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Shepherd's Purse

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Comments

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‘Shepherds purse’ is a very variable species, especially in size and shape of leaves, siliculae and hairiness. It has strong tendency for developing distinctive populations because of self pollination. Some of its forms superficially resemble C. rubella Reuter, from the Mediterranean region, with somewhat concave margin of the siliculae, but the sepals are not pinkish and petals not so small.

Seeds contain about 15-20% oil.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Comments

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This species is used as a vegetable and in the treatment of eye diseases and dysentery. It is the second most common weed on Earth.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 8: 43 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Annual or biennial, up to 45 cm tall, erect, glabrous or hairy with simple or branched hairs. Basal leaves rosulate, very variable, usually pinnatifid (lyrate to almost entire), 5-8-jugate, shortly stalked, usually up to 8 cm long, 2 cm broad; cauline leaves smaller, sessile. ± auricled and clasping the stem. Racemes many flowered, up to 30 cm long in fruit. Flowers c. 2.5 mm across, white; pedicels up to 18 mm long in fruit, spreading. Sepals c. 1.5 mm long, l mm broad. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, 1 mm broad, obovate-oblong, cuneate. Stamens c. 1.5: 2 mm long. Siliculae obcordate- triangular, 5-9 mm long, 4-6 mm broad; valves usually with straight margins; apical notch wide, V-shaped ; style c. 0.5 mm long, hardly or not exceeding the notch; septum c. 1 mm broad, seeds 6-12 in each locule, c. 1 mm long, oblong-elliptic, pale brown.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Description

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Herbs (2-)10-50(-70) cm tall, sparsely to densely pubescent with sessile, 3-5-rayed stellate trichomes often mixed near base of plant with much longer simple trichomes. Stems erect, simple or branched. Basal leaves rosulate; petiole 0.5-4(-6) cm; leaf blade oblong or oblanceolate, (0.5-)1.5-10(-15) × 0.2-2.5(-5) cm, base cuneate or attenuate, margin pinnatisect, pinnatifid, runcinate, lyrate, dentate, repand, or entire, apex acute or acuminate. Cauline leaves sessile, sagittate, amplexicaul, or rarely auriculate, narrowly oblong, lanceolate, or linear, 1-5.5 (-8) cm × 1-15(-20) mm, margin entire or dentate. Fruiting pedicels (0.3-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm, divaricate, usually straight, slender, glabrous. Sepals green or reddish, oblong, 1.5-2 × 0.7-1 mm, margin membranous. Petals white, rarely pinkish or yellowish, obovate, (1.5-)2-4(-5) × 1-1.5 mm. Filaments white, 1-2 mm; anthers ovate, to 0.5 mm. Fruit (3-)4-9(-10) × (2-)3-7(-9) mm, flat, base cuneate, apex emarginate or truncate; valves with subparallel lateral veins, glabrous; style 0.2-0.7 mm. Seeds brown, oblong, 0.9-1.1 × 0.4-0.6 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 16, 32*.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 43 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Widely distributed in temperate regions.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Distribution: Cosmopolitan in cooler climates mostly.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Elevation Range

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1800-4500 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per.: March June.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Roadsides, gardens, fields, waste areas, mountain slopes. Throughout China [native to SW Asia and Europe; naturalized elsewhere as a cosmopolitan weed].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 43 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Synonym

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Thlaspi bursa-pastoris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 647. 1753; for more than 250 synonyms, see Index Kewensis.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 43 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
bursa-pastoris: shepherd's purse (referring to the fruit)
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=124290
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual or biennial herb, to 40 cm, with a basal rosette of oblanceolate leaves, entire or deeply pinnatifid. Cauline leaves amplexicaul. Hairs simple or stellate. Flowers 2.5 mm in diameter, white. Fruit 6-9 mm, triangular-obcordate.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=124290
author
Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

