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Notiphila (Dichaeta) scalaris Loew
Notiphila scalaris Loew, 1862:134.
Notiphila (Agrolimna) scalaris Cresson, 1917:49.
TYPE-MATERIAL.—Lectotype male (here designated): “Mittel St. (green)/Loew Coll./scalar. /Type 11129 (red)/Notiphila scalaris Lw. det. W. Wirth ’61.” The lectotype is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, type number 11129. I have not seen the female type Loew listed in the original description but I have examined a second male specimen with label data similar to the lectotype except that its type label has the number 2 in addition to the type number. This second male specimen may be the “female” of Loew.
DIAGNOSIS.—Externally, specimens of N. scalaris are very similar to those of N. sicca and N. atripes; the close relationship with N. atripes is further evidenced by the resemblances of the male genitalia. Specimens of N. scalaris may be distinguished from those of similar congeners by the following combination of characters: Antenna entirely black, without any pale coloration at base of third segment; mesonotum generally immaculate or with a median stripe only faintly indicated; mesopleuron with a darkened area on dorsal half; middle and hind tarsi pale, yellowish; setal fascicle of hind basitarsus pale; abdominal fascia dark brown, contrasting sharply with posterior margins of each abdominal tergum; fascia continuing on ventral surfaces; male genitalia distinctive, especially the shape of the hypandrial process (Figures 186–188).
DESCRIPTION.—Moderately small to medium-sized shore flies, length 2.80–3.78 mm; with light brownish gray to gray background coloration and dark brown markings.
Head: Head ratio 1:0.75; postfrons ratio 1:0.62; frons with median triangular area and lateral margins concolorous, gray; remainder of frons darker, charcoal gray. Paravertical bristle larger than postocellar setae; 2 pair of proclinate, fronto-orbital setae. Antennal segments entirely black; arista with 9–11 dorsal branches. Face grayish yellow, prefrons ratio 1:0.61; facial setae small, hairlike, numbering 6–7. Eye ratio 1:0.81; eye-to-cheek ratio 1:0.15. Gena narrow, genal bristle subequal to paravertical bristle. Maxillary palpus black.
Thorax: Mesonotum slightly darker than pleural areas, more brown, usually without median stripe although some specimens have a faint indication of one. Mesopleuron with a darkened area on the dorsal half. Femora, tibiae, and front tarsomeres dark, generally black with some gray or pale areas; middle and hind tarsi pale, yellow. Setal fascicle of hind basitarsus pale, yellow. Wing ratio 1:0.45; costal vein ratio 1:0.48; M1+2 vein ratio 1:0.98.
Abdomen: Abdomen ratio of males 1:0.80; length of fourth tergum to fifth tergum ratio of males 1:0.88; fifth tergum ratio of males 1:0.53. Fascia of abdominal terga very distinct, markedly contrasting with gray posterior marigns, continuing on ventral surfaces. Male terminalia as in Figures 186–188.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED (735).—CANADA: NOVA SCOTIA: Antigonish (CNC); Whycogomah-Cape Breton Island (MCZ). ONTARIO: Burks Falls (CNC); Emsdale (CAS); Frankford (CNC); Grand Bend (CNC); Kearney (CAS); Mer Bleue (CNC); Midland (CNC); Orillia (ANSP, CNC); Putnam (CNC); Sandford (CU); Severn (CNC); Simcoe (CNC); Toronto (CAS); Turkey Point (CNC). QUEBEC: Abbotsford (CNC); Covey Hill (CNC); Hull (ANSP, CNC); Kazabazua (CNC); La Trappe (CNC); St. Chrysostome (CNC); Wakefield (CNC). UNITED STATES: Washington, D.C. (CSU, MCZ), Rock Creek (USNM). CONNECTICUT: Hartford Co., Avon-Avon Old Farms (AMNH); Tolland Co., Storrs (ANSP). ILLINOIS: Du Page Co., Glen Ellyn (USNM); McHenry Co., Algonquin (INHS, USNM); Vermilion Co., Muncie (INHS). INDIANA: Knox Co., Vincennes (ANSP, USNM); Tippecanoe Co., La Fayette (ANSP, USNM). IOWA: Boone Co., Boone (ISU); Guthrie Co., Springbrook State Park (ISU); Howard Co., Lime Springs (ISU). KANSAS: Riley Co., Manhattan (KNSU); Stafford Co., Salt Marsh (KU). MAINE: Penobscot Co., Orono (CAS). MARYLAND: Charles Co., Popes Creek (MCZ); Baltimore Co., Lock Raven (ANSP), Womomonee (USNM); Calvert Co., Chesapeake Beach (USNM); Prince Georges Co., Branchville to Beltsville (USNM), College Park (USNM). MASSACHUSETTS: Ellis (MCZ); Barnstable Co., Pocasset (USNM), Woods Hole (USNM); Berkshire Co., North Adams (MCZ); Bristol Co., New Bedford (USNM); Middlesex Co., Concord (MCZ, USNM); Plymouth Co., Middleboro (USNM); Worcester Co., Athol (ANSP), Petersham (USNM). MICHIGAN: Benzie Co., (USNM); Berrien Co., Saint Joseph (MSU); Calhoun Co., Battle Creek (ANSP), Wise Lake (MSU); Cheboygan Co. (KU); Clare Co. (MSU, USNM); Clinton Co., Bath (MSU); Delta Co. (MSU); Gladwin Co. (USNM); Grand Traverse Co., Traverse City (ASNP); Huron Co. (USNM); Isabella Co. (MSU, USNM); Lapeer Co., Deerfield Twp. (UMI, USNM); Leelanau Co. (ANSP, USNM); Macomb Co., New Baltimore (USNM), Utica (ANSP, USNM); Manistee Co., Manistee (USNM); Mecosta Co. (MSU, USNM); Midland Co. (ANSP, MSU, USNM); Monroe Co., Monroe (USNM); Muskegon Co. (MSU, USNM), North Muskegon (CAS); Oceana Co., Hart (ANSP), Shelby (ANSP); Osceola Co. (MSU, USNM); Wayne Co. (MSU, UMI), Detroit (USNM). MASSACHUSETTS: Anoka Co., Saint Paul Water Works (UMN); Clearwater Co., Itasca State Park (UMN); Hennepin Co., Lake Calhoun (ANSP, UMN); Houston Co. (UMN, USNM); Rock Co., Luverne (MSU); Wabasha Co., Wabasha (UMN); Winona Co., Winona (ANSP); Wright Co., Howard Lake (UMN). NEBRASKA: Blaine Co., Dunning (MSU); Butler Co., Bellwood (UN); Chase Co., Champion (UN); Cherry Co., Valentine (ISU). NEW HAMPSHIRE: Grafton Co., Benton (ANSP), Franconia (AMNH, USNM), North Haverhill (USNM). NEW JERSEY: Lake Branch (MCA); Shark River (MCZ); Camden Co., Berlin (CU), Clementon (MCZ); Cape May Co., Anglesea (MCZ), Wildwood (MCZ); Essex Co., Forest Hill (AMNH), West Orange (AMNH); Sussex Co., Branchville (AMNH). NEW YORK: Albany Co., Voorheesville (NYSM); Cattaraugus Co., Ashford (KU), Gowanda (CAS); Cortland Co., Harford (ANSP, CU), McLean Bog (CU, USNM); Delaware Co., Stamford (CU); Erie Co., Colden (CAS), Hamburg (CAS); Essex Co., Lake Tear (MCZ); Franklin Co., Saranac Inn (ANSP, NYSM); Fulton Co., Johnstown (ANSP, CU); Genessee Co., Bergen (KU); Hamilton Co., 11.3 km S Long Lake (ISU), Inlet (CU); Jefferson Co., Ellisburg (CU); Monroe Co., Rochester (CAS); New York Co., New York (AMNH, USNM); Niagara Co., Niagara (MCZ, USNM); Rockland Co., Bear Mountain (USNM); Suffolk Co., Babylon (CU), Cold Spring Harbor (USNM), East Hampton (USNM), Montauk (USNM), Orient (USNM); Sullivan Co., Bridgeville (CU); Tomkins Co., Dryden Lake (ANSP, CU), Ithaca (ANSP, CU, USNM), Mallory (CU), Mud Creek (ANSP, CU), Slaterville (ANSP, CU), Taughannock Falls (USNM), Woodwardia Bog (ANSP, CU); Westchester Co., Beaver Hill (ANSP), Peckskill (USNM). NORTH CAROLINA: Buncombe Co., Black Mountain (MCZ); Macon Co., Franklin (CNC), Highlands (ISU); Transylvania Co., Toxowany Falls (CNC). NORTH DAKOTA: Richland Co., 40.3 km N Wyndmere (UCB). OHIO: Carroll Co., Specht Marsh (KSU); Champaign Co. (USNM), Cedar Swamp (FSCA); Erie Co., Sandusky (ANSP, FSCA, OHSU); Franklin Co., Columbus (ANSP, OHSU); Medina Co., Hinkley (ANSP, OHSU), Wadsworth (KSU); Portage Co., 1.6 km E Kent (KSU), 7.2 km NW Kent (KSU, USNM); Summit Co., Akron (ANSP, OHSU), Hawkins (ANSP, OHSU). PENNSYLVANIA: Castle Rock (ANSP); Allegheny Co., Natrona (MCZ), Pittsburgh (USNM); Bucks Co., Point Pleasant (ANSP); Dauphin Co., Grantville (CNC); Fulton Co., McConnelsburg (ANSP); Monroe Co., Pocono Lake (ANSP); Montgomery Co., Edge Hill (MCZ); Philadelphia Co., Germantown (ANSP), Holmesburg (ANSP), Philadelphia (MCZ), Roxborough (ANSP). RHODE ISLAND: Washington Co., Charlestown (USNM). SOUTH DAKOTA: Bennett Co., Martin (ANSP); Yankton Co., Yankton (UN). TENNESSEE: Sullivan Co., Bristol (USNM). VIRGINIA: Four-mile Run (ANSP): Glencarlyn (ANSP, MCZ): Potomac Creek (MCZ); Fairfax Co., Falls Church (ANSP, MCZ), Potomac River at Scott Run (USNM); Greene Co., Dyke (MCZ); Henry Co., Martinsville (CNC); Montgomery Co., Blacksburg (CNC); Norfolk Co., Norfolk (MCZ); Rockbridge Co., Natural Bridge (USNM). WEST VIRGINIA: Greenbrier Co., Lewisburg (USNM); Hardy Co., Baker (USNM); Marion Co., Fairmont (ANSP); Pocahontas Co., Cranberry Glades (USNM). WISCONSIN: Dodge Co., Beaver Dam (ANSP); Grant Co., Boscobel (MSU, UMI).
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION (Figure 189).—Notiphila scalaris is one of the few species of the subgenus Dichaeta that is limited in distribution to eastern North America, although it has not been reported from the Gulf Coast states of southeastern United States. Collection dates are 19 April to 14 September.
- bibliographic citation
- Mathis, Wayne Neilsen. 1979. "Studies of Notiphilinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), I: Revision of the Neartic Species of Notiphila Fallen, Excluding the Caudata Group." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-111. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.287