dcsimg
Image of New Zealand spinach
Creatures » » Plants » » Stone Plants »

New Zealand Spinach

Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) O. Kuntze

Comments

provided by eFloras
Tetragonia tetragonioides is cultivated as a vegetable.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Comments

provided by eFloras
This species is used medicinally and is cultivated as a vegetable worldwide.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 440 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Stems mat-forming, 3-14 dm. Leaves 1-10 × 5-5 cm; petiole 1-3 cm, winged; blade pale green abaxially, dark green adaxially, midvein and lateral veins raised abaxially, ovate-rhombic to triangular, base truncate, papillate with larger papillae abaxially. Inflorescences: peduncle to 2 mm. Flowers sometimes unisexual; calyx lobes spreading, yellow, ovate to half orbiculate, 2 mm; stamens clustered or scattered. Fruits turbinate, 8-12 mm; horns 4-6. Seeds smooth. 2n = 32.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Herbs annual, erect when young, becoming decumbent, 40-60 cm tall. Stems with densely placed bladder cells when young. Petiole 5-30 mm, thick; leaf blade rhomboid-ovate or deltoid-ovate, 0.4-10 × 2.5-8 cm. Pedicel to 2 mm. Flowers 1-3. Perigone tube 2-3 mm; lobes mostly 4, inside bright yellow to yellowish green. Stamens 10-13. Fruit turbinate, ca. 5 mm, 4- or 5-corniculate. Seeds as many as locules. Fl. and fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 16*
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 440 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
introduced; Calif., Conn., Fla., Mass., N.C., Oreg., Pa., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; South America; e Asia; Pacific Islands (New Zealand); Australia.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Flowering/Fruiting

provided by eFloras
Flowering spring-fall.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Sand dunes, bluffs, margins of coastal wetlands, disturbed areas; 0-500m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

provided by eFloras
Sandy shores, also cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Africa, E Asia, Australia, South America].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 440 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

provided by eFloras
Demidovia tetragonioides Pallas, Enum. Hort. Demidof, 150, plate 1. 1781; Tetragonia expansa Murray
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 78 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

provided by eFloras
Demidovia tetragonioides Pallas, Enum. Hort. Demidof, 150. 1781; Tetragonia expansa Murray.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 440 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Prostrate or prostrate-ascending, ± succulent, annual herb with stout trailing stems. Leaves petiolate; lamina rhombic or deltate; base cuneate and decurrent into the petiole. Flowers axillary, subsessile, greenish or yellowish, solitary or paired. Perianth-segments 4 unequal. Stamens twice as many (or fewer) as the perianth-segments. Ovary semi-inferior, with 5-8 carpels and 5-8 styles. Fruit up to 10 × 7 mm, (3-)4(-5)-horned.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze Flora of Mozambique website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/cult/species.php?species_id=192540
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Native to New Zealand; widely cultivated elsewhere as a vegetable
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze Flora of Mozambique website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/cult/species.php?species_id=192540
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Tetragonia expansa Mtirr. Commentat. Gott. 6: 13. 1785
A succulent annual, glistening with papillae, the branches spreading or procumbent; leaf-blades triangular-ovate or ovate, 3-10 cm. long, 2-7.5 cm. broad, rounded or acutish at the apex, abruptly contracted at the base into a broad petiole; flowers usually solitary, axillary, nearly sessile; calyx urceolate, the lobes 4, triangular to suborbicular, 1-2.3 mm. long, yellowish within; stamens 7-13; ovary 5-9-celled; styles 3 or more; nut angled, cartilaginous, 8-12 mm. 9 mm. broad, 2-5-horned.
Type locality: Described from a cultivated specimen.
Distribution: Escaped from gardens in Connecticut; Florida; California; Bermuda. Native of eastern Asia and New Zealand.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg. 1932. CHENOPODIALES. North American flora. vol 21(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
original
visit source
partner site
North American Flora

Tetragonia tetragonoides

provided by wikipedia EN

Tetragonia tetragonoides, commonly called New Zealand spinach[1][2] and other local names, is a flowering plant in the fig-marigold family (Aizoaceae). It is often cultivated as a leafy vegetable.

It is a widespread species, native to eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. It has been introduced and is an invasive species in many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, and South America.[3] Its natural habitat is sandy shorelines and bluffs, often in disturbed areas.[4] It is a halophyte and grows well in saline ground.

Description

The plant has a trailing habit, and will form a thick carpet on the ground or climb through other vegetation and hang downwards. It can have erect growth when young.[5] The leaves of the plant are 3–15 cm long, triangular in shape, and bright green. The leaves are thick, and covered with tiny papillae that look like waterdrops on the top and bottom of the leaves. The flowers of the plant are yellow,[6] and the fruit is a small, hard capsule covered with small horns.

