dcsimg
Image of Caribbean False Helmet Orchid
Creatures » » Plants

Green Plants

Chloroplastida

Viridiplantae

provided by wikipedia EN

Viridiplantae (literally "green plants")[5] are a clade of eukaryotic organisms that comprise approximately 450,000–500,000 species and play an important roles in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.[6] They are made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.[7][8][9] Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[10][11][12][13][14] They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist.[15]

In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom,[16] under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally.[17] The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae.[18][19] Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.

A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.[20]

Phylogeny and classification

Leliaert et al. 2012

Simplified phylogeny of the Viridiplantae, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[21]

  • Viridiplantae
  • core chlorophytes

Cladogram

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[23][21][22][24][12][25][26][19][27][28]

Viridiplantae/    

Mesostigmatophyceae

     

Spirotaenia

   

Chlorokybophyceae

        Chlorophyta         Tetraphytina Chlorophytina      

Ulvophyceae

   

Chlorophyceae

     

Trebouxiophyceae

     

Chlorodendrophyceae

     

Pedinophyceae

     

Prasinophytes Clade VIIA

       

Prasinophytes Clade VIIC

   

Pycnococcaceae

       

Nephroselmidophyceae

       

Mamiellophyceae

   

Pyramimonadales

      Palmophyllophyceae

Palmophyllales

   

Prasinococcales

      Streptophyta/  

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae

         

Mesotaeniaceae

   

Zygnematophyceae

     

Embryophytes (land plants)

     

Coleochaetophyceae

      CharophytaGreen Algae

References

  1. ^ Copeland HF (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quart. Rev. Biol. 13 (4): 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568.
  2. ^ Copeland HF (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. p. 6.
  3. ^ Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms" (PDF). Science. 163 (3863): 150–60. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.403.5430. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2015-01-31.
  4. ^ van den Hoek C, Jahns HM (1978). Einführung in die Phykologie (in German). Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 9783135511016.
  5. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith T (1981). "Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?". Bio Systems. 14 (3–4): 461–81. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2. PMID 7337818.
  6. ^ Leebens-Mack JH, Barker MS, Carpenter EJ, Deyholos MK, Gitzendanner MA, Graham SW, et al. (One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative) (October 2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants". Nature. 574 (7780): 679–685. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1693-2. PMC 6872490. PMID 31645766.
  7. ^ Cocquyt E, Verbruggen H, Leliaert F, Zechman FW, Sabbe K, De Clerck O (February 2009). "Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-39. PMC 2652445. PMID 19216746.
  8. ^ Becker B (2007). Function and evolution of the vacuolar compartment in green algae and land plants (Viridiplantae). International Review of Cytology. 264. pp. 1–24. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(07)64001-7. ISBN 9780123742636. PMID 17964920.
  9. ^ Kim E, Graham LE (July 2008). Redfield RJ (ed.). "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata". PLOS One. 3 (7): e2621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002621. PMC 2440802. PMID 18612431.
  10. ^ Delwiche CF, Timme RE (June 2011). "Plants". Current Biology. 21 (11): R417–22. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.04.021. PMID 21640897.
  11. ^ "Charophycean Green Algae Home Page". www.life.umd.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  12. ^ a b Ruhfel BR, Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Burleigh JG (February 2014). "From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. PMC 3933183. PMID 24533922.
  13. ^ Delwiche CF, Cooper ED (October 2015). "The Evolutionary Origin of a Terrestrial Flora". Current Biology. 25 (19): R899–910. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.029. PMID 26439353.
  14. ^ Parfrey LW, Lahr DJ, Knoll AH, Katz LA (August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  15. ^ Smith SA, Beaulieu JM, Donoghue MJ (February 2009). "Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-37. PMC 2645364. PMID 19210768.
  16. ^ "Viridiplantae". Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  17. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, et al. (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873.
  18. ^ Simon A, Glöckner G, Felder M, Melkonian M, Becker B (February 2006). "EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta): implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae)". BMC Plant Biology. 6: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-6-2. PMC 1413533. PMID 16476162.
  19. ^ a b Sánchez-Baracaldo P, Raven JA, Pisani D, Knoll AH (September 2017). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. PMC 5603991. PMID 28808007.
  20. ^ Odronitz F, Kollmar M (2007). "Drawing the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 manually annotated myosins from 328 species". Genome Biology. 8 (9): R196. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r196. PMC 2375034. PMID 17877792.
  21. ^ a b Leliaert F, Smith DR, Moreau H, Herron MD, Verbruggen H, Delwiche CF, De Clerck O (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705.
  22. ^ a b Marin B (September 2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or independent class? Phylogeny and classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) revealed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of complete nuclear and plastid-encoded rRNA operons". Protist. 163 (5): 778–805. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. PMID 22192529.
  23. ^ Lewis LA, McCourt RM (October 2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–56. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
  24. ^ Laurin-Lemay S, Brinkmann H, Philippe H (August 2012). "Origin of land plants revisited in the light of sequence contamination and missing data". Current Biology. 22 (15): R593–4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.013. PMID 22877776.
  25. ^ Leliaert F, Tronholm A, Lemieux C, Turmel M, DePriest MS, Bhattacharya D, Karol KG, Fredericq S, Zechman FW, Lopez-Bautista JM (May 2016). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6: 25367. doi:10.1038/srep25367. PMC 4860620. PMID 27157793.
  26. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Lane CE, Lukeš J, Bass D, Bowser SS, Brown MW, Burki F, Dunthorn M, Hampl V, Heiss A, Hoppenrath M, Lara E, Le Gall L, Lynn DH, McManus H, Mitchell EA, Mozley-Stanridge SE, Parfrey LW, Pawlowski J, Rueckert S, Shadwick L, Shadwick L, Schoch CL, Smirnov A, Spiegel FW (September 2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–93. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233.
  27. ^ Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Wong GK, Ruhfel BR, Soltis DE (March 2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. PMID 29603143.
  28. ^ Riediger M, Hihara Y, Hess WR (2018-06-01). "From cyanobacteria and algae to land plants: The RpaB/Ycf27 regulatory network in transition". Perspectives in Phycology. 5 (1): 13–25. doi:10.1127/pip/2018/0078.
"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Viridiplantae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms that comprise approximately 450,000–500,000 species and play an important roles in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them. Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them. They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist.

In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom, under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally. The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae. Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.

A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN