:164). The species is bivoltine in Poland (Toll, 1938), but collection records do not show any clear generations further south, only overlapping generations.

ADULT.—Small moths, 3.2–4.0 mm forewing length.

Head (Figure 5): Vertex and frons vestiture smooth. Labial palpus smooth scaled; basal and middle segments subequal; apical segment somewhat shorter. Haustellum scaled basally. Maxillary palpus (Figure 6) small, 1-segmented (possibly 2-segmented), with basal area wide and apical segment bulbous. Pilifer large. Eye moderate. Ocellus small. Antenna filiform, flattened with dense setae. Caudal end of head (Figure 10) with tentorial bridge subtending large round upper opening from smaller subquadrate lower opening with prominent occipital condyli.

Forewing (Figure 13): Shape elongate with somewhat pointed apex; rounded tornal and anal margins. Pterostigma small, from Sc to Rs. Sc to midwing on costal margin. R1 to middle of pterostigma. R2 to distal end of pterostigma. R3-R5 evenly spaced from end of chorda and cell. Chorda present. Cell ¾ length of wing, without vestigial median vein evident. M1 close to R5 at cell. M1-M3 evenly spaced. CuA1 almost parallel to CuA2, divergent from near end of cell. CuP present at tornal margin. A1+2 with long basal fork; A3 vestigial.

Hindwing: Shape subtriangular, with rounded but slightly truncate anal margin. Apex somewhat pointed. Sc to ¾ from base. Rs to near apex. Cell ½ wing length, with vestigial median vein present. M1 to apex; M1-M3 evenly spaced; M3 separate from CuA1. CuA1 and CuA2 widely separate and divergent from near end of cell. CuP present at tornus. A1+2 with moderate basal fork. A3 long and stout; A4 ½ length of A3.

Abdomen: Normal. Coremata absent.

Male Genitalia: Tegumen fused to vinculum. Saccus small, articulated. Uncus present. Gnathos a sclerotized point with strong lateral arms. Socius absent. Valva simple. Anellus circular, convex, without lateral process. Aedeagus small, slender. Cornutus absent.

Female Genitalia: Ovipositor of normal length, with setaceous papilla analis. Apophyses normal. Ostium simple, without sterigma. Ductus bursae membranous. Corpus bursae simple. Signum absent.

LARVA (Figures 42–50).—Head (Figures 43–44) hypognathous; frontoclypeus only ½ distance to epicranial notch. Stemmata in rectangular semicircle. Proleg short; crochets (Figure 45) in circle, biordinal. Prothorax with sclerotized dorsal shield; L-group bisetose on one pinaculum (trisetose on meso- and metathorax); SD2 distant to SD1; SV setae approximate on one pinaculum. Meso- and metathorax with L1 close to L2 and distant from L3; SD2 on mesothorax greatly elongated. Abdominal segment A2 with SV setae in oblique triangle; abdominal segments A1–8 with SD2 minute and equidistant with SD1 to spiracle; L2 approximate and anteroventrad to L1; D2 setae slightly more apart than D1 setae, except on segment A8–9 where D2 setae are closer together than D1 setae.

PUPA (Figures 51–53).—Head with blunt projection on front. Maxillary palpus prominent. Legs free at wing tips. Dorsal abdominal spines present in wide diffuse band composed of two rows on tergites A2–7 in males (A2–6 in females), with the two rows becoming more distinct progressively posteriorly; single band of spines on tergites A8–9. Abdominal segments A3–7 in males (A3–6 in females) movable. Cremaster not evident except for somewhat hook-tipped setae on posterior end (Figure 53). Pupation in a hollow flower pod (Figure 54) with flap-like opening; attached to ventral side of leaf of host along leaflet midrib; pupa extruded at adult eclosion.
bibliographic citation
Heppner, John B. 1982. "Millieriinae : a new subfamily of Choreutidae, with new taxa from Chile and the United States (Lepidoptera:Sesioidea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-[27]. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.370