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Common Names

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swamp milkweed
milkweed
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Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

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More info for the terms: caudex, rootstock

Swamp milkweed is an erect plant, 11 to 18 inches (0.3-0.5 m) tall, with
milky sap. It has a short rootstock or caudex with shallow fibrous
roots. A plant may have one to several leafy stems. Its lance-shaped,
opposite leaves have short stalks. Flowers have many elaborate
structures (e.g., hoods and horns) and are arranged in flesh-colored
terminal umbels [23].
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Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

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More info for the term: swamp

Swamp milkweed is found throughout the eastern and midwestern United
States and Canada. It occurs from Prince Edward Island and Maine west
to southern Manitoba [20,23,21]. Swamp milkweed continues southeast
through the Midwest and Great Plains to Florida [6,15,18]. Its
distribution extends westward to Texas and New Mexico [2,20,24]. Six
disjunct areas of its range occur in southern Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada,
and north, central, and south Utah [3,26].
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: fire regime, seed, severity, swamp

The moist habitat of swamp milkweed discourages fire entry. Swamp
milkweed is very shallowly rooted; it would most likely be killed in a
fire of any severity. Adjacent communities may serve as seed sources
after a fire. Swamp milkweed is a component of prairie wetlands, so it
has evolved with some fire exposure.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

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Swamp milkweed is a semiaquatic plant [3]. It occurs in a range of wet
conditions from standing water to saturated soil. A riparian species,
it is found on streambanks, pond shores, banks, and floodplains of
lakes, waterways, marshes, swamps, and wet areas of prairies
[6,13,18,21]. Additionally, it occurs in wet meadows and in low wet
woods [23].
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: swamp

45 Pitch pine
50 Black locust
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
61 River birch - sycamore
64 Sassafras - persimmon
65 Pin oak - sweetgum
69 Sand pine
70 Longleaf pine
73 Southern redcedar
75 Shortleaf pine
79 Virginia pine
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
84 Slash pine
87 Sweet gum - yellow-poplar
88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak
89 Live oak
91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
96 Overcup oak - water hickory
97 Atlantic white cedar
101 Baldcypress
102 Baldcypress - tupelo
103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
105 Tropical hardwoods
109 Hawthorn
110 Black oak
111 South Florida slash pine
222 Black cottonwood - willow
235 Cottonwood - willow
252 Paper birch
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Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
FRES28 Western hardwoods
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

K025 Alder - ash forest
K081 Oak savanna
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K084 Cross Timbers
K089 Black Belt
K090 Live oak - sea oats
K091 Cypress savanna
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K105 Mangrove
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest
K114 Pocosin
K115 Sand pine scrub
K116 Subtropical pine forest
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: caudex, fire severity, seed, severity, swamp

No fire studies on this plant have been reported. A fire would kill
swamp milkweed back to the caudex. In moist soil, the caudex is usually
not deeply rooted. Death would depend upon fire severity. It may
survive a cool fire. Late season (summer and fall) fires would have the
greatest effect on this species. Since its seeds are not shed until
October or November, a late season fire would kill the seed crop of the
current year.
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the term: swamp

Swamp milkweed foliage and stems have been reported to cause mortality
in sheep. It is not known why sheep are so susceptible [7,12].
Muskrats are unaffected by swamp milkweed and readily eat the roots
[23].
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: forb

Forb
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Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

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AZ CT FL GA ID IL IN LA ME MA
MI MN MO NV NH NM ND OK RI SC
SD TN TX UT VT VA WI WY MB NB
NS ON PE PQ
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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More info for the term: seed

Swamp milkweed seeds have long hairs, called comas. Seed comas have
been used as pillow and lifejacket stuffing [3,23]. Stem fibers have
been suggested as substitutes for flax and hemp [3]. Young shoots,
inflorescences, and leaves may be cooked with several changes of water
and eaten [23]. This plant causes dermititis.
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

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Milkweeds in general are not palatable to wildlife. The bitter milky
juice is high in alkaloids [17]. Most animals avoid it unless forced to
eat it on overgrazed pastures [17].
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: swamp

Across its range, swamp milkweed begins to flower during the last week
of June or the first week in July and continues until August or
September [2,6,15,18,21,23]. Individual flowers remain open for about 1
week [9]. Fruits mature from August through October [2,6,15,18,21,23].
After maturation, follicles split open on one side to release seeds
during October and November [23].
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: caudex, fruit, seed, severity, surface fire, swamp

Following a cool surface fire, swamp milkweed sprouts from the caudex
and produces fruit. If plants have been killed, off-site seeds will be
wind dispersed into the burned area. This seed will germinate on burned
areas during the first postfire growing season, provided soil conditions
are wet.

