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Comments

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The papaya was introduced in East from tropical America by Spaniards. The ripe fruit is eaten raw, is stomachic, digestive and carminative. The milky juice of unripe fruit contains papain which has a wide range of medicinal application. It is also used in tenderizing meat, in tanning industry, for bating skins and hides and for degumming natural silk. The seeds are said to quench thirst and are also used as vermifuge.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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The large, succulent, delicious fruits (papaya) are eaten.
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 150 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Small herbaceous tree with white milky juice. trunk with scars of fallen leaves. Leaf blade 30-60 cm long, deeply divided into several lobes which are again divided into smaller lobes with acute apex, petiole 40-100 cm long, 1-3 cm in diameter. Plants mostly dioecious rarely monoecious with fragrant and nocturnal flowers. Male inflorescence 30-100 cm long pendulous raceme. Flower in clusters, sessile. 1.5-2 cm across and 3-6 cm long, calyx small c. 2 mm long, 5-lobed, acute. Corolla tube 3-6 cm long, 5-lobed, twisted in bud, lobes c. 1 x 0.5 cm long, creamy yellow. Stamens 10, in two whorls, outer whorl of the stamens shortly stalked, filaments c. 1.5 mm long, papilose, inner most sessile, anthers 1.5-2 mm long 2-celled dehiscing longitudinally, basifixed. In female plant 2-4 floral bud arise in the leaf axil, one of which becomes a complete flower; other floral buds fall off, sometimes one or two of them grow a little but never reach maturity, so flower seems to he solitary axillary. Peduncle short 1-2 cm long. Bracts fleshy, leaf, 1-2 cm long, caducous. Calyx united 5-lobed 5-8 mm long; acute, green and fleshy. Petals 5-6.5 x 1.6-1.8 cm, lanceolate, obtuse; stigma lobes fimbriate, c. 6 mm long: ovary 3.5-4 x 1.5-1.8 cm, some plants with female flower at the end of the branches of male inflorescence, producing elongated and smaller fruit. Fruit large spherical or pyriform usually 20-30 x 8-15 cm, turning yellow or orange with yellow or orange flesh. Seeds black, wrinkled, each enclosed in gelatinous membrane, oval in shape, c. 2 mm in diameter.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Trees or shrubs 8-10 m tall. Stem simple, with stipulate scars helically arranged. Petiole hollow, 60-100 cm; leaf blade ca. 60 cm, usually 5-9 palmatifid; lobes pinnatifid. Male inflorescence pendulous, to 1 m. Male flowers: pedicel absent; corolla tube creamy yellow, 1.6-2.5 cm, lobes lanceolate, ca. 1.8 × 0.45 cm; stamens 5 longer and 5 shorter, shorter ones almost without filaments; filaments white, white tomentose. Female flowers usually solitary or aggregated in corymbose cymes; pedicel short or nearly absent; calyx lobes ca. 1 cm; corolla lobes creamy yellow, oblong or lanceolate, 5-6.2 × 1.2-2 cm; ovary ovoid; stigmas partite, nearly fimbriate. Bisexual flowers: corolla tube 1.9-2.5 cm, lobes oblong, ca. 2.8 × 0.9 cm; stamens 5 or 10 in 1 or 2 whorls; ovary smaller than in female flowers. Fruit orange-yellow or yellow at maturity, cylindric, ovoid-cylindric, or subglobose, 10-30 cm; sarcocarp soft with a mild, pleasant flavor. Seeds numerous, black at maturity, ovoid. 2n = 18.
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 150 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Distribution

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Tropical America, cultivated throughout the tropics.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distribution: A native of Tropical America, cultivated all over the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. In Pakistan it is widely cultivated in Sind and Punjab.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Elevation Range

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500 m
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl.Per.: Throughout the year.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. S China [of cultivated origin in Central America; widely introduced and cultivated in tropical areas of the world].
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 150 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Papaya carica Gaertner.
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 150 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Brief Summary

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Carica papaya, papaya is a giant herbaceous plant--resembling a tree but not woody--in the Caricaceae (papaya family) that originated in Central America and is now grown in tropical areas world-wide for its large, sweet, melon-like fruits. The name “papaya” also refers to the fruit of other Carica species, including C. pubescens and C. stipulata, and their various hybrids. Sometimes called paw-paw, although that name more typically applies to the species Asimona triloba, the papaya plant has a hollow, green or purple stem, and can grow 1.8 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft) in a year, eventually reaching heights of 6 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft). The long-petioled (stemmed) leaves, which may be 30 to 105 cm long (1 to 3.5 ft) and 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 ft) wide, are deeply divided into 5 to 9 main segments, which are further lobed. Both leaves and stems contain large amounts of white, milky latex. Papaya plants are generally dioecious, with short-stalked female (pistillate) flowers, which are 5-petalled, waxy, and white, borne on separate plants from the male (staminate) flowers, which are borne on long panicles (up to 1.8 m or 6 ft). Plants may also bear hermaphroditic or perfect flowers, which have both pistils and stamens, or they may be monoecious, bearing separate male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit that develops varies in shape depending on the flower type. Fruits from female flowers are usually oval to round and smaller than the fruits that develop from perfect flowers, which are cylindrical or club-shaped, up to 50 cm (20 in) long and 20 cm (8 in) wide. The fruits, which can weigh up to 9 kg (20 lbs)—although common commercial cultivars generally produce fruits that weigh 0.5 to 2.25 kg (1 to 5 lbs)—and have a thin but tough waxy skin. Green fruits contain latex, which disappears as the fruit ripens to light or dark yellow. The flesh of the fruit varies from yellow to orange to red, and is thick and juicy, with a central cavity filled with many small black seeds. Papayas, which are high in vitamins A and C and calcium, are often used fresh in fruit salads and desserts, as well as prepared in juices and jams or dried. Some Southeast Asian dishes call for the unripe fruits to be cooked and used as vegetables. Papayas produce an enzyme, papain, which aids digestion and is used to tenderize meat. Papain has been used in medicine to treat ulcers and reduce skin adhesions following surgery, and studies have shown that it has antimicrobial properties. Papain is also used to clarify beer, prepare wool and silk for dyeing, and remove hair from hides before tanning, among other uses. The FAO estimates that total commercial production of papayas in 2010 was 11.2 million metric tons, harvested from nearly 439,000 hectares, India is the leading producer of papayas, responsible for 42% of the world’s crop. Other major producers include Brazil, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Mexico. Papayas were previously grown in Florida, but they are susceptible to numerous pests and pathogens, including mosaic viruses transmitted by aphids including Myzus persicae, that have wiped out most commercial plantings there. (Bailey et al. 1976, FAO 2012, Hedrick 1919, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)
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Jacqueline Courteau
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Brief Summary

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Carica papaya, papaya is a giant herbaceous plant--resembling a tree but not woody--in the Caricaceae (papaya family) that originated in Central America and is now grown in tropical areas world-wide for its large, sweet, melon-like fruits. The name “papaya” also refers to the fruit of other Carica species, including C. pubescens and C. stipulata, and their various hybrids. Sometimes called paw-paw, although that name more typically applies to the species Asimona triloba, the papaya plant has a hollow, green or purple stem, and can grow 1.8 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft) in a year, eventually reaching heights of 6 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft). The long-petioled (stemmed) leaves, which may be 30 to 105 cm long (1 to 3.5 ft) and 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 ft) wide, are deeply divided into 5 to 9 main segments, which are further lobed. Both leaves and stems contain large amounts of white, milky latex. Papaya plants are generally dioecious, with short-stalked female (pistillate) flowers, which are 5-petalled, waxy, and white, borne on separate plants from the male (staminate) flowers, which are borne on long panicles (up to 1.8 m or 6 ft). Plants may also bear hermaphroditic or perfect flowers, which have both pistils and stamens, or they may be monoecious, bearing separate male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit that develops varies in shape depending on the flower type. Fruits from female flowers are usually oval to round and smaller than the fruits that develop from perfect flowers, which are cylindrical or club-shaped, up to 50 cm (20 in) long and 20 cm (8 in) wide. The fruits, which can weigh up to 9 kg (20 lbs)—although common commercial cultivars generally produce fruits that weigh 0.5 to 2.25 kg (1 to 5 lbs)—and have a thin but tough waxy skin. Green fruits contain latex, which disappears as the fruit ripens to light or dark yellow. The flesh of the fruit varies from yellow to orange to red, and is thick and juicy, with a central cavity filled with many small black seeds. Papayas, which are high in vitamins A and C and calcium, are often used fresh in fruit salads and desserts, as well as prepared in juices and jams or dried. Some Southeast Asian dishes call for the unripe fruits to be cooked and used as vegetables. Papayas produce an enzyme, papain, which aids digestion and is used to tenderize meat. Papain has been used in medicine to treat ulcers and reduce skin adhesions following surgery, and studies have shown that it has antimicrobial properties. Papain is also used to clarify beer, prepare wool and silk for dyeing, and remove hair from hides before tanning, among other uses. The FAO estimates that total commercial production of papayas in 2010 was 11.2 million metric tons, harvested from nearly 439,000 hectares, India is the leading producer of papayas, responsible for 42% of the world’s crop. Other major producers include Brazil, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Mexico. Papayas were previously grown in Florida, but they are susceptible to numerous pests and pathogens, including mosaic viruses transmitted by aphids including Myzus persicae, that have wiped out most commercial plantings there. (Bailey et al. 1976, FAO 2012, Hedrick 1919, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)
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Worldwide distribution

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Tropical America
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Carica papaya L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/species.php?species_id=164730
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Papaya

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The papaya (/pəˈpə/, US: /pəˈpɑːjə/) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, (/pəˈpɔː/[3]) or pawpaw (/ˈpɔːpɔː/[3])[4] is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.[5] It was first domesticated in Mesoamerica, within modern-day southern Mexico and Central America.[6][7] In 2020, India produced 43% of the world supply of papayas.

Description

The papaya is a small, sparsely branched tree, usually with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. All parts of the plant contain latex in articulated laticifers.[8] Papayas are dioecious. The flowers are five-parted and highly dimorphic; the male flowers have the stamens fused to the petals. The female flowers have a superior ovary and five contorted petals loosely connected at the base.[9]: 235  Male and female flowers are borne in the leaf axils; the male flowers are in multiflowered dichasia, and the female ones are in few-flowered dichasia. The pollen grains are elongated and approximately 35 microns in length. The flowers are sweet-scented, open at night, and wind- or insect-pollinated.[8][10][11]

The fruit is a large berry about 15–45 cm (5.9–17.7 in) long and 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) in diameter.[8]: 88  It is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or softer), its skin has attained an amber to orange hue and along the walls of the large central cavity are attached numerous black seeds.[12]

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Worldwide papaya production map

Origin and distribution

Native to tropical America, papaya originates from southern Mexico and Central America.[6][8][7] Papaya is also considered native to southern Florida, introduced by predecessors of the Calusa no later than 300 CE.[13] Spaniards introduced papaya to the Old World in the 16th century.[6] Papaya cultivation is now nearly pantropical, spanning Hawaii, central Africa, India, and Australia.[6]

Wild populations of papaya are generally confined to naturally disturbed tropical forest.[7] Papaya is found in abundance on Everglades hammocks following major hurricanes, but is otherwise infrequent.[13] In the rain forests of southern Mexico, papaya thrives and reproduces quickly in canopy gaps, while dying off in mature closed-canopy forest.[7]

Cultivation

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Papayas with yellow flesh

Papaya plants grow in three sexes: male, female, and hermaphrodite. The male produces only pollen, never fruit. The female produces small, inedible fruits unless pollinated. The hermaphrodite can self-pollinate since its flowers contain both male stamens and female ovaries. Almost all commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites.[11]

Originally from southern Mexico (particularly Chiapas and Veracruz), Central America, northern South America, and southern Florida[6][13] the papaya is now cultivated in most tropical countries. In cultivation, it grows rapidly, fruiting within 3 years. It is, however, highly frost-sensitive, limiting its production to tropical climates. Temperatures below −2 °C (29 °F) are greatly harmful if not fatal. In Florida, California, and Texas, growth is generally limited to southern parts of those states. It prefers sandy, well-drained soil, as standing water can kill the plant within 24 hours.[14]

Cultivars

Two kinds of papayas are commonly grown. One has sweet, red or orange flesh, and the other has yellow flesh; in Australia, these are called "red papaya" and "yellow papaw", respectively.[15] Either kind, picked green, is called a "green papaya".

The large-fruited, red-fleshed 'Maradol', 'Sunrise', and 'Caribbean Red' papayas often sold in U.S. markets are commonly grown in Mexico and Belize.[6][16]

In 2011, Philippine researchers reported that by hybridizing papaya with Vasconcellea quercifolia, they had developed papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRV).[17]

Genetically engineered cultivars

Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequenced.[18] In response to the papaya ringspot virus outbreak in Hawaii, in 1998, genetically altered papaya were approved and brought to market (including 'SunUp' and 'Rainbow' varieties.) Varieties resistant to PRV have some DNA of this virus incorporated into the DNA of the plant.[19][20] As of 2010, 80% of Hawaiian papaya plants were genetically modified. The modifications were made by the University of Hawaii scientists, who made the modified seeds available to farmers without charge.[21][22]

Production

In 2020, global production of papayas was 13.9 million tonnes, led by India with 43% of the world total (table). Global papaya production grew significantly over the early 21st century, mainly as a result of increased production in India and demand by the United States.[24] The United States is the largest consumer of papaya worldwide.[10]

Diseases and pests

Viruses

Papaya ringspot virus is a well-known virus within plants in Florida.[6] The first signs of the virus are yellowing and vein-clearing of younger leaves, as well as mottling yellow leaves. Infected leaves may obtain blisters, roughen, or narrow, with blades sticking upwards from the middle of the leaves. The petioles and stems may develop dark green greasy streaks and in time become shorter. The ringspots are circular, C-shaped markings that are a darker green than the fruit. In the later stages of the virus, the markings may become gray and crusty. Viral infections impact growth and reduce the fruit's quality. One of the biggest effects that viral infections have on papaya is the taste. As of 2010, the only way to protect papaya from this virus is genetic modification.[25]

The papaya mosaic virus destroys the plant until only a small tuft of leaves are left. The virus affects both the leaves of the plant and the fruit. Leaves show thin, irregular, dark-green lines around the borders and clear areas around the veins. The more severely affected leaves are irregular and linear in shape. The virus can infect the fruit at any stage of its maturity. Fruits as young as two weeks old have been spotted with dark-green ringspots about 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter. Rings on the fruit are most likely seen on either the stem end or the blossom end. In the early stages of the ringspots, the rings tend to be many closed circles, but as the disease develops, the rings increase in diameter consisting of one large ring. The difference between the ringspot and the mosaic viruses is the ripe fruit in the ringspot has mottling of colors and mosaic does not.[26]

Fungi

The fungus anthracnose is known to specifically attack papaya, especially the mature fruits. The disease starts out small with very few signs, such as water-soaked spots on ripening fruits. The spots become sunken, turn brown or black, and may get bigger. In some of the older spots, the fungus may produce pink spores. The fruit ends up being soft and having an off flavor because the fungus grows into the fruit.[27]

The fungus powdery mildew occurs as a superficial white presence on the surface of the leaf in which it is easily recognized. Tiny, light yellow spots begin on the lower surfaces of the leaf as the disease starts to make its way. The spots enlarge and white powdery growth appears on the leaves. The infection usually appears at the upper leaf surface as white fungal growth. Powdery mildew is not as severe as other diseases.[28]

The fungus phytophthora blight causes damping-off, root rot, stem rot, stem girdling, and fruit rot. Damping-off happens in young plants by wilting and death. The spots on established plants start out as white, water-soaked lesions at the fruit and branch scars. These spots enlarge and eventually cause death. The most dangerous feature of the disease is the infection of the fruit, which may be toxic to consumers.[27] The roots can also be severely and rapidly infected, causing the plant to brown and wilt away, collapsing within days.

Pests

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Different birds eating papaya

The papaya fruit fly lays its eggs inside of the fruit, possibly up to 100 or more eggs.[6] The eggs usually hatch within 12 days when they begin to feed on seeds and interior parts of the fruit. When the larvae mature, usually 16 days after being hatched, they eat their way out of the fruit, drop to the ground, and pupate in the soil to emerge within one to two weeks later as mature flies. The infected papaya turns yellow and drops to the ground after infestation by the papaya fruit fly.[27]

The two-spotted spider mite is a 0.5-mm-long brown or orange-red or a green, greenish-yellow translucent oval pest. They all have needle-like piercing-sucking mouthparts and feed by piercing the plant tissue with their mouthparts, usually on the underside of the plant. The spider mites spin fine threads of webbing on the host plant, and when they remove the sap, the mesophyll tissue collapses and a small chlorotic spot forms at the feeding sites. The leaves of the papaya fruit turn yellow, gray, or bronze. If the spider mites are not controlled, they can cause the death of the fruit.[27]

The papaya whitefly lays yellow, oval eggs that appear dusted on the undersides of the leaves. They eat papaya leaves, therefore damaging the fruit. There, the eggs developed into flies in three stages called instars. The first instar has well-developed legs and is the only mobile immature life stage. The crawlers insert their mouthparts in the lower surfaces of the leaf when they find it suitable and usually do not move again in this stage. The next instars are flattened, oval, and scale-like. In the final stage, the pupal whiteflies are more convex, with large, conspicuously red eyes.[27]

Papayas are one of the most common hosts for fruit flies like A. suspensa, which lay their eggs in overripe or spoiled papayas. The larvae of these flies then consume the fruit to gain nutrients until they can proceed into the pupal stage. This parasitism has led to extensive economic costs for nations in Central America.[29]

Culinary uses

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Seeds
 src=
Male papaya flowers

The unripe green fruit can be eaten cooked, but not raw due to its poisonous latex content. The ripe fruit of the papaya is usually eaten raw, without skin or seeds.[6] The black seeds of the papaya are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste.[6]

Southeast Asia

 src=
Green papaya is a traditional main ingredient of tinola in the Philippines.

Green papaya is used in Southeast Asian cooking, both raw and cooked. In some parts of Asia, the young leaves of the papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach.

Papayas became a part of Filipino cuisine after being introduced to the islands via the Manila galleons.[30][31] Unripe or nearly ripe papayas (with orange flesh but still hard and green) are julienned and are commonly pickled into atchara, which is ubiquitous as a side dish to salty dishes.[32] Nearly ripe papayas can also be eaten fresh as ensaladang papaya (papaya salad) or cubed, and eaten dipped in vinegar or salt. Green papaya is also a common ingredient or filling in various savory dishes such as okoy, tinola, ginataan, lumpia, and empanada, especially in the cuisines of northern Luzon.[33][34][35]

In Indonesian cuisine, the unripe green fruits and young leaves are boiled for use as part of lalab salad, while the flower buds are sautéed and stir-fried with chillies and green tomatoes as Minahasan papaya flower vegetable dish.

In Lao and Thai cuisine, unripe green papayas are used to make a type of spicy salad known in Laos as tam maak hoong and in Thailand as som tam. It is also used in Thai curries, such as kaeng som.

South America

In Brazil and Paraguay, the unripe fruits are used to make sweets or preserves.

Papain

Both green papaya fruit and its latex are rich in papain,[6] a protease used for tenderizing meat and other proteins, as practiced currently by indigenous Americans, people of the Caribbean region, and the Philippines.[6] It is now included as a component in some powdered meat tenderizers.[6] Papaya is not suitable for gelatin-based desserts because the enzymatic properties of papain prevent gelatin from setting.[36]

Nutrition

Raw papaya pulp contains 88% water, 11% carbohydrates, and negligible fat and protein (table). In a 100-g amount, papaya fruit provides 43 kilocalories and is a significant source of vitamin C (75% of the Daily Value, DV) and a moderate source of folate (10% DV), but otherwise has low content of nutrients (see table).

Phytochemicals

Papaya skin, pulp, and seeds contain a variety of phytochemicals, including carotenoids and polyphenols,[37] as well as benzyl isothiocyanates and benzyl glucosinates, with skin and pulp levels that increase during ripening.[38] Papaya seeds also contain the cyanogenic substance prunasin.[39]

Traditional medicine

In traditional medicine, papaya leaves have been used as a treatment for malaria,[40] an abortifacient, a purgative, or smoked to relieve asthma.[6]

Allergies and side effects

Papaya releases a latex fluid when not ripe, possibly causing irritation and an allergic reaction in some people. Because the enzyme papain acts as an allergen in sensitive individuals,[41] meat that has been tenderized with it may induce an allergic reaction.[6]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Contreras, A. (2016). "Carica papaya". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T20681422A20694916. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  2. ^ "Carica papaya L." U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Papaw". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
  4. ^ In North America, papaw or pawpaw usually means the plant belonging to the Annonaceae family or its fruit. Ref.: Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (2009), published in United States.
  5. ^ "Carica". 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Morton JF (1987). "Papaya". NewCROP, the New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University; from p. 336–346. In: Fruits of warm climates, JF Morton, Miami, FL. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Núñez-Farfán, Juan (1 December 2017). "Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review". Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 5. doi:10.3389/fevo.2017.00155.
  8. ^ a b c d Heywood, VH; Brummitt, RK; Culham, A; Seberg, O (2007). Flowering plant families of the world. Firefly Books. ISBN 9781554072064.
  9. ^ Ronse De Craene, L.P. (2010). Floral diagrams: an aid to understanding flower morphology and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49346-8.
  10. ^ a b "Papayas" (PDF). University of California at Davis. 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b C. L. Chia and Richard M. Manshardt (2001). "Why Some Papaya Plants Fail to Fruit" (PDF). Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences. Retrieved 1 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ "papaya | Description, Cultivation, Uses, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  13. ^ a b c Ward, Daniel (2011). "Papaya" (PDF). The Palmetto. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  14. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 166–167.
  15. ^ "Papaya Varieties". Papaya Australia. 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  16. ^ Sagon, Candy (13 October 2004). "Maradol Papaya". Market Watch (13 Oct 2004). The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  17. ^ Siar, S. V.; Beligan, G. A.; Sajise, A. J. C.; Villegas, V. N.; Drew, R. A. (2011). "Euphytica, Volume 181, Number 2". Euphytica. SpringerLink. 181 (2): 159–168. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0388-z. S2CID 40741527.
  18. ^ Borrell (2008). "Papaya genome project bears fruit". Ugr.es. doi:10.1038/news.2008.772.
  19. ^ "Genetically Altered Papayas Save the Harvest". mhhe.com.
  20. ^ "Hawaiipapaya.com". Hawaiipapaya.com. Archived from the original on 2015-01-07. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  21. ^ Ronald, Pamela and McWilliams, James (14 May 2010) Genetically Engineered Distortions The New York Times, accessed 1 October 2012
  22. ^ [1] Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Papaya production in 2020; Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  24. ^ "An Overview of Global Papaya Production, Trade, and Consumption". Electronic Data Information Source, University of Florida. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  25. ^ Gonsalves, D., S. Tripathi, J. B. Carr, and J. Y. Suzuki (2010). "Papaya ringspot virus".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  26. ^ Hine, B.R.; Holtsmann, O.V.; Raabe, R.D. (July 1965). "Disease of papaya in Hawaii" (PDF).
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Papaya: Brief Summary

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The papaya (/pəˈpaɪə/, US: /pəˈpɑːjə/) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, (/pəˈpɔː/) or pawpaw (/ˈpɔːpɔː/) is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. It was first domesticated in Mesoamerica, within modern-day southern Mexico and Central America. In 2020, India produced 43% of the world supply of papayas.

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Papayer

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Carica papaya

Le papayer (Carica papaya L.) est un arbre fruitier à feuillage persistant des régions tropicales humides et sous-humides cultivé pour son fruit, la papaye. Il est originaire du Sud du Mexique.

Synonyme : Melon des Tropiques.

Étymologie

Le nom de genre Carica vient du latin cārĭca, désignant une figue sèche venant de Carie. Les larges feuilles du papayer ont une forme semblable à celles du figuier.

L’épithète spécifique papaya est un emprunt probable à une langue des Caraïbes par l’intermédiaire de l’espagnol.

Description

 src=
Fleur mâle
 src=
Fleur femelle

Cet arbuste de 3 à 10 m de haut est une plante dicotylédone en général non ramifiée[1]. Sa durée de vie est courte, de trois à cinq ans, mais il produit en permanence dès la première année de plantation. Lorsque le tronc principal est taillé ou brisé, il est fréquent que des branches secondaires se forment ; elles peuvent aussi apparaître naturellement sans altération du tronc principal. Le tronc creux de 20 cm de diamètre est couvert d'une écorce verdâtre ou grisâtre, marquée des cicatrices foliaires.

Les feuilles rassemblées au sommet du tronc ressemblent à celles du figuier et sont portées par un long pétiole de 40-60 (-100) cm. Le limbe palmatilobé, de pourtour subcirculaire de 50 cm de diamètre est profondément divisé en 7 (-11) lobes, eux-mêmes lobés. La face supérieure est vert clair mate, la face inférieure à pruine blanchâtre.

Les fleurs mâles portent une corolle blanchâtre à tube de 10-25 mm et des lobes étroits, étalés, blanc crème, ainsi que 10 étamines, 5 longues et 5 courtes.

Les fleurs femelles possèdent 5 pétales presque libres de 5 cm, contournés, étroits, tôt caducs et un pistil jaune pâle de 2-3 cm.

La floraison se poursuit toute l'année.

Le fruit, la papaye, est une baie de formes et dimensions variées, 15-40 × 7-25 cm. Sa pulpe est orangée et ses graines noirâtres. L'arbre est cauliflore, ce qui signifie que les fruits apparaissent directement sur le tronc.

Toute la plante contient une enzyme protéolytique, la papaïne.

Reproduction

Le papayer est ordinairement un arbre dioïque, les pieds sont mâles ou femelles, mais il existe des types hermaphrodites (bisexués) qui sont principalement utilisés en production afin d'obtenir des fruits homogènes grâce à l'autofécondation. Les fleurs mâles apparaissent sur de longs panicules ramifiés à l'aisselle des feuilles, tandis que les fleurs femelles naissent isolées ou par groupe de 2 ou 3 sur la partie supérieure du tronc. Les femelles et les hermaphrodites (en moindre quantité pour ces derniers) peuvent fructifier. La pollinisation est nécessaire pour porter des fruits.

Au point de vue génétique, il a été établi que :

  • lorsque les fleurs femelles sont fécondées par des fleurs mâles, leur descendance est constituée de 50 % de pieds mâles (forme ovale) et 50 % de pieds femelles (forme ronde) ;
  • lorsque des fleurs hermaphrodites sont autofécondées, leur descendance est de 66 % de pieds bisexués et 33 % de pieds femelles ;
  • lorsque des fleurs femelles sont fécondées par du pollen de fleurs bisexuées, leur descendance est de 50 % de pieds bisexués et de 50 % de pieds femelles.

Répartition

Le papayer est originaire d'Amérique tropicale et naturalisé en Afrique. On le trouve souvent en pleine forêt.

Il est cultivé partout sous les tropiques dans des plantations d'où il s'échappe facilement et persiste près des habitations. Il peut être subspontané dans les forêts secondaires ou dégradées. Il préfère les sols riches et humides.

Histoire de sa découverte par les Européens

L’historien de la colonisation des Indes occidentales, Fernández de Oviedo (1478-1557), a décrit la papaye, sous le nom de higo del mastuerzo, (figues de cresson alénois) dans son Sumario de la Natural Historia de las Indias (1526) :

« Sur la côte occidentale ..., il y a de grands arbres élancés, avec de larges feuilles, bien plus grandes que les feuilles des figuiers espagnols. Ils donnent des « figues » (higos), aussi grandes qu’un petit melon, qui poussent directement sur le tronc et à son sommet en grande quantité. Ils ont une peau fine et tout le reste est une chair épaisse comme celle des melons, et très savoureuse. Ils sont coupés en quartier comme des melons.
Au milieu de la figue, ou de ce fruit il y a de petites graines noires assez pour remplir un œuf de poule, plus ou moins selon la taille du fruit. Ces graines sont mangées également et elles ont la même saveur que le mastuerzo (cresson alénois, dit aussi passerage cultivé). C’est pour cette raison que nos serviteurs en ces pays les appellent higos del mastuerzo. »
(Relation sommaire de l'histoire naturelle des Indes, 1526)

La plante n’est nommée papaya que dans le manuscrit complet de l’Historia general y natural de las Indias (1547, 2e édition).

Le mot français papaye (1664) est emprunté à l’espagnol papaya[2].

Les Portugais ont introduit le papayer en Afrique et en Inde. Il est mentionné au Cap-Vert dans le première moitié du XVIe siècle. Van Linschoten après son séjour à Goa en 1583-1588, indique qu’« il y existe un fruit venant des Indes espagnoles, apporté depuis les Philippines via Malacca, qui s’appelle papaio ».

