provided by Memoirs of the American Entomological Society
Spodoptera cilium Guenee
Figs. 20, 41, 63, 86, 98, 113, 133, 138, 181-189, 309, 339, 371, 403, 435, 523
Spodoptera cilium Guenee in Boisduval & Guenee 1852a: 156; Walker 1856: 187; Cotes & Swinhoe 1888: 325; Swinhoe 1890: 227; Boursin 1964: 238; Brown & Dewhurst 1975: 251; Holloway 1989: 134; Poole 1989: 922.
Laphygma cycloides Guenee in Boisduval & Guenee
1852a: 157; Walker 1856: 190; Viette 1951: 160. Spodoptera capicola Herrich-Schaffer : wrapper
plate 27, fig. 131; Walker 1856: 191; Boursin 1961: Caradrina latebrosa Lederer 1855: 205. Caradrina insignata Walker 1857a: 295; [synonymized by
Poole 1989: 924]. Caradrina orbicularis Walker 1857a: 294; [synonymized
by Poole 1989: 925]. Caradrina praeierita Walker 1857a: 294; [synonymized
by Poole 1989: 925]. Laphygma procedens Walker 1857b: 721; [synonymized
by Poole 1989: 925]. Laphygma obliterans Walker 1862b: 87; [synonymized by
Poole 1989: 924]. Laphygma imperviata Walker 1865a: 651; [synonymized
by Poole 1989: 924]. Laphygma retrahens Walker 1870: 126; [synonymized by
Poole 1989: 925].
Diagnosis. — Sexually dimorphic, male lighter and with a more distinct wing pattern than in female. Male with antenna serrate (Fig. 20). Forewing ground color more gray than in S. pecten. Male genitalia with ampulla and clasper proper present (Figs. 309, 339); aedoeagus with a large dorsal spine at apex. Female genitalia with distal margin of ventral plate of ostium bursa a long central groove leading into ductus bursae
whitish. Similar to S. exigua, especially females. Spodoptera cilium with hind wing veins white, veins infuscated with gray in S. exigua.
Description. Adult Male. — Head: Basal segment of labial palpus cream with a black dorsal patch; median segment black mixed with cream scales; apical segment black, apex cream. Frons with short scales cream; long scales cream to light brown; lateral spots at eye margin absent; vertex cream to pale rufous. Antenna serrate; scape cream to light brown; flagellum cream (annulated brown becoming wholly brown at mid-length).
Thorax: Patagium pale grayish brown with median band fuscous to grayish brown with a few fuscous scales representing median band. Tegula light brown and grayish brown. Mesothorax light brown to grayish brown. Underside of thorax white. Prothoracic femur fuscous and cream; tibia with lateral scale tufts not extending beyond first tarsal segment, cream and fuscous, subapical spot absent; tarsal segments fuscous, proximal and apical ring cream on segment 1, apical rings on
segments 2 and 5 cream, no apical rings on segments 3 and 4. Mesothoracic femur cream and fuscous; tibia cream and fuscous, inner spur more than twice length of outer spur, mediolateral surface thinly devoid of scales on both spurs; tarsal segments fuscous with cream apical rings. Metathoracic femur cream and rufous; tibia cream and rufous; first tarsal segment cream mixed with fuscous, tarsal segments 2-5 fuscous with cream apical rings.
Forewing: Length, 9-13 mm; ground color light brown to brown; basal line black; R vein not a contrasting color; basal scale patch between R and Cu veins absent; basal half circle scale patch below Cu vein absent; antemedial line black; claviform spot absent; basal scale patch absent; gray patch covering anal cell and half of cell CuA2 absent; oblique brown mark from fifth outer marginal spot to vein CuA2 absent; curved white line from antemedial line to postmedial line absent; orbicular spot round, cream, with buff to brown center, outlined in black (spot can be completely cream); reniform spot round, black; white scales along Cu vein and bases of M3 and CuAl veins absent; postmedial line black, indistinct, from just below costa to posterior margin, wavy; postmedian band undifferentiated; black scale patches in middle of cells in postmedian area absent; subterminal line white, indistinct; apex lacking a white patch; black triangular-shaped spots along outer margin; fringe gray. Underside ground color pale gray; outer margin with black spots; reniform spot darker, indistinct to absent.
Hindwing: Ground color white; gray scales along apex and outer margin; fringe white (female with fringe light brown to pale gray at apex and median line becoming white toward anal veins). Underside ground color white; costal cells C and Sc cream speckled with pale gray scales; outer margin spots absent (female with pale gray spots in middle of cells, becoming indistinct toward anal cell).
Abdomen: Dorsum gray; venter cream and gray; disto-lateral black spots on sternites absent; 8th tergite with spiculate patches absent on caudal margin.
