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Cyanea (plant)

provided by wikipedia EN

Cyanea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae. The name Cyanea in Hawaiian is hāhā.[1] These Hawaiian lobelioids are endemic to Hawaii with over 90% of Cyanea species are found only on one island in the Hawaiian chain.[2] They grow in moist and wet forest habitat[3] and are largely pollinated by birds[2] such as the Hawaiian honeycreepers,[4] and the seeds are dispersed by birds that take the fruits.[2] Most Cyanea are trees with few branches or none. The inflorescence is a raceme of 4 to 45 flowers which grows from the leaf axils. The fruit is a fleshy berry.[3][2] There have been several theories regarding the evolution of large prickles on plants endemic to islands that lack any mammalian or reptilian herbivores. One such theory suggests that the prickles are a defense against herbivory by the moa-nalo, a few taxa of flightless ducks that went extinct on the islands within the last 1600 years.[4]

Species

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Cyanea angustifolia
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Cyanea duvalliorum
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Cyanea fissa
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Cyanea lobata
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Cyanea rivularis
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Cyanea superba
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Cyanea truncata

There are about 78 species in the genus.[5] Species include:[6]

References

  1. ^ "Hawaiian Native Plant Genera - Campanulaceae: Cyanea". Dr. Gerald Carr, University of Hawaiʻi. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Givnish, T. J., et al. (2009). Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276(1656), 407-16.
  3. ^ a b Lammers, T. G. (2004). Five new species of the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Novon 14(1) 84-101.
  4. ^ a b Givnish, T. J., et al. (1994). Thorn-like prickles and heterophylly in Cyanea: adaptations to extinct avian browsers on Hawaii? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91(7), 2810-14.
  5. ^ a b Oppenheimer, H. and D. H. Lorence. (2012). A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys (13), 15-23.
  6. ^ Cyanea. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  7. ^ "Native Plants Hawaii - Viewing Plant : Cyanea angustifolia". nativeplants.hawaii.edu.
  8. ^ "Plants Profile for Cyanea angustifolia ('aku)". plants.usda.gov.
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Cyanea (plant): Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Cyanea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae. The name Cyanea in Hawaiian is hāhā. These Hawaiian lobelioids are endemic to Hawaii with over 90% of Cyanea species are found only on one island in the Hawaiian chain. They grow in moist and wet forest habitat and are largely pollinated by birds such as the Hawaiian honeycreepers, and the seeds are dispersed by birds that take the fruits. Most Cyanea are trees with few branches or none. The inflorescence is a raceme of 4 to 45 flowers which grows from the leaf axils. The fruit is a fleshy berry. There have been several theories regarding the evolution of large prickles on plants endemic to islands that lack any mammalian or reptilian herbivores. One such theory suggests that the prickles are a defense against herbivory by the moa-nalo, a few taxa of flightless ducks that went extinct on the islands within the last 1600 years.

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Cyanea (plante)

provided by wikipedia FR

Cyanea est un genre de plantes à fleurs appartenant à la famille des Campanulaceae.

Espèces

  • Cyanea aculeatiflora Rock (est de Maui)
  • Cyanea acuminata (Gaudich.) Hillebr. (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea angustifolia (Cham.) Hillebr. (Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui)
  • Cyanea arborea Hillebr. (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea asarifolia H.St.John (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea asplenifolia (H.Mann) Hillebr. (Maui)
  • Cyanea calycina Lammers (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea comata Hillebr. (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea copelandii Rock (est de Maui à Hawaï)
  • Cyanea coriacea (A.Gray) Hillebr. (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea crispa Gaudich. (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea degeneriana F. Wimmer (Hawaï)
  • Cyanea dolichopoda Lammers & Lorence (Kauaʻi †)
  • Cyanea dunbarii Rock (Molokaʻi †)
  • Cyanea eleeleensis (H.St.John) Lammers (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea elliptica (Rock) Lammers (Lānaʻi, Maui)
  • Cyanea fauriei H.Lév (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea fissa (H.Mann) Hillebr. (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea giffardii Rock (Hawaï †)
  • Cyanea glabra (F.Wimmer) H.St.John (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea grimesiana Gaudich. (Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, Hawaï †)
  • Cyanea habenata (H.St.John) Lammers (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea hamatiflora Rock (est de Maui, Hawaï)
  • Cyanea hardyi Rock (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea hirtella (H.Mann) Hillebr. (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea horrida (Rock) O.Deg. & Hosaka - Hāhā nui (est de Maui)
  • Cyanea humboldtiana Gaudich. (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea kahiliensis (H.St.John) Lammers (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea kolekoleensis (H.St.John) Lammers (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea koolauensis Lammers Givnish & Sytsma (new name for Rollandia angustifolia) (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea kuhihewa Lammers
  • Cyanea kunthiana Hillebr. (Maui)
  • Cyanea lanceolata Gaudich. (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea leptostegia A.Gray - Hāhā lua (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea linearifolia Rock (Kauaʻi †)
  • Cyanea lobata H.Mann (Lānaʻi, ouest de Maui)
  • Cyanea longissima (Rock) H.St.John (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea longiflora Wawra (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea macrostegia Hillebr. (Lānaʻi, Maui)
  • Cyanea mannii (Brigham) Hillebr. (Molokaʻi)
  • Cyanea marksii Rock (Kona Nord et Kona Sud à Hawaï)
  • Cyanea mceldowneyi Rock (est de Maui)
  • Cyanea membranacea Rock (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea obtusa (A.Gray) Hillebr. (Maui †)
  • Cyanea parvifolia C.N.Forbes (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea pilosa A.Gray (Hawaï)
  • Cyanea pinnatifida (Cham.) F.Wimmer (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea platyphylla (A.Gray) Hillebr. - ʻAkūʻakū (Hawaï)
  • Cyanea pohaku Lammers (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea procera Hillebr. (Molokaʻi †)
  • Cyanea profuga C.N.Forbes (Molokaʻi †)
  • Cyanea purpurellifolia Rock (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea pycnocarpa (Hillebr.) F.Wimmer (Hawaï †)
  • Cyanea quercifolia (Hillebr.) F.Wimmer (est de Maui †)
  • Cyanea recta (Wawra) Hillebr. (Kauaʻi †)
  • Cyanea scabra Hillebr. (ouest de Maui)
  • Cyanea shipmanii Rock (Hawaï)
  • Cyanea solenacea Hillebr. - Pōpolo (Molokaʻi)
  • Cyanea solenocalyx Hillebr. - Pua kala (Molokaʻi)
  • Cyanea spathulata (Hillebr.) A.Heller (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea st-johnii Hosaka (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea stictophylla Rock (Kona Nord, Kona Sud et Kaʻū à Hawaï)
  • Cyanea superba (Cham.) A.Gray (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea sylvestris A.Heller (Kauaʻi)
  • Cyanea tritomantha A.Gray - ʻAkūʻakū (Hawaï)
  • Cyanea truncata (Rock) Rock (Oʻahu)
  • Cyanea undulata C.N.Forbes (Kauaʻi †)

Notes et références

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Cyanea (plante): Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Cyanea est un genre de plantes à fleurs appartenant à la famille des Campanulaceae.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR