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Brief Summary

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The snout moths (Pyraloidea) contain over 16,000 described species worldwide (Solis, 1997, Munroe & Solis 1998). The life histories of pyraloid moths are very diverse. Some caterpillars feed on living plant tissue (as stem borers, leaf, root, or seed feeders), while others are predators or live parasitically in the nests of ants, bees, and wasps. Many species specialize in the exploitation of dried or decaying plant or animal substrate, and several are significant pests of important crop species and stored products (Solis 1996).
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Pyraloidea

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The Pyraloidea (pyraloid moths or snout moths) are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide, and probably at least as many more remain to be described.[2] They are generally fairly small moths, and as such, they have been traditionally associated with the paraphyletic Microlepidoptera.

This superfamily used to contain the Hyblaeidae, Thyrididae, Alucitidae (plus Tineodidae), Pterophoridae, and Pyralidae. The first four families are now each split off as a distinct superfamily.

Nowadays, Pyralidae are usually split into the Pyralidae sensu stricto and the Crambidae, as both groups have been shown to be monophyletic and a sister group.[3][4]

Some genera (e.g. Micronix and Tanaobela) still defy easy classification and have been variously assigned to the Crambidae or the Pyralidae.

Among all Lepidoptera, pyraloids show the most diverse life history adaptations. The larvae of most species feed on living plants either internally or externally as leaf rollers, leaf webbers leaf miners, borers, root feeders, and seed feeders. Some species live parasitically in ant nests (Wurthiini), prey on scale insects (certain Phycitinae), or live in the nests of bees (Galleriinae). The larvae of the Acentropinae are adapted to life under water, and certain Phycitinae and Pyralinae are adapted to very dry environments and their larvae feed on stored food products. Others feed on animal detritus such as carrion and feces.

With such a variety of living habits, pyraloids are used in biodiversity studies.[5] Some species are of economic importance, e.g.:

References

  1. ^ Nuss, Matthias; Landry, Bernard; Mally, Richard; Vegliante, Francesca; Tränkner, Andreas; Bauer, Franziska; Hayden, James; Segerer, Andreas; Schouten, Rob; Li, Houhun; Trofimova, Tatiana; Solis, M. Alma; De Prins, Jurate; Speidel, Wolfgang (2003–2020). "Global Information System on Pyraloidea (GlobIZ)". www.pyraloidea.org. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
  2. ^ Munroe, Eugene G.; Solis, Maria Alma (1998). "The Pyraloidea". In Kristensen, Niels Peder (ed.). Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, systematics, and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology. Insecta, Part, Volume IV Arthropoda 35. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 233–256.
  3. ^ Minet, Joël (1982). "Les Pyraloidea et leurs principales divisions systématiques" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (in French). 86 (9–10): 262–280. doi:10.3406/bsef.1981.17984. S2CID 89963910.
  4. ^ Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Solis, M. Alma; Hayden, James E.; Landry, Bernard; Nuss, Matthias; Simonsen, Thomas J.; Yen, Shen-Horn; Zwick, Andreas; Cummings, Michael P. (2012). "A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification". Systematic Entomology. 37 (4): 635–656. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00641.x. S2CID 86208636.
  5. ^ Schulze, Christian H; Fiedler, Konrad (2003). "Vertical and temporal diversity of a species rich moth taxon in Borneo". In Basset, Yves; Novotny, Vojtech; Miller, Scott E.; Kitching, R. L. (eds.). Arthropods of tropical forests. Spatio-temporal resource use in the canopy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–88. ISBN 9780521820004.

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Pyraloidea: Brief Summary

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The Pyraloidea (pyraloid moths or snout moths) are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide, and probably at least as many more remain to be described. They are generally fairly small moths, and as such, they have been traditionally associated with the paraphyletic Microlepidoptera.

This superfamily used to contain the Hyblaeidae, Thyrididae, Alucitidae (plus Tineodidae), Pterophoridae, and Pyralidae. The first four families are now each split off as a distinct superfamily.

Nowadays, Pyralidae are usually split into the Pyralidae sensu stricto and the Crambidae, as both groups have been shown to be monophyletic and a sister group.

Some genera (e.g. Micronix and Tanaobela) still defy easy classification and have been variously assigned to the Crambidae or the Pyralidae.

Among all Lepidoptera, pyraloids show the most diverse life history adaptations. The larvae of most species feed on living plants either internally or externally as leaf rollers, leaf webbers leaf miners, borers, root feeders, and seed feeders. Some species live parasitically in ant nests (Wurthiini), prey on scale insects (certain Phycitinae), or live in the nests of bees (Galleriinae). The larvae of the Acentropinae are adapted to life under water, and certain Phycitinae and Pyralinae are adapted to very dry environments and their larvae feed on stored food products. Others feed on animal detritus such as carrion and feces.

With such a variety of living habits, pyraloids are used in biodiversity studies. Some species are of economic importance, e.g.:

rice stem borers (Chilo spp.; Scirpophaga spp.) sod grass webworms (different species of Crambinae) Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Indo-Australian coconut spike moth (Tirathaba rufivena) Cacao moth (Ephestia elutella) Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) wax moths (Achroia grisella, Galleria mellonella) rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) beet webworm (Spoladea recurvalis) European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis) legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata) eggplant fruit borers (Leucinodes spp.).
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Pyraloidea

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Les Pyraloidea sont une super-famille de lépidoptères (papillons), qui regroupe environ 16 000 espèces, réparties dans les deux familles suivantes[1] :

Caractéristiques

Leurs imagos sont des papillons diurnes ou nocturnes, en général plutôt petits. Leurs chenilles sont parfois considérées comme nuisibles.