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Frequent in high rainfall areas, mainly the E Highlands
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cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=124290
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
A cosmopolitan weed
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=124290
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Capsella bursa-pastoris

provided by wikipedia EN

Capsella bursa-pastoris, known as shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).[2] It is native to eastern Europe and Asia minor,[3] but is naturalized and considered a common weed in many parts of the world, especially in colder climates,[4] including British Isles,[5] where it is regarded as an archaeophyte,[6][7] North America[8][9] and China,[10] but also in the Mediterranean and North Africa.[3] C. bursa-pastoris is the second-most prolific wild plant in the world,[10] and is common on cultivated ground and waysides and meadows.[11]

Scientists have referred to this species as a 'protocarnivore', since it has been found that its seeds attract and kill nematodes as a means to locally enrich the soil.[12][13]

Description

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Rosette (a), pointed leaves, flowers (c–e), pods (i, k)

Capsella bursa-pastoris plants grow from a rosette of lobed leaves at the base. From the base emerges a stem about 0.2–0.5 m (0.66–1.64 ft) tall, which bears a few pointed leaves which partly grasp the stem. The flowers, which appear in any month of the year in the British Isles,[11]:56 are white and small, 2.5 mm (0.098 in) in diameter, with four petals and six stamens.[11] They are borne in loose racemes, and produce flattened, two-chambered seed pods known as silicles, which are triangular to heart-shaped, each containing several seeds.[9]

Like a number of other plants in several plant families, its seeds contain a substance known as mucilage, a condition known as myxospermy.[14] Recently, this has been demonstrated experimentally to perform the function of trapping nematodes, as a form of 'protocarnivory'.[12][13][15]

Capsella bursa-pastoris is closely related to the model organism such as Arabidopsis thaliana and is also used as a model organism, due to the variety of genes expressed throughout its life cycle that can be compared to genes that are well studied in A. thaliana. Unlike most flowering plants, it flowers almost all year round.[9][10] Like other annual ruderals exploiting disturbed ground, C. bursa-pastoris reproduces entirely from seed, has a long soil seed bank,[6] and short generation time,[3] and is capable of producing several generations each year.

Taxonomy

It was formally described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication Species Plantarum in 1753, and then published by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus in Pflanzen-Gattungen (Pfl.-Gatt.) on page 85 in 1792.[16][17]

Capsella bursa-pastoris subsp. thracicus (Velen.) Stoj. & Stef. is the only known subspecies.[16]

William Coles wrote in his book, Adam in Eden (1657), "It is called Shepherd's purse or Scrip (wallet) from the likeness of the seed hath with that kind of leathearne bag, wherein Shepherds carry their Victualls [food and drink] into the field."[18]

In England and Scotland, it was once commonly called 'mother's heart', which is derived from a child's game/trick of picking the seed pod, which then would burst and the child would be accused of 'breaking his mother's heart'.[18]

Uses

Capsella bursa-pastoris gathered from the wild or cultivated[19][20] has many uses, including for food,[10][20] to supplement animal feed,[19] for cosmetics,[19] and in traditional medicine[10][19]—reportedly to stop bleeding.[21] The plant can be eaten raw;[22] the leaves are best when gathered young.[23] Native Americans ground it into a meal and made a beverage from it.[21]

Cooking

It is cultivated as a commercial food crop in Asia.[24] In China, where it is known as jìcài (荠菜; 薺菜) it is commonly used in food in Shanghai and the surrounding Jiangnan region. It is stir-fried with rice cakes and other ingredients or as part of the filling in wontons.[25] It is one of the ingredients of the symbolic dish consumed in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku. In Korea, it is known as naengi (냉이) and used as a root vegetable in the characteristic Korean dish, namul (fresh greens and wild vegetables).[26]

Shepherd's purse was used as a pepper substitute in colonial New England.[27]

Chemistry

Fumaric acid is one chemical substance that has been isolated from C. bursa-pastoris.[28]

Parasites

Parasites of this plant include:

References

  1. ^ "Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  2. ^ Parnell, J. Curtis, T. (2012). Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-185918-4783.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c Aksoy, A; Dixon, JM; Hale, WH (1998). "Biological flora of the British Isles. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus (Thlaspi bursapastoris L., Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Shull, Bursa pastoris (L.) Weber)". Journal of Ecology. 86: 171–186. arXiv:1303.1393. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00260.x.
  4. ^ "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of Pakistan.
  5. ^ Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. 1968. Excursion Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-04656-4
  6. ^ a b Preston CD, Pearman DA & Dines TD (2002) New Atlas of the British Flora. Oxford University Press
  7. ^ Preston, CD; Pearman, DA; Hall, AR (2004). "Archaeophytes in Britain". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 145 (3): 257–294. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00284.x.
  8. ^ USDA PLANTS Profile: Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik
  9. ^ a b c Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of China.
  11. ^ a b c Clapham, A.R.; Tutin, T.G.; Warburg, E.F. (1981). Excursion Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521232906.
  12. ^ a b Nature - Evidence for Facultative Protocarnivory in Capsella bursa-pastoris seeds
  13. ^ a b Telegraph - Tomatoes Can Eat Insects
  14. ^ Tamara L. Western; Debra J. Skinner; George W. Haughn (February 2000). "Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat". Plant Physiology. 122 (2): 345–355. doi:10.1104/pp.122.2.345. PMC 58872. PMID 10677428.
  15. ^ Barber, J.T. (1978). "Capsella bursa-pastoris seeds: Are they "carnivorous"?" (PDF). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. 7 (2): 39–42.
  16. ^ a b "Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris Medik". ipni.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  18. ^ a b Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain. Reader's Digest. 1981. p. 54. ISBN 9780276002175.
  19. ^ a b c d "Capsella bursa-pastoris (Ecocrop code 4164)". ecocrop. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
  20. ^ a b "Capsella bursa-pastoris - (L.)Medik". Plants For A Future database report.
  21. ^ a b Nyerges, Christopher (2017). Foraging Washington: Finding, Identifying, and Preparing Edible Wild Foods. Guilford, CT: Falcon Guides. ISBN 978-1-4930-2534-3. OCLC 965922681.
  22. ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More than 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6.
  23. ^ Benoliel, Doug (2011). Northwest Foraging: The Classic Guide to Edible Plants of the Pacific Northwest (Rev. and updated ed.). Seattle, WA: Skipstone. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59485-366-1. OCLC 668195076.
  24. ^ Mills, David (March 11, 2014). Nature's Restaurant: Fields, Forests & Wetlands Foods of Eastern North America - A Complete Wild Food Guide.
  25. ^ Samuels, Debra (12 May 2015). "This Chinese grandma forages and cooks". bostonglobe.com. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  26. ^ Pratt, Keith L.; Richard Rutt; James Hoare (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Richmond, Surrey.: Curzon Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-7007-0464-4.
  27. ^ Hussey, Jane Strickland (Jul–Sep 1974). "Some Useful Plants of Early New England". Economic Botnany. 28 (3): 311–337. doi:10.1007/BF02861428. JSTOR 4253521. S2CID 12764441.
  28. ^ Kuroda, K.; Akao, M.; Kanisawa, M.; Miyaki, K. (1976). "Inhibitory effect of Capsella bursa-pastoris extract on growth of Ehrlich solid tumor in mice". Cancer Research. 36 (6): 1900–1903. PMID 1268843.

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Capsella bursa-pastoris: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Capsella bursa-pastoris, known as shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). It is native to eastern Europe and Asia minor, but is naturalized and considered a common weed in many parts of the world, especially in colder climates, including British Isles, where it is regarded as an archaeophyte, North America and China, but also in the Mediterranean and North Africa. C. bursa-pastoris is the second-most prolific wild plant in the world, and is common on cultivated ground and waysides and meadows.

Scientists have referred to this species as a 'protocarnivore', since it has been found that its seeds attract and kill nematodes as a means to locally enrich the soil.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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