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Bigseed Biscuitroot

Lomatium macrocarpum (Hook. & Arn.) Coult. & Rose

Brief Summary

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Lomatium macrocarpum has a bioregional distribution that covers much of the western USA and western Canada. Specifically the range extends from California north to British Columbia and eastward to south-central Canada, North Dakota and Utah. Habitats include rocky, and often serpentine, slopes in chaparral; elevations of occurrence from 150 to 3000 meters above sea level.

Known by the common name Bigseed biscuitroot, this herb exhibits a taproot, and often a tuber base. The herbage is gray, generally tomentose to densely short-hairy, with a very abbreviated stem. The leaf petiole is 1.5 to 7.0 centimeters in length, with blades 2.5 to 15 cm long; blade shape is oblong to obovate. The leaves are pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected. Flower corolla may be variously white, pale yellow, or purplish.
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Lomatium macrocarpum (H. & A.) Coult. & Rose, Contr. U. S Nat. Herb. 7: 217. 1900.
Ferula macrocarpa H. & A. Bot. Beech. Voy. 348. 1838.
Peucedanum macrocarpum Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. N Am. 1: 627. 1840.
Peucedanum macrocar pum var. ? eurycarpum A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 385. 1872.
Peucedanum eurycarpum Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Am. Umbell. 61. 1888.
Lomatium macrocarpum var. arlemisiarum Piper, Bull. Torrey Club 29: 223. 1902.
Lomatium macrocarpum var. semivittatum Piper, Bull. Torrey Club 29: 224. 1902.
Lomatium Jlarum Suksd. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 12: 6. 1906.
Lomatium arlemisiarum Piper, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 11: 423. 1906.
Cogswellia macrocarpa M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 12: 33. 1908.
Cogswellia arlemisiarum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 449. 1909.
Cogswellia flava Coult. & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 449. 1909.
Cogswellia simulans Coult. & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 451. 1909.
Lomatium macrocarpum var. Douglasii Jepson, Madrono 1: 153. 1924.
Cogswellia macrocarpa var. arlemisiarum St. John, Fl. SE. Wash. 292. 1937.
Plants short-caulescent, 1-5 dm. high, purplish, especially below, from a slender or swollen taproot, densely tomentose to villous, or glabrate; leaves oblong to obovate in general outline, excluding the petioles 2.5-12 cm. long, ternate, then 2-3-pinnate, the ultimate divisions confluent, oblong to linear, 1-7 mm. long, 0.5-2 mm. broad, entire, mucronulate; petioles 1.5-7 cm. long, sheathing about to the middle, subscarious; peduncles exceeding the leaves; involucel of dimidiate, linear-lanceolate, acute bractlets, equaling to greatly exceeding the flowers, becoming reflexed in the mature plant; rays 5-25, spreading, 1-8.5 cm. long; pedicels 1-14 mm. long, spreading, the umbellets many-flowered ; flowers white, yellow, or purplish ; fruit narrowly oblong, 9-20 mm long, 2-8 mm. broad, the ovaries and young fruit glabrous to villous, the mature fruit glabrous or glabrate, the wings narrower than the body; oil-tubes 1, rarely 2 or 3, in the dorsal intervals, 1-3 in the lateral, sometimes obscure, 2-6 on the commissure.
Type locality: California, Douglas.
Distribution: Manitoba to North Dakota, west to British Columbia, south to central Nevada and California (Jones 3883, Nelson if Nelson 5733).
42a. Lomatium macrocarpum var. ellipticum (T. & G.) Jepson, Madrono 1: 153. 1924.
Peucedanum nudicaule var. ellipticum T. & G. Pacif. R. R. Rep. 2 2 : 121. 1855. Lomatium ellipticum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 7: 217. 1900. Cogswellia elliptica M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 12: 33. 1908.
Pedicels often longer, up to 16 mm. long; fruit oblong-oval, 16—18 mm. long, 6-10 mm. broad, glabrous, the wings twice as broad as the body. Type locality: "Round Valley, near the sources of the Sacramento, in the Sierra Nevada," California, Snyder.
Distribution: Northern Sierra Nevada, California.
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bibliographic citation
Albert Charles Smith, Mildred Esther Mathias, Lincoln Constance, Harold William Rickett. 1944-1945. UMBELLALES and CORNALES. North American flora. vol 28B. New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Lomatium macrocarpum

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Lomatium macrocarpum ripe fruits

Lomatium macrocarpum is a perennial flowering plant in the carrot family known by the common names bigseed lomatium, biscuit root or bigseed biscuitroot. It is native to much of western North America, where it can be found in various types of habitat, including the grasslands of the Great Plains. It is spreading or erect perennial herb growing up to about half a meter long with hairy, gray-green herbage. The leaves are up to about 24 centimeters long and are intricately divided into many small, narrow segments. The inflorescence bears an umbel of yellowish, purplish, or white flowers. The fruit is a compressed, winged, round or oval disc up to about 2 centimeters long.

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