dcsimg

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the term: forest

The following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed
fire and postfire response of plant community species, including Blue Ridge
blueberry, that was not available when this species review was written:

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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

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Blue Ridge blueberry
hillside blueberry
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

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More info for the terms: cover, shrub

The low-statured Blue Ridge blueberry presumably provides minimal cover
for large mammals. However, plants form good ground cover for a variety
of small mammals [53]. Fallen leaves commonly lodge in dense thickets
of this shrub increasing its cover value during late fall and winter
[53].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

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More info for the terms: fruit, perfect, shrub

Blue Ridge blueberry is a variable, erect, deciduous shrub that commonly
reaches 9 to 21 inches (23-51 cm) in height [14,48,61]. On some sites,
plants reach maximum heights of only 3 inches (8 cm), but on extremely
favorable sites, individuals may grow to 39 inches (100 cm) [61]. This
rhizomatous shrub forms small to extensive colonies [14,61]. The terete
to slightly angled twigs are pale green, reddish, yellow, or pale gray
[33,48,48,53]. The variable twigs are glabrous to pubescent [58]. Stem
morphology has been examined in detail [45]. Smooth, slightly ridged
bark is greenish-brown or red [53]. Roots are finely textured [20].

The simple, alternate leaves are variable in both color and morphology
[53]. Leaves are ovate, obovate, spatulate, or broadly elliptic and 0.8
to 2.3 inches (2.0-6 cm) in length [48,58]. Margins are entire,
minutely serrulate, or ciliate [53,58]. The glabrous upper surface is
yellow-green, pale green, or dark blue green, whereas leaves are paler
and glaucous to pubescent beneath [25,58,61]. Leaves turn scarlet or
crimson in the fall [33].

Cylindric to urceolate-campanulate inflorescences are borne in groups of
4 to 11 on axillary or terminal racemes [25,48,58]. The perfect flowers
are pink, greenish-white, or occasionally white [53,61] and average 0.25
inch (6 mm) in length [33]. Floral morphology has been reported in
detail [46]. Fruit is a sweet, juicy, globular berry 0.2 to 0.5 inch
(4-12 mm) in diameter [25,33,48,58]. Average berry weight has been
estimated at approximately 0.01 ounce (0.28 g) [3]. Berries are blue
and glaucous to black and shiny [25,61]. White-fruited forms, although
rare, have also been reported [33]. Each berry contains 8 to 14
variable, irregular seeds [25,53]. Of this number, approximately four
are viable [63]. Viable seeds tend to be brown or reddish-brown
[25,53]. The glossy, pitted seeds average 0.04 to 0.06 inch (1-1.6 mm)
in length [53].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

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Blue Ridge blueberry grows from Minnesota and southern Ontario to Maine,
and southward to the uplands of Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas [58,61].
It occurs abundantly in the Allegheny Plateau but is primarily local to
the west in Illinois, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Oklahoma [8,61]. Blue Ridge
blueberry grows throughout the Ozarks, southern Appalachians, and
Coastal Plain but is restricted to isolated populations to the north in
much of New England [55,58].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: cover, fire regime, seed, shrub

Fire is a dominant influence in many Coastal Plain forests in which
Blue Ridge blueberry occurs [41]. Historic fire intervals have been
estimated at approximately 65 years in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey
[6]. Fire intervals are estimated at 40 years in oak-pine stands and as
frequent as every 8 years in pitch pine stands of New Jersey [6].
Blue Ridge blueberry is well represented in these communities. Although
it can survive during fairly long fire-free intervals, this shrub is
particularly well adapted to frequent fires. In the New Jersey Pine
Barrens, it typically assumes importance under a regime of frequent
fires [10,12]. Burning more than once within 5 years can produce
increases in the relative abundance of Blue Ridge blueberry. Buell and
Cantlon [12] observed no "regular trend in cover until burns became more
frequent than every 3 years." However, plants may be reduced by annual
burning. On annually burned plots, Blue Ridge blueberry cover was
approximately one-half that of less frequently burned plots [12].

Blue Ridge blueberry is well adapted to fire [10]. It readily regenerates
in postfire communities [14] from rhizomes, root crowns, or surviving
portions of aerial stems [10]. As with other lowbush blueberries,
clones of Blue Ridge blueberry are rejuvenated as fire removes decadent
material and stimulates sprouting [52]. Birds and mammals may transport
some seed from off-site, but establishment is probably limited to good
sites in favorable years.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

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More info for the terms: cover, fruit, wildfire

Prescribed fire: Clones of lowbush blueberries such as Blue Ridge
blueberry persist for years on undisturbed sites. However, fruit
production and overall vigor typically decline with age [52]. Fire has
been widely used to rejuvenate decadent clones and improve wildlife
habitat [52].

Biomass: Estimates of Blue Ridge blueberry biomass in New Jersey Pine
Barrens were as follows [6]:

(kg/ha)
control wildfire wildfire pres. burn pres. burn
---- + 1 162 35

Environmental consideration: Blue Ridge blueberry is able to persist in
chestnut-oak woodlands of Pennsylvania adjacent to zinc smelters [31].
Studies in these contaminated communities indicated that many species,
normally favored by fire, were weakened by exposure to high soil levels
of zinc and did not assume prominence on burned sites. However,
Blue Ridge blueberry, although also weakened by exposure to soil
contaminants, nevertheless increased on burned plots. Percent cover was
as follows [31]:

burned unburned
(sampled 14-15 years after fire)

control 7.8 1.2
smelter site 4.7 0.9
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: chamaephyte

Chamaephyte
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

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More info for the term: hardwood

Blue Ridge blueberry grows on dry, rocky hillsides, upland ridges, rocky
outcrops and ledges, sandy knolls, and in shale barrens [14,58,61,53].
It commonly occurs on a variety of disturbed sites, such as abandoned
pastures and farmlands, along roadsides, and in clearcuts [14,44,58,61].
Blue Ridge blueberry is a common component of dry, open woods but also
grows in hardwood swamps [51,61]. It generally occurs below 3,500 feet
(1,061 m) in elevation [14].

Soils: Blue Ridge blueberry grows on dry, sandy or gravelly soils, as
well as on heavy clay [17,25,30]. It grows well on acidic soils [53].
Parent materials are variable but include chert, granite, gneiss, and
schist [25,30].

Climate: Blue Ridge blueberry grows in a humid mesothermal climatic
regime [34]. Average annual precipitation amounts have been reported as
ranging from 39 to 47 inches (100-120 cm) [6,34,50].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: hardwood

1 Jack pine
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
110 Black oak
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

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Most aboveground stems are presumably killed by fire. However, buds are
resistant to heat damage [10]. Brayton and Woodwell [10] observed a
"few" surviving aboveground stems after a "heavy burn" in New York.
Underground regenerative structures are generally well protected by
overlying layers of soil. Postfire mortality is apparently low.
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the terms: fruit, presence

Browse: The importance of Blue Ridge blueberry browse to wild ungulates
appears variable. It is reported to have fair forage value in the
Ozarks [47] and receives only light year-round use by white-tailed deer
in parts of central Pennsylvania [43]. White-tailed deer seldom feed on
Blue Ridge blueberry browse during the winter in New Jersey, but in parts
of Pennsylvania, it may be eaten during the spring and summer [38].
Blue Ridge blueberry has been described as a preferred white-tailed deer
food in parts of Virginia [15]. This preference may be due in part to
the presence of juicy, flavorful berries.

Fruit: Fruit of Blue Ridge blueberry is widely used by numerous species
of small birds and mammals [53]. In Virginia and presumably elsewhere,
berries are readily consumed by the wild turkey [15]. Blueberry
(Vaccinium spp.) fruits are eaten by many species of birds including the
rufous-sided towhee, northern mockingbird, gray catbird, brown thrasher,
American robin, whimbel, herring gull, Canada goose, ruffed grouse,
spruce grouse, eastern bluebird, and various tanagers and thrushes
[40,59,63]. The black bear, red squirrel, gray fox, red fox, skunks,
and chipmunks also feed on blueberry fruit [40,59,61].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: association, codominant, fern

Blue Ridge blueberry is a prominent understory species in oak (Quercus
spp.) woodlands, red maple (Acer rubrum) swamps, oak-chestnut (Castanea
dentata spp.) woodlands, pine (Pinus spp.)-oak communities, ecotonal
white pine (P. strobus) thickets, pitch pine (P. rigida) barrens, and
open pine savannas [9,23,61,64]. Numerous evergreen and deciduous
overstory dominants grow in association with Blue Ridge blueberry. Common
associates include northern red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina),
white oak (Q. alba), post oak (Q. stellata), chestnut oak (Q. prinus),
blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), Virginia pine (P. virginia), shortleaf
pine (P. echinata), pitch pine (P. rigida), loblolly pine (P. taeda),
longleaf pine (P. palustris), jack pine (P. banksiana), eastern hemlock
(Tsuga canadensis), red maple, and black cherry (Prunus serotina)
[23,28,30,37,64].

Understory associates: Blue Ridge blueberry grows as a principal species
in higher elevation spirea (Spirea corymbosa) meadows of Virginia [26].
In the southern Appalachians, mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia),
rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), yellow birch (Betula
alleghaniensis), black huckleberry (Gaylussacia bacatta), wintergreen
(Gaultheria procumbens), and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)
typically occur with Blue Ridge blueberry [64]. Common associates in oak,
oak-pine communities, and the Pine Barrens of New Jersey include black
huckleberry, melampyrum (Melampyrum lineare), sweet-fern (Comptonia
peregrina), cat greenbriar (Smilax glauca), mountain-laurel, dangleberry
(Gaylussacia frondosa), yellow sedge (Carex pensylvanica), and bracken
fern (Pteridium aquilinum) [12,18,34]. Sweet-fern, black huckleberry,
dangleberry, and low sweet blueberry often grow with Blue Ridge blueberry
in oak woodlands [31]. In the upper Midwest, sedges (Carex spp.),
Dichanthelium depauperatum, and dewberry (Rubus hispidus) are common
understory associates [2].

