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Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2

Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2

provided by wikipedia EN

Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2, also referred to as SIRV2, is an archaeal virus whose only known host is the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. This virus belongs to the family Rudiviridae.[2] Like other viruses in the family, it is common in geothermal environments.[2]

Biology and biochemistry

SIRV2 has a linear double-stranded DNA genome. The viral DNA is replicated by 4 host DNA polymerases: Dpo1 through Dpo4.[2]

The virus has a rod-shaped morphology with a width of 23 nanometers (nm) and a length of 900 nm. Three terminal fibers, 28 nm in length, have been observed on both ends of the virus.[3] The terminal fibers mediate attachment of the virus to type 4 pili abundantly present on the host cell surface.[4][5]

SIRV2 is able to survive additions of 6 molar (M) urea, absolute ethanol, octanol-2, and 0.1% Triton X-100 in neutral pH and 25 degrees Celsius.[3] In vitro testing has shown that SIRV2 is still able to infect at 70-80 degrees Celsius and in a pH 3 solution.[6]

SIRV2gp19 was found to be a single-stranded DNA endonuclease in 2011. This was proven by inducing a mutation in the SIRVgp19 protein Motif II from the amino acid aspartate to alanine which resulted in a loss of nuclease activity. This protein is functional within pH 7-10. Magnesium chloride was found to be a cofactor to this protein in 1971.[7][6] Sodium chloride concentrations above 100 mM inhibit SIRV2gp19.[6]

Structure

A three-dimensional reconstruction of the SIRV2 virion at ~4 angstrom resolution has been obtained by cryo–electron microscopy.[8] The structure revealed a previously unknown form of virion organization, in which the alpha-helical major capsid protein of SIRV2 wraps around the DNA, making it inaccessible to solvent. The viral DNA was found to be entirely in the A-form, which suggested a common mechanism with bacterial spores for protecting DNA in the most adverse environments.

References

  1. ^ "ICTV Taxonomy history: Icerudivirus SIRV2" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Martínez-Alvarez, Laura; Deng, Ling; Peng, Xu (2017-04-19). "Formation of a Viral Replication Focus in Sulfolobus Cells Infected by the Rudivirus Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus 2". Journal of Virology. 91 (13). doi:10.1128/jvi.00486-17. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 5469267. PMID 28424282.
  3. ^ a b Prangishvili, W.; Arnold, D.; Götz, H. P.; Ziese, D.; Holz, U.; Kristjansson, I.; Zillig, J. K. (1999). "A novel virus family, the Rudiviridae: Structure, virus-host interactions and genome variability of the sulfolobus viruses SIRV1 and SIRV2". Genetics. 152 (4): 1387–96. doi:10.1093/genetics/152.4.1387. OCLC 678661646. PMC 1460677. PMID 10430569.
  4. ^ Quemin, ER; Lucas, S; Daum, B; Quax, TE; Kühlbrandt, W; Forterre, P; Albers, SV; Prangishvili, D; Krupovic, M (2013). "First insights into the entry process of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses". Journal of Virology. 87 (24): 13379–85. doi:10.1128/JVI.02742-13. PMC 3838266. PMID 24089554.
  5. ^ Wang, F; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, V; Kreutzberger, MAB; Su, Z; de Oliveira, GAP; Osinski, T; Sherman, N; DiMaio, F; Wall, JS; Prangishvili, D; Krupovic, M; Egelman, EH (2019). "An extensively glycosylated archaeal pilus survives extreme conditions". Nature Microbiology. 4 (8): 1401–1410. doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0458-x. PMC 6656605. PMID 31110358.
  6. ^ a b c Gardner, Andrew F.; Prangishvili, David; Jack, William E. (2011-06-11). "Characterization of Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 gp19, a single-strand specific endonuclease". Extremophiles. 15 (5): 619–624. doi:10.1007/s00792-011-0385-0. ISSN 1431-0651. PMC 3158340. PMID 21667093.
  7. ^ Kushner, S. R.; Nagaishi, H.; Templin, A.; Clark, A. J. (1971-04-01). "Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli: The Role of Exonuclease I". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 68 (4): 824–827. Bibcode:1971PNAS...68..824K. doi:10.1073/pnas.68.4.824. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 389052. PMID 4927675.
  8. ^ DiMaio, F; Yu, X; Rensen, E; Krupovic, M; Prangishvili, D; Egelman, EH (2015). "Virology. A virus that infects a hyperthermophile encapsidates A-form DNA". Science. 348 (6237): 914–7. doi:10.1126/science.aaa4181. PMC 5512286. PMID 25999507.
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Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2, also referred to as SIRV2, is an archaeal virus whose only known host is the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. This virus belongs to the family Rudiviridae. Like other viruses in the family, it is common in geothermal environments.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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visit source
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