Genitalia: Uncus curved in basal half; slender, gradually narrowing toward pointed apex; setae numerous, elongate, weakly developed. Tegumen lacking a pair of projecting arms on upper third. Costa sinuate (Figs. 309, 339). Costal process an
indistinct swelling bearing setae located in middle of costa; perpendicular to costa of valve. Cucullus apex round; not produced. Anellifer with lightly sclerotized plate bearing setae absent. Ampulla elongate, slightly curved with a pointed apex; extending to moderately below apex of valve (Figs. 309, 339). Clasper proper triangulate with pointed apex. Clavus absent. Sacculus broadest at base, gradually tapering distally; apex truncate. Valvula narrower than valve; slightly differentiated from valve, apex not separate; apex pointed; indentation absent. Coremata reduced, closely appressed to sacculus; no distinct lobes. Juxta a rectangular band, median process elongate, expanding into an apical plate, ventral margin straight to convex. Anellus membranous. Vinculum round. Aedoeagus straight; coecum smaller in diameter than shaft; patch of spines absent on apex of membranous sheath surrounding aedoeagus. Vesica curving dorsally; moderately elongate, 0.75-1.0 length of aedoeagus; apicobasal cornutal patch a narrow ribbon; length moderate, extending to before middle of vesica; cornuti in form of minute flat granules; lateral cornutal patch a narrow elongate ribbon; composed of granular spines with a very large basal spine; dense cornutal patch on apical diverticulum; distal cornutus absent.
Adult Female. — Essentially as described for male except:
Foreioing: Length, 11-15 mm.
Abdomen: Fine dense scales on 8th segment whitish.
Genitalia: Ventral plate of ostium bursa with height greater than width; distal margin a long central groove leading into ductus bursae; ventrolateral invaginated pocket of 8th sternite absent. Ductus bursae short (length less than twice width); completely sclerotized. Appendix bursae membranous. Corpus bursae bulbous, length less than twice width; a few striae. Signum in apical half of corpus bursae; moderately elongate, length between 0.66-1.1 mm; forming less than a 30 degree angle to vertical axis of corpus bursae.
Larva. — See description, p. 104.
Type material. — Spodoptera cilium Guenee. Syntypes: The type material was not located during this study and is considered lost. The neotype 8 [USNM, here designated] is labeled: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Prov; Ravens Wood, 125 meters; Keiskama River, nr. Rt. N2; bridge, 5 March 1978;
D. & M. Davis, B. Akerbergs. USNM ENT 00061924. The neotype is designated and labeled to ensure nomenclatural stability in this confusing group of species and is illustrated in Fig. 181. Type locality: Cape Province, South Africa.
Laphygma cycloides Guenee. The lectotype 2 is deposited in MNHP and was designated by Viette (1951). Type locality: Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Spodoptera capicola Herrich-Schaffer. The type is apparently lost. Type locality: Cape Province, South Africa.
Caradrina latebrosa Lederer. The type is in Museum fur Naturkunde, Humboldt University, Berlin. Type locality: Cyprus.
Caradrina insignata Walker. The holotype 8 [BMNH] is labeled: S. Africa: A. Smith: 44-6; 29. Caradrina insignata; Noc. Gen. Slide No. 3803 8 . Type locality: South Africa.
Caradrina orbicularis Walker. The lectotype 8 [BMNH, here designated] is labeled: S. Africa, A. Smith, 44-6; 26. Caradrina orbicularis; Noc. Gen. Slide No. 3805 2. The lectotype is designated to ensure nomenclatural stability in this confusing group of pest species and is illustrated in Fig. 187. Type locality: South Africa.
Caradrina praeterita Walker. The lectotype 2 [BMNH, here designated] is labeled: S. Africa, A. Smith, 44-6; 27. Caradrina praeterita; Noc. Gen. Slide No. 3804 9 . The lectotype is designated to ensure nomenclatural stability in this confusing group of pest species and is illustrated in Fig. 188. Type locality: South Africa.
Laphygma procedens Walker. The holotype 8 [BMNH] is labeled: Holotype, S. Leone, D.F. Morgan, 38, 11-8, 528; Laphygma procedens. Type locality: Sierra Leone.
Laphygma obliterans Walker. The type(s) are in University Museum, Oxford University, Oxford. Type locality: Cape, South Africa.
Laphygma imperviata Walker. The type material is lost. Type locality: South Africa.
Laphygma retrahens Walker. The type material is lost. Type locality: Mount Sinai, Egypt, (ex Convent Gardens).
Material Examined. — Specimens were examined from the following countries: Algeria, Angola, Burma, China, Comoro Islands, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philip
pines, Reunion, Sao Tome, Senegal, Seychelles [France], Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.
Distribution (Fig. 523). — This species has been recorded from the southern Palaearctic in southern France and Rhodes, Greece, eastward to Lebanon, Israel, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, the Arabian Peninsula, and China. It is widely distributed across Africa, Madagascar, Comoro Islands, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Reunion. In the Oriental Region it has been recorded from Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. In Australasia it occurs in Borneo, Sulawesi, Santa Cruz in the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea (Brown & Dewhurst 1975).
- bibliographic citation
- Pogue, M.G. 2002. A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society vol. 20. Philadelphia, USA