Long-term response: Swamp milkweed should have no difficulties in
maintaining populations. It can self-fertilize; sexual reproduction
will continue, despite a reduced number of colonizing plants.

Plant recovery is controlled by the severity of the fire and
availability of adequately wet habitat.
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: caudex, root crown, seed

survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: caudex, rootstock, seed, stratification, swamp

Swamp milkweed readily germinates from seed shed the previous year (50
to 88 percent germination [11]) after cold stratification, 39 degrees
Fahrenheit (4 deg C), for approximately 9 months. A plant puts up an
average of one stem from a short caudex and sprouts each year from this
rootstock. Flowers are insect pollinated (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)
[10]. Seeds have long hairs that facilitate wind dispersal in the fall.
Swamp milkweed is self-fertile [8]. It very rarely reproduces asexually
by rhizomes [8].
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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Swamp milkweed is a colonizer. It has wind-dispersed seeds and can
self-fertilize.
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

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More info for the term: swamp

The currently accepted scientific name of swamp milkweed is Asclepias incarnata L.
(Asclepidaceae). There is disagreement in the taxonomic literature
about infrataxa treatment. Two subspecies are recognized:

Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata [23]
A. i. ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woods. [23]

Also recognized are the following variety and forms:

A. i. var. incarnata f. incarnata [21]
A. i. var. incarnata f. albiflora--Found only in Missouri [21]
A. i. var. incarnata f. rosea Bowin--Found only in southern
Ontario, Canada [18].

This report does not use infrataxa; they rarely appear in the
literature.
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the term: seed

Swamp milkweed is currently used in Wisconsin for wetland rehabilitation
[11]. It is included in commercially available seed mixes.
license
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bibliographic citation
Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Asclepias incarnata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Asclepias incarnata

provided by wikipedia EN

Asclepias incarnata, the swamp milkweed, rose milkweed, rose milkflower, swamp silkweed, or white Indian hemp, is a herbaceous perennial plant species native to North America.[3] It grows in damp through wet soils and also is cultivated as a garden plant for its flowers, which attract butterflies and other pollinators with nectar. Like most other milkweeds, it has latex containing toxic chemicals,[4] a characteristic that repels insects and other herbivorous animals.

Description

Swamp milkweed is an upright, 100 to 150 cm (39 to 59 in) tall plant, growing from thick, fleshy, white roots. Typically, its stems are branched and the clump forming plants emerge in late spring after most other plants have begun growth for the year. The oppositely arranged leaves are 7.5 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in) long and 1 to 4 cm (12 to 1+12 in) wide and are narrow and lance-shaped, with the ends tapering to a sharp point.[5]

The plants bloom in early through mid-summer, producing small, fragrant, pink to mauve (sometimes white) colored flowers in rounded umbellate racemes. The flower color varies from darker shades of purple through soft, pinkish purple and a white flowering form exists as well. The actinomorphic flowers have five reflexed petals and an elevated central crown. After blooming, green follicles, approximately 12 cm (4+34 in) long, are produced that when ripe, split open. They then release light or dark brown, flat seeds that are attached to silver-white, silky hairs which catch the wind. This natural mechanism for seed dispersal is similar to that used by other milkweed species.[6]

Taxonomy

As of July 2021, Kew's Plants of the World Online (POWO) accepts 2 infraspecies,[2] each having numerous synonyms:[7][8]

  • Asclepias incarnata subsp. incarnata
    • Synonym: Asclepias albiflora Raf.
    • Synonym: Asclepias amoena Brongn.
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata f. albiflora (Raf.) A.Heller
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata f. candida Fernald
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata var. glabra Eaton & Wright
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata f. rosea B.Boivin
    • Synonym: Asclepias maritima Raf. ex Decne.
    • Synonym: Asclepias verecunda Salisb.
  • Asclepias incarnata subsp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata var. neoscotica Fernald
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata f. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Voss
    • Synonym: Asclepias incarnata var. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Pers.
    • Synonym: Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
    • Synonym: Asclepias pulchra f. albiflora House

The flower stalks and abaxial leaf surfaces of subspecies pulchra are abundantly pubescent, whereas those of the autonymous subspecies are nearly glabrous.[9]

Habitat

Swamp milkweed prefers moisture retentive through damp soils in full sun or partial shade and is typically found growing wild near the edges of ponds, lakes, streams, and low areas—or along ditches.[10] It is one of the best attractors of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which feeds on the flowers and lays eggs on the plants.[11] The emerging caterpillars feed on the leaves.

The plants have specialized roots which function in heavy, wet soils. The scented, thick, white roots are in environments low in oxygen. Blooming occurs in mid- through late summer and after blooming long, relatively thin, rounded follicles are produced that grow uprightly. They split open in late summer through late fall, releasing seeds attached to silky hairs, which act as parachutes that carry the seeds in wind currents.

Cultivation

A. incarnata is cultivated frequently, and a number of cultivars are available. They are used especially in gardens designed to attract butterflies (see Butterfly gardening). The nectar of the plant attracts many other species of butterflies and insects as well. The plants are also sold as freshly cut flowers, mostly for their long-lasting flower display, but sometimes, for the distinctive follicles.

Monarch Watch provides information on rearing monarchs and their host plants.[12] Efforts to increase monarch butterfly populations by establishing butterfly gardens and monarch migratory "waystations" require particular attention to the target species' food preferences and population cycles, as well to the conditions needed to propagate and maintain their food plants.[13]

The seeds of some milkweeds need periods of cold treatment (cold stratification) before they will germinate.[14] To protect seeds from washing away during heavy rains and from seed–eating birds, one can cover the seeds with a light fabric or with an 0.5 in (13 mm) layer of straw mulch.[15] However, mulch acts as an insulator. Thicker layers of mulch can prevent seeds from germinating if they prevent soil temperatures from rising enough when winter ends. Further, few seedlings can push through a thick layer of mulch.[16]

A. incarnata is often planted in butterfly gardens and "Monarch Waystations" to help sustain monarch butterfly populations.[17][18] However, A. incarnata is an early successional plant that usually grows at the margins of wetlands and in seasonally flooded areas.[19]

The plant is slow to spread via seeds, does not spread by runners and tends to disappear as vegetative densities increase and habitats dry out. Although A. incarnata plants can survive for up to 20 years, most live only two-five years in gardens. The species is not shade-tolerant and is not a good vegetative competitor.[19]

Images

References

  1. ^ Maiz-Tome, L. (2016). "Asclepias incarnata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 208. e.T64264155A67728543. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T64264155A67728543.en.
  2. ^ a b "Asclepias incarnata L.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  3. ^ (1) "Asclepias incarnata". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
    (2) Kirk, S.; Belt, S. "Plant fact sheet for swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)" (PDF). Beltsville, Maryland: United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service: Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
    (3) Holmes, Forest Russell. "Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata L.)". Plant of the Week. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture: United States Forest Service. Archived from the original on March 28, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  4. ^ Foster, S. and R. A. Caras. (1994). A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants, North America, North of Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-395-93608-5.
  5. ^ Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; Dickinson, R. (2004). The ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. p. 136. ISBN 0771076525. OCLC 54691765.
  6. ^ "Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. USGS. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
  7. ^ "Asclepias incarnata subsp. incarnata". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Asclepias incarnata subsp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  9. ^ Gilman, Arthur V. (2015). New Flora of Vermont. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, Volume 110. Bronx, New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden Press. ISBN 978-0-89327-516-7.
  10. ^ "Asclepias incarnata". Kemper Center for Home Gardening. Missouri Botanical Garden. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
  11. ^ Pocius, Victoria M.; Debinski, Diane M.; Pleasants, John M.; Bidne, Keith G.; Hellmich, Richard L. (January 8, 2018). "Monarch butterflies do not place all of their eggs in one basket: oviposition on nine Midwestern milkweed species". Ecosphere. Ecological Society of America (ESA). 9 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1002/ecs2.2064. Retrieved July 6, 2021 – via Wiley Online Library.
  12. ^ "Monarch Watch". monarchwatch.org. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  13. ^ (1) Borders, Brianna; Lee–Mӓder, Eric (2014). "Milkweed Propagation and Seed Production" (PDF). Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner's Guide: Plant Ecology, Seed Production Methods, and Habitat Restoration Opportunities. Portland, Oregon: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. pp. 21–95. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
    (2) Landis, Thomas D.; Dumroese, R. Kasten (2015). "Propagating Native Milkweeds for Restoring Monarch Butterfly Habitat" (PDF). International Plant Propagators’ Society, Combined Proceedings (2014). 64: 299–307. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021 – via United States Department of Agriculture: United States Forest Service.
  14. ^ (1) Borders, Brianna; Lee–Mӓder, Eric (2014). "Milkweed Propagation and Seed Production: Stratification" (PDF). Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner's Guide: Plant Ecology, Seed Production Methods, and Habitat Restoration Opportunities. Portland, Oregon: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. pp. 28–29. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
    (2) Landis, Thomas D.; Dumroese, R. Kasten (2015). "Propagating Native Milkweeds for Restoring Monarch Butterfly Habitat" (PDF). International Plant Propagators’ Society, Combined Proceedings (2014). 64: 302. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021 – via United States Department of Agriculture: United States Forest Service. Many sources of milkweed seeds require stratification (cold, moist treatment) before sowing. In a review of stratification requirements for common milkweed, recommendations varied from as short as 7 days to as long as 11 months at 5°C (41°F) (Luna and Dumroese, 2013). Butterfly milkweed (A. tuberosa) germination increased from 29 to 48 to 62% as stratification duration increased from 0 to 30 to 60 days, respectively (Bir, 1986). Our informal natural stratification trial with showy (milkweed) and narrow leaf milkweed (A. fascicularis) in southern Oregon revealed that seeds began to germinate after 15 weeks in stratification (Fig. 3A).
    (3) Higgins, Adrian (27 May 2015). "7 milkweed varieties and where to find them". Home & Garden. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020. Seed may be stubborn to germinate and may need a period of cold treatment..
  15. ^ (1) Mader, Eric; Shepherd, Mathew; Vaughan, Mace; Black, Scott Hoffman; LeBuhn, Gretchen (2011). Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America's Bees and Butterflies: The Xerces Society guide. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing. pp. 113–114. ISBN 9781603427470. LCCN 2010043054. OCLC 776997073. Retrieved July 7, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
    (2) Landis, Thomas D.; Dumroese, R. Kasten (2015). "Propagating Native Milkweeds for Restoring Monarch Butterfly Habitat" (PDF). International Plant Propagators’ Society, Combined Proceedings (2014). 64: 302. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021 – via United States Department of Agriculture: United States Forest Service. Any of the standard seed propagation methods (Landis et al., 1999) are effective with milkweed. Direct sowing of non-stratified seeds during the fall followed by exposure to ambient winter conditions can be effective, but the seeds must be mulched and protected. Cover sown seeds with a thin mulch; research has found that common milkweed seeds germinated better when planted 1 to 2 cm (0.4 to 0.8 in.) deep than when at the soil surface (Jeffery and Robison, 1971).
  16. ^ Bush-Brown, James; Bush-Brown, Louise (1958). "Chapter 32: Mulches". America's garden book. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 768. LCCN 58005738. OCLC 597041748 – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ (1) "Asclepias incarnata". North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University: N.C. Cooperative Extension. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Use in a naturalized area, pollinator garden or along a pond or stream in full sun to partial shade.
    (2) "Asclepias incarnata". St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021. Uses: Sunny borders, stream/pond banks, butterfly gardens.
    (3) Gomez, Tony. "Asclepias Incarnata: Swamp Milkweed for Monarch Butterflies and Caterpillars". Monarch Butterfly Garden. Archived from the original on April 22, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    (4) Vogt, Benjamin (February 19, 2015). "Great Design Plant: Asclepias Incarnata for a Butterfly Garden: Beautiful swamp milkweed makes it easy to help monarchs and other pollinators in eastern U.S. gardens". Palo Alto, California: Houzz. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  18. ^ Abugattas, Alonzo (3 January 2017). "Monarch Way Stations". Capital Naturalist. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021 – via Blogger. A better option for most gardeners might be Swamp Milkweed (A. incarnata) which, despite its name, does fine in regular garden soil and doesn’t spread by runners.
  19. ^ a b "Asclepias incarnata". Bring Back The Monarchs. Monarch Watch. Archived from the original on June 12, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021. Life span: In gardens most plants live two-five years but known to survive up to 20 years. .... Propagation: Slow to spread via seeds. .... 'Overhead Conditions: Not shade tolerant. An early successional plant that tends to grow at the margins of wetlands and in seasonally flooded areas. It is not a good vegetative competitor and tends to disappear as vegetative density increases and habitats dry out.

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Asclepias incarnata: Brief Summary

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Asclepias incarnata, the swamp milkweed, rose milkweed, rose milkflower, swamp silkweed, or white Indian hemp, is a herbaceous perennial plant species native to North America. It grows in damp through wet soils and also is cultivated as a garden plant for its flowers, which attract butterflies and other pollinators with nectar. Like most other milkweeds, it has latex containing toxic chemicals, a characteristic that repels insects and other herbivorous animals.

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