Blue Ridge blueberry grows as a "diagnostic understory species" in certain
old-growth post oak-black oak communities of the Piedmont [30]. It is
listed as an indicator or codominant in the following community type
classification system:

Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina [30]
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

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More info for the terms: cover, shrub

Drought resistance: Blue Ridge blueberry is resistant to drought [19,61]
but is not as drought tolerant as many other southern blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.) [20].

Radiation: Blue Ridge blueberry is resistant to ionizing gamma radiation
[10]. Plants sprouted from rhizomes 0.4 inch (1.0 cm) or greater in
depth following aerial exposure to 105 R per day. Plants did not sprout
after rhizomes were exposed to 65 to 70 R per day [10].

Disease: The shrub is susceptible to "stunt" virus [19].

Timber harvest: Cover of Blue Ridge blueberry is reportedly greater in
cut stands (20 percent) than in uncut stands (9 percent) [12].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

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Fruit: Blue Ridge blueberry is characterized by a high soluble solid
content [3]. Soluble solids average 13.07 percent, with a titratable
acidity of 0.67 [3]. Each berry averages 8 calories [63].

Browse: Leaf nutrient content varies according to phenological
development. Killingbeck and Costigan [34] reported the following
nutrient values:

micrograms per cm -2

N P Cu Fe Zn

pre-senescent leaves 57.5 5.5 0.05 0.15 0.07
senescent leaves 2.3 0.4 0.002 0.008 0.013
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

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AL AR CT DE GA IL IN IA KS KY
MD MA MI MN ME MO NH NJ NY NC
OH OK PA RI SC TN VT VA WV WI
ON
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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More info for the terms: fresh, fruit, shrub

Fruit of Blue Ridge blueberry is sweet to bland and of "fair quality"
[14,58]. Fruit is eaten fresh or used to make pies and jellies [53].
It receives casual use throughout its range but is harvested
commercially in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, western and
northwestern Arkansas, and West Virginia [61]. In many areas,
quantities of berries are difficult to collect because the fruit ripens
over a relatively long period of time [53].

Blue Ridge blueberry has shown promise for use in breeding hardy,
early-ripening, fruit-producing cultivars [4,19]. It has shown
particular promise for developing commercial blueberries adapted to
upland mineral soils [35]. Blue Ridge blueberry is an attractive shrub
and is occasionally grown for its ornamental value as well as its fruit
[33].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

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Palatability of Blue Ridge blueberry browse to deer has not been well
documented [12]. Several food habit studies suggest that it is of at
least fair palatability to deer in many areas. The juicy, sweet fruit
is highly palatable to numerous species of birds and mammals [53].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info for the terms: fruit, seed

Flowers generally appear before the leaves are "half grown" [33]. The
mean interval between flowering and fruiting is approximately 66 days
[24]. Vander Kloet [61] reported a period of 60 days until seed set.
Blue Ridge blueberry often ripens over a relatively long period of time
[53], although much geographic variation has been observed. In the
foothills of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains, populations often
fruit synchronously [63]. However, in coastal regions, fruit ripens
sporadically [63]. Ballington and others [4] observed peak ripeness in
early June, although berries could be harvested from July 12 to July 29.
Generalized flowering and fruiting dates are as follows:

Location Flowering Fruit ripe Authority

VA ---- July - August Uttal 1987
Great Plains April - June July - September Great Plains Flora
Flora Assoc. 1986
n-c Great Plains mid-April early July Stephens 1973
NC, SC March - April June - July Radford and others
1964
OH ---- July 16-28 Gorchov 1987
New England May 10 - June 14 ---- Seymour 1985
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: cover, frequency, prescribed fire, root collar, seed

Blue Ridge blueberry sprouts readily after fire [10,14] from underground
rhizomes, buds located on the root collar, and buds located on portions
of surviving aerial stems [10,42]. Surviving buds located nearest the
stem apex generally sprout to produce the new shoots [10]. Plants
commonly sprout from underground rhizomes after aboveground foliage is
consumed by fire. Sprouts often originate from root collar buds after
only light damage [42].

Sprouting ability may be reduced by severe damage or by fires at too
frequent intervals [10]. After wildfires in white oak-scarlet oak
(Quercus coccinea)-pitch pine forests of New Jersey, shoot elongation of
Blue Ridge blueberry was reduced by "heavy" as compared to "light" burns.
However, greater population increases were noted after "heavy" burns.
Comparative values were as follows [10]:

stems/ m sq burn

117 light