Taxonomy

Prussian naturalist Peter Pallas described the species as Demidovia tetragonoides in 1781.[7] German botanist Otto Kuntze placed the species in the genus Tetragonia in his 1891 work Revisio Generum Plantarum, resulting in its current binomial name.[8]

This widely distributed plant has many common names, depending on its location. In addition to the name New Zealand spinach, it is also known as Botany Bay spinach, Cook's cabbage, kōkihi (in Māori), sea spinach, and tetragon. Its Australian names of Warrigal Greens and Warrigal Cabbage[6] come from the local use of warrigal to describe plants that are wild (not farmed originally).[9]

Cultivation

It is grown for the edible leaves, and can be used as food or an ornamental plant for ground cover. As some of its names signify, it has similar flavour and texture properties to spinach, and is cooked like spinach. Like spinach, it contains oxalates; its medium to low levels of oxalates need to be removed by blanching the leaves in hot water[10] for one minute, then rinsing in cold water before cooking. It thrives in hot weather, and is considered an heirloom vegetable. Few insects consume it, and even slugs and snails do not seem to feed on it.

The thick, irregularly-shaped seeds should be planted just after the last spring frost. Before planting, the seeds should be soaked for 12 hours in cold water, or 3 hours in warm water. Seeds should be planted 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) deep, and spaced 15–30 cm (5.9–11.8 in) apart. The seedlings will emerge in 10–20 days, and it will continue to produce greens through the summer. Mature plant will self-seed. Seeds will overwinter up to USDA zone 5.

As food

The species, rarely used by indigenous people as a leaf vegetable, was first mentioned by Captain Cook. It was immediately picked, cooked, and pickled to help fight scurvy, and taken with the crew of the Endeavour.[6] It spread when the explorer and botanist Joseph Banks took seeds back to Kew Gardens during the latter half of the 18th century.[11] For two centuries, T. tetragonioides was the only cultivated vegetable to have originated from Australia and New Zealand.

There are some indications that Māori did eat kōkihi perhaps more regularly. According to Murdoch Riley, "to counteract the bitterness of the older leaves of this herb, the Māori boiled it with the roots of the convolvulus (pōhue)", in reference to species of Convolvulaceae now classified as Calystegia.[12][13][14][15] The tips of the spinach can be pinched off and eaten raw or cooked.[16]

Nutrition

When consumed after boiling, New Zealand spinach is 95% water, 2% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat, while supplying only 12 calories (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, the spinach is particularly rich in vitamin K, providing 278% of the Daily Value (DV). It also contains appreciable amounts of vitamin B6, vitamin C, and manganese (18-25% DV).

Gallery

References

  1. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  2. ^ "Tetragonia tetragonioides". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  3. ^ Tetragonia tetragonioides Invasive Species Compendium
  4. ^ Tetragonia tetragonioides Flora of North America
  5. ^ Tetragonia tetragonioides Flora of China
  6. ^ a b c "Tetragonia tetragonioides". The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  7. ^ Pallas, Peter Simon (1781). Enumeratio plantarum quae in hortoi viri illustris atque escell. Dni. Procopi a Demidof (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. pp. 151–157.
  8. ^ Kuntze, Otto (1891). Revisio Generum Plantarum. v.2. Leipzig, Germany: A. Felix. p. 264.
  9. ^ The New Oxford American Dictionary (3rd ed.). 2012. adjective (of a plant) not cultivated: warrigal melons.
  10. ^ "Hungry? Try some bush tucker" (movie). The Sydney Morning Herald. 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
  11. ^ Low, T., Wild Food Plants of Australia, Angus & Robertson, 1991, ISBN 0-207-16930-6
  12. ^ Riley, Murdoch (1994). Maori Healing and Herbal. Paraparaumu, New Zealand: Viking Sevenseas N.Z. Ltd. pp. 7–10. ISBN 0854670955.
  13. ^ "Māori Healing and Herbal - New Zealand Ethnobotanical Sourcebook". Viking Sevenseas NZ Ltd. 1994. p. 221.
  14. ^ "pōhue - Māori Dictionary". maoridictionary.co.nz. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  15. ^ "Māori Plant Use Database Plant Use Details of Calystegia sepium". maoriplantuse.landcareresearch.co.nz. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  16. ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More than 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Tetragonia tetragonoides: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tetragonia tetragonoides, commonly called New Zealand spinach and other local names, is a flowering plant in the fig-marigold family (Aizoaceae). It is often cultivated as a leafy vegetable.

It is a widespread species, native to eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. It has been introduced and is an invasive species in many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, and South America. Its natural habitat is sandy shorelines and bluffs, often in disturbed areas. It is a halophyte and grows well in saline ground.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN