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Spiophanes bombyx (Claparède 1870)

Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Als je met laagwater over het wad loopt kun je vaak de boveneindjes van de zandkokerwormen boven het zand zien uitsteken. Met hoogwater komen uit zo'n koker twee tentakels, waarmee de worm de bodem afschraapt. Met trilhaartjes op de tentakels brengt hij het voedsel naar de mond. Zandkokerwormen kunnen niet goed tegen strenge winters.
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Brief Summary

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If you walk over the flats during low tide, you often see the top ends of the Pygospio elegans worms sticking out of the soft bottom. During high tide, two tentacles extend out of the tube which the worm uses to scrape the bottom. The vibrating hairs on the tentacles carry the food to the mouth. This worm is also capable of catching food with its appendages and by producing a mucus with its tube. Pygospio elegans is not tolerant to severe winters.
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Spiophanes bombyx ( German )

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Spiophanes bombyx. A monograph of the British marine annelids, 1915.

Spiophanes bombyx (ursprüngliche Kombination Spio bombyx) ist ein Ringelwurm aus der Familie der Spionidae innerhalb der Klasse der Vielborster (Polychaeten), der als Kosmopolit in Meeren weltweit anzutreffen ist.

Merkmale

Der zylindrische, vorn breite und abgeflachte, rosafarbene, hinten weinrote bis grüne Körper von Spiophanes bombyx erreicht eine Körperlänge von bis zu 6 cm bei einer Anzahl von 180 Segmenten. Das dreieckige Prostomium trägt vorn Hörner und hinten eine breite, kurze Karunkel. Zwei Paar Augen können vorhanden sein oder auch fehlen, während eine Mittelantenne stets fehlt. Die langen Palpen können bis zum 10. Segment reichen, brechen aber leicht ab. Die cirrenförmigen Lappen hinter den Borsten der Notopodien sind vom 3. oder 4. Segment an über ein Wimpernband verbunden. Die Lappen hinter den Borsten der Neuropodien sind an den vier vorderen Segmenten groß und dreieckig, an den folgenden Segmenten dagegen kleiner und breit gerundet. Das erste Neuropodium trägt 1 bis 3 große, stark gebeugte Stacheln. An sämtlichen Parapodien sitzen kapillarförmige Borsten. Vom 15. bis 16. Neuropodium an gibt es auch zweizähnige Hoken mit Haube sowie einen stark gebeugten Stachel. Vom 5. bis zum 15. Segment befinden sich mehr oder weniger stark entwickelte Drüsenbereiche mit dünne, sich verjüngenden Borsten. Das Pygidium trägt zwei fadenförmige Cirren.

Verbreitung

Spiophanes bombyx kommt als Kosmopolit im Arktischen Ozean, gesamten Atlantischen Ozean, der Nordsee bis zum Öresund, dem Ärmelkanal, dem Mittelmeer, dem gesamten Pazifischen Ozean und der Subantarktis vor. Im östlichen Teil der Deutschen Bucht ist er mit 28 % aller Vielborster-Individuen deren häufigste Art.[1]

Lebensraum und Lebensweise

Spiophanes bombyx lebt auf Sand, seltener auf schlammigen oder gemischten Sedimentböden von der Uferzone bis in etwa 1000 m Meerestiefe. Der Ringelwurm baut sich Y-förmige Wohnröhren aus Sand, den er mit Schleim zusammenklebt. Er ernährt sich von Detrituspartikeln und Kleinstlebewesen, die er mit seinen Palpen sowohl von der Substratoberfläche als auch aus der Wasserströmung einsammeln kann. Die Nahrungspartikel werden zunächst in der Wimpernrinne der Palpen gesammelt, bevor sie durch Wimperntätigkeit zum Mund befördert werden.

Entwicklungszyklus

Spiophanes bombyx ist getrenntgeschlechtlich. Die Gameten werden ins freie Wasser entlassen, wo die Befruchtung stattfindet. Die Trochophora-Larven werden in der Nordsee zwischen Mai und Juli häufig und erreichen in einem Stadium mit 13 borstentragenden Segmenten eine Länge von etwa 1 mm. Es gibt eine längere Phase als Zooplankton, die mit dem Herabsinken auf den Meeresboden und der Metamorphose zum kriechenden Wurm endet.[2]

Literatur

  • Gesa Hartmann-Schröder (1996): Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta. Tierwelt Deutschlands 58, S. 1–648, hier S. 327, Spiophanes bombyx (Claparède, 1870).

Einzelnachweise

  1. Klaus J. Götting, Ernst F. Kilian, Reinhard Schnetter: Einführung in die Meeresbiologie 1: Marine Organismen — Marine Biogeographie. Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden 1982. S. 97.
  2. José Alejandro Rodríguez Valencia: Composition and dynamics in space and time of polychaete larvae in coastal waters of the North Sea. Doktorarbeit, Kiel 2003. S. 21f.
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Spiophanes bombyx: Brief Summary ( German )

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 src= Spiophanes bombyx. A monograph of the British marine annelids, 1915.

Spiophanes bombyx (ursprüngliche Kombination Spio bombyx) ist ein Ringelwurm aus der Familie der Spionidae innerhalb der Klasse der Vielborster (Polychaeten), der als Kosmopolit in Meeren weltweit anzutreffen ist.

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Spiophanes bombyx ( French )

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Spiophanes bombyx est une espèce d'annélides de la famille des Spionidae (ordre des Spionida).

Description

 src=
Spiophanes bombyx, au musée de la marine britannique (1915).

C'est la première espèce de Spiophanes décrite avec des cornes fronto-latérales sur le prostomium. C'est également la seule espèce à cornes dans les eaux européennes, avec possiblement Spiophanes convexus[B 1]; cette dernière espèce serait en réalité un groupe jumeau de Spiophanes bombyx[B 2].

Il mesure en moyenne trente-huit millimètres de long pour un millimètre de largeur et cent-vingt chaetigers[Note 1]. Il ne possède pas d'antennes occipitales et possède des organes nucaux métamériques[B 3].

Reproduction

Ils se reproduisent en eau de mer. Les spermatozoïdes possèdent une courte tête aqua-sperme avec des plaques comme acrosomes[B 3]. Le gonochorisme est leur mode de reproduction. L'ovogenèse est intra-ovarienne chez la femelle[B 4].

Systématique

Découverte et datation

L'espèce Spiophanes bombyx a été initialement décrite en 1870 par le zoologiste suisse René-Édouard Claparède (1832-1871) sous le protonyme de Spio bombyx[1].

Claparède décrit un spécimen de Spiophanes bombyx découvert dans les eaux italiennes, dans la Baie de Naples. C'est de ce fait le seul Spiophanes avec des cornes découvert dans les eaux européennes. Cependant, il est possible que Spiophanes convexus soit présent dans les eaux bretonnes, ce qui ferait qu'il y ait deux espèces à cornes dans les eaux européennes. En 2020, un seul spécimen de Spiophanes bombyx avait été examiné génétiquement trouvé dans les eaux vénitiennes. Cette étude génétique a permis de différencier les Spiophanes à cornes des eaux européennes de ceux découverts dans les eaux nord-américaines ou japonaises[B 1].

L'ancêtre commun le plus récent de Spiophanes à cornes daterait d'environ 11,1 Ma (million d'années). Les ancêtres directs de Spiophanes à cornes pour Spiophanes bombyx seraient ceux de l'Atlantique Nord, datant d'il y a 4,8 Ma[B 5].

Phylogénie

Le cladogramme de l'article de recherche de l'Université de l'État de São Paulo, réalisé en 2020, indique la position de Spiophanes bombyx au sein des Spiophanes, étude basée sur les recherches de GenBank et BOLD[B 6]. Un autre cladogramme est présenté dans l'étude basé sur les recherches de Meißner et Blank[B 7].

Répartition

Spiophanes bombyx se rencontre dans la mer méditerranéenne[B 1],[B 8]. Pendant un certain temps, après la découverte de Spiophanes bombyx, ont été classées sous ce taxon des spécimens découverts dans l'Atlantique Nord, sur les côtes américaines, hawaïennes, africaines et australiennes mais également sur les côtes asiatiques de l'océan Pacifique. Des études affirment pourtant qu'il s'agit d'espèces différentes[B 5]. Ces études, des analyses moléculaires sur les séquences partielles de l'ADNr 18S nucléaire et du COI mitochondrial, ont affirmées que l'espèce n'est pas cosmopolite et n'est présente que dans la mer du Nord et la mer méditerranéenne[B 9].

Avant ces études approfondies, le nom Spiophanes bombyx a été attribué à de nombreux spécimens qui n'en sont peut être pas. En Europe, on les retrouve dans la mer Adriatique, dans les eaux vénitiennes, dans la mer du Nord et dans la mer de Norvège[B 10].

Notes et références

Notes

  1. Un chaetiger correspond à un segment d'un annélide possédant des chaetae.

Références

Références bibliographiques

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Spiophanes bombyx: Brief Summary ( French )

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Spiophanes bombyx est une espèce d'annélides de la famille des Spionidae (ordre des Spionida).

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Spiophanes bombyx ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Spiophanes bombyx is een borstelworm uit de familie Spionidae. Het lichaam van de worm bestaat uit een kop, een cilindrisch, gesegmenteerd lichaam en een staartstukje. De kop bestaat uit een prostomium (gedeelte voor de mondopening) en een peristomium (gedeelte rond de mond) en draagt gepaarde aanhangsels (palpen, antennen en cirri).

Spiophanes bombyx werd in 1870 voor het eerst wetenschappelijk beschreven door Claparède.

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
Geplaatst op:
15-12-2011
Dit artikel is een beginnetje over biologie. U wordt uitgenodigd om op bewerken te klikken om uw kennis aan dit artikel toe te voegen. Beginnetje
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Spiophanes bombyx ( Portuguese )

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Spiophanes bombyx é uma espécie de anelídeo pertencente à família Spionidae.

A autoridade científica da espécie é Claparède, tendo sido descrita no ano de 1870.

Trata-se de uma espécie presente no território português, incluindo a sua zona económica exclusiva.

Referências

  • Spiophanes bombyx - World Register of Marine Species (consultado em 31 de dezembro de 2013).

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Spiophanes bombyx: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

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Spiophanes bombyx é uma espécie de anelídeo pertencente à família Spionidae.

A autoridade científica da espécie é Claparède, tendo sido descrita no ano de 1870.

Trata-se de uma espécie presente no território português, incluindo a sua zona económica exclusiva.

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Biology

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The planktonic larvae of S. bombyx have been observed in the period April-December, with maximal nurnbers in May-June and August-September. The species lives in a tube that slightly protrudes from the surface. S. bombyx probably is a selective deposit feeder, but specific observations are lacking (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Wolff, 1973; Fauchald & Jumars, 1979; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Description

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Thin and fragile bristle worm up to 60 mm long. Head features two striking horns at the front and one pointed horn at the back. Its palps are substantial but relatively short. Four eyes, no gills. The species constructs solid tubes consisting of sand grains. The colour of the anterior end is bright pink and becomes dark red to greenish brown towards the posterior end.
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Distribution

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Saguenay Fjord, southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: eastern Bradelle Valley), Magdalen Islands (from Eastern Bradelle valley to the west, as far as Cape North, including the Cape Breton Channel); Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway); Cobscook Bay to Cape Hatteras
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Distribution

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S. bombyx is found at almost 50% of all stations sampled. Locally, i.e. to the west and north of the Wadden islands up to the Frisian Front, it is very abundant. In the central and northern part of the Oyster Ground the species is found in low densities. The distribution of S. bombyx extends far into the estuarine Delta area and it is also found in some parts of the Wadden Sea.
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Distribution

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Spiophanes bombyx is widely spread across the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) and reaches a high frequency of occurrence in all areas. A low distribution frequency was only observed in the eastern coastal zone in the 1994-2001 period. In addition to its wide distribution pattern S. bombyx was mainly found in high densities (1976-1986 period: up to 1,500 ind./m2; 1994-2001 period: up to 12,000 ind./m2). In short, S. bombyx is one of the most common species on the BPNS.
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
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Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Although the species has been found in a variety of sediment types, its density distribution suggests a distinct preference for fine sandy substrates.
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bibliographic citation
Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Spiophanes bombyx reaches a high relative occurrence in almost all sediment types. A relative occurrence of > 40% is reached in sediments with a median grain size of 100 to 550 µm and with a mud content of 0 to 90%.
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bibliographic citation
Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.

Morphology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Like Spio filicornis, a thin and fragile species with a maximum length of 60 mm and about 180 segments. The head is T-shaped and bears two large palps and four eyes arranged in a square. The first segment has characteristic curved chaetae. Gills are absent. The dorsal lobes of the parapodia are markedly pointed. The worm is bright pink in front and darker red or greenish brown towards the posterior. The species builds stiff tubes composed of sand grains (Hartmann- Schröder, 1971; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
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bibliographic citation
Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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[email]
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