Utilisations

Le papayer a des usages alimentaires et médicinaux. Les fibres des tiges et de l'écorce peuvent aussi être utilisées pour la fabrication de cordes.

Usages alimentaires

A Un papayer à Kinshasa, en RDC.
Un papayer à Kinshasa, en RDC.
 src=
Papayer avec ses fruits au jardin botanique de Lyon (France)

Le fruit, nommé papaye, est comestible mais celui de l'espèce sauvage est peu agréable à consommer en raison d'une odeur parfois fétide[3]. Il a été développé un grand nombre de variétés fruitières propres à la consommation.

Variétés commerciales :

  • 'Sunrise Solo' : originaire de Hawaï, précoce, fruits arrondis ou piriformes, d'un poids de 400 à 600 g, pulpe rouge-orangée excellente pour une consommation in natura. Rendement : 37 t/ha/an ;
  • 'Formosa' : hybride d'origine chinoise, fruits pesant de 800 g à 2,5 kg, pulpe tirant vers le jaune ou vers le rouge. Rendement : 70 t/ha/an ;
  • 'Tainung no 1' : hybride (papayer du Costa Rica × 'Sunrise Solo'), fruits ronds ou allongés, pulpe rouge-orangée, saveur excellente. Rendement : 60 t/ha/an ;
  • 'Papaye Colombo' : donne des fruits longs, sans odeur[4].

À maturité, le fruit est consommé frais, relevé par un filet de citron vert ou en salade de fruits. Encore verte, la papaye peut être consommée comme un légume, par exemple râpée puis passée à la poêle. Les jeunes feuilles peuvent être consommées comme des épinards et les graines comme vermifuge[4].

À Taïwan et en Chine, le jus de papaye est apprécié. Il est vendu dans les rues au même titre que le jus d'orange ou le jus d'ananas sous d'autres latitudes. Mais à la différence de ces derniers, il est souvent mélangé à d'autres fruits, pour adoucir son goût. En général, le fruit est mis dans un blender avec des bananes et un peu de sucre.

Les papayes sont riches en papaïne et en vitamines A, B1, B2 et C. 100 grammes de pulpe fournissent 32 kcal et 7,8 g de glucides et 64 mg de vitamine C.

Les graines noires, de goût épicé, sont également comestibles. Moulues, elles peuvent remplacer le poivre noir.

Usages médicinaux

Aux Antilles, les Indiens Caraïbes utilisaient le fruit vert en cataplasme contre les « inflammations » locales et contre les troubles gastro-intestinaux[5]. Ils enveloppaient aussi la viande crue dans des feuilles afin de l'attendrir. Cet usage s'est longtemps perpétué aux Antilles. Dans toute la Caraïbe, les graines et le latex sont conseillés comme vermifuge. Le jus du fruit ou une infusion de feuilles ou de fleurs est recommandé dans les affections hépatiques.

En usage externe, le fruit vert écrasé est employé en cataplasme contre les troubles cutanés superficiels.

Production mondiale

Principaux pays producteurs en 2018[6]

Album

Références

  1. Jacques Fournet, Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique, Gondwana éditions, Cirad, 2002
    Tome 1 (ISBN 2-87614-489-1) ; Tome 2 (ISBN 2-87614-492-1).
  2. (direction) Alain Rey, Dictionnaire historique de la langue française (tome I, II), Le Robert, 2006
  3. Yves Delange, Traité des plantes tropicales, Actes Sud, 2002, 239 p.
  4. a et b Fabrice Le Bellec, Valérie Renard, LE GRAND LIVRE des Fruits Tropicaux, CEE, Orphie, 1997
  5. Jean-Louis Longuefosse, 100 plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe, Gondwana Editions, 1995
  6. « FAOSTAT », sur http://www.fao.org/home/fr/ (consulté le 14 octobre 2020)

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wikipedia FR

Papayer: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Carica papaya

Le papayer (Carica papaya L.) est un arbre fruitier à feuillage persistant des régions tropicales humides et sous-humides cultivé pour son fruit, la papaye. Il est originaire du Sud du Mexique.

Synonyme : Melon des Tropiques.

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