La nervure R5 des ailes antérieures n'est jamais libre (elle est tigée ou confondue avec d'autres radiales), tandis qu'aux ailes postérieures, la nervure CuP est présente ainsi qu'une nervure sous-costale rapprochée de la nervure Rs ou anastomosée avec elle. Les palpes maxillaires sont presque toujours présents. La trompe est couverte d'écailles (rarement atrophiée).

Références

  1. (en) Erik J. van Nieukerken et al., « Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness », Zootaxa, Magnolia Press (d), vol. 3148, no 1,‎ 23 décembre 2011, p. 212–221 (ISSN et , DOI , lire en ligne).

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Pyraloidea: Brief Summary

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Les Pyraloidea sont une super-famille de lépidoptères (papillons), qui regroupe environ 16 000 espèces, réparties dans les deux familles suivantes :

Pyralidae Latreille, 1809 Crambidae Latreille, 1810
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명나방상과

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

명나방상과(Pyraloidea)는 나비목에 속하는 나방 상과의 하나로 전 세계적으로 약 16,000여 종을 포함하고 있다. 일반적으로 아주 작은 나방이다. 이 상과는 팔랑나비붙이과, 창나방과, 깃털나방과 (깃털나방붙이과 포함), 털날개나방과 그리고 명나방과를 포함한 적이 있었다. 현재는 통상적으로 포충나방과를 명나방과에서 분리시켜 포함하며, 앞에서 열거한 4개 과는 분리하여 별도의 다른 상과로 분류하고 있다. 일부 속(예를 들면, Hydriris, Micronix 그리고 Tanaobela)은 아직도 명확한 분류를 하기 어려우며, 포충나방과와 명나방과로 다양하게 분류하고 있다.

전체 나비목 중에서, 명나방류는 환경에 적응하는 가장 다양한 생활사를 보여주는 나방이다. 이 종들의 대부분의 유충은 살아있는 식물의 속을 먹거나 잎말이나방처럼 잎을 말려 말거나, 가장자리를 뜯어 먹거나, 파먹거나, 구멍을 뚫고, 뿌리 혹은 씨앗 등 식물 외부의 잎을 먹는다. 일부 종들은 개미 굴에서 기생하거나(위르티아아과), 깍지벌레보다 먼저 나타나거나(피시타아과) 벌집에서 산다(갈레리아아과). 아센트롭푸스아과(Acentropinae)의 유충은 물 속 생활에, 피시타아과(Phycitinae)와 피랄리스아과(Pyralinae)의 몇몇 종은 아주 건조한 환경에 적응했으며, 이때는 저장해 둔 먹이를 먹는다. 다른 종들은 동물의 사체 또는 배설물과 같은 유기 퇴적물을 먹이로 취한다.

각주

  • Munroe, E. G. & M. A. Solis 1998: The Pyraloidea. Pp. 233–256. – In: Kristensen, N. P., Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, systematics, and biogeography. - In: M. Fischer (ed.), Handbook of Zoology. Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta, Part 35. – Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
  • Schulze, C. H. & K. Fiedler 2003: Vertical and temporal diversity of a species rich moth taxon in Borneo. Pp. 69–88. – In: Basset, Y., V. Novotny, S. E. Miller & R. L. Kitching, Arthropods of tropical forests. Spatio-temporal resource use in the canopy. – Cambridge University Press.
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명나방상과: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

명나방상과(Pyraloidea)는 나비목에 속하는 나방 상과의 하나로 전 세계적으로 약 16,000여 종을 포함하고 있다. 일반적으로 아주 작은 나방이다. 이 상과는 팔랑나비붙이과, 창나방과, 깃털나방과 (깃털나방붙이과 포함), 털날개나방과 그리고 명나방과를 포함한 적이 있었다. 현재는 통상적으로 포충나방과를 명나방과에서 분리시켜 포함하며, 앞에서 열거한 4개 과는 분리하여 별도의 다른 상과로 분류하고 있다. 일부 속(예를 들면, Hydriris, Micronix 그리고 Tanaobela)은 아직도 명확한 분류를 하기 어려우며, 포충나방과와 명나방과로 다양하게 분류하고 있다.

전체 나비목 중에서, 명나방류는 환경에 적응하는 가장 다양한 생활사를 보여주는 나방이다. 이 종들의 대부분의 유충은 살아있는 식물의 속을 먹거나 잎말이나방처럼 잎을 말려 말거나, 가장자리를 뜯어 먹거나, 파먹거나, 구멍을 뚫고, 뿌리 혹은 씨앗 등 식물 외부의 잎을 먹는다. 일부 종들은 개미 굴에서 기생하거나(위르티아아과), 깍지벌레보다 먼저 나타나거나(피시타아과) 벌집에서 산다(갈레리아아과). 아센트롭푸스아과(Acentropinae)의 유충은 물 속 생활에, 피시타아과(Phycitinae)와 피랄리스아과(Pyralinae)의 몇몇 종은 아주 건조한 환경에 적응했으며, 이때는 저장해 둔 먹이를 먹는다. 다른 종들은 동물의 사체 또는 배설물과 같은 유기 퇴적물을 먹이로 취한다.

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