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Brief Summary

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Cyperaceae is a plant family commonly known as the sedges, which is comprised of approximately 5500 species. Stems are unjointed and typically triangular in cross section, with solid pith throughout. Leaves are three-ranked or tristichous. Fruits are in the form of an achene or nut.

Species most commonly occur in wetlands, although some are found in upland locations, and in some cases are obtrusive to crops; Benzothiadiazoles are typically the herbicides of choice to control unwanted Cyperaceae.
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual or perennial herbs, usually most abundant in wet places. Culms usually triangular, usually solid. Leaves: alternate, usually 3-ranked, simple, grass-like or reduced to sheaths; sheath usually closed; ligule usually 0; lamina usually linear or setaceous. Inflorescence consisting of numerous spikelets, usually arranged in an anthela or panicle, often ± umbellate and subtended by leaf-like bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, arising in the axils of a single bract (glume) without a bracteole, or in tribe Cariceae, the female flowers surrounded by a closed utricle. Glumes usually spirally arranged in 1-many-flowered spikelets. Perianth (only present in the tribes Scirpeae and Rhynchosporeae) consisting of 3-6 (rarely more) hairs, bristles or scales, in other tribes 0. Stamens (1-)2-3; anthers basifixed. Ovary superior, 1-locular with 1 erect ovule. Style simple; stigmas 2 or 3. Fruit a 1-seeded nut, biconvex or trigonous. Seeds free from the pericarp.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cyperaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=69
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Cyperaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Cyperaceae are a family of graminoid (grass-like), monocotyledonous flowering plants known as sedges. The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera,[3][4] the largest being the "true sedges" genus Carex[5][6] with over 2,000 species.[7]

These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils. Ecological communities dominated by sedges are known as sedgelands or sedge meadows.

Some species superficially resemble the closely related rushes and the more distantly related grasses. Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are stems with triangular cross-sections (with occasional exceptions) and leaves that are spirally arranged in three ranks. In comparison, grasses have alternate leaves, forming two ranks.[8][9][10]

Some well-known sedges include the water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and the papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus), from which the writing material papyrus was made. This family also includes cotton-grass (Eriophorum), spike-rush (Eleocharis), sawgrass (Cladium), nutsedge or nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus, a common lawn weed), and white star sedge (Rhynchospora colorata).

Genera

As of 2020, 88 genera are accepted in Kew's Plants of the World Online:[2]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
  2. ^ a b "Cyperaceae". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  4. ^ R. Govaerts; D. A. Simpson; with J. Bruhl; T. Egorova; P. Goetghebeur; K. Wilson (2007). Word Checklist of Cyperaceae: Sedges. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 978-1-84246-199-0.
  5. ^ "Sedge family – definition and more from the free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  6. ^ Milne, Lorus Johnson; Milne, Margery Joan Greene (1975). Living plants of the world. Random House. p. 301.
  7. ^ Hipp, Andrew L. (2007). "Nonuniform processes of chromosome evolution in sedges (Carex: Cyperaceae)" (PDF). Evolution. 61 (9): 2175–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00183.x. ISSN 0014-3820. PMID 17767589.
  8. ^ "Grasslike non-grasses". Backyard Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  9. ^ Ball, Peter W.; Reznicek, A. A.; Murray, David F. (2002). "Cyperaceae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 23. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  10. ^ Brian R. Speer (September 29, 1995). "Glumiflorae: More on Morphology". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved March 23, 2007.

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wikipedia EN

Cyperaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Cyperaceae are a family of graminoid (grass-like), monocotyledonous flowering plants known as sedges. The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera, the largest being the "true sedges" genus Carex with over 2,000 species.

These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils. Ecological communities dominated by sedges are known as sedgelands or sedge meadows.

Some species superficially resemble the closely related rushes and the more distantly related grasses. Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are stems with triangular cross-sections (with occasional exceptions) and leaves that are spirally arranged in three ranks. In comparison, grasses have alternate leaves, forming two ranks.

Some well-known sedges include the water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and the papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus), from which the writing material papyrus was made. This family also includes cotton-grass (Eriophorum), spike-rush (Eleocharis), sawgrass (Cladium), nutsedge or nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus, a common lawn weed), and white star sedge (Rhynchospora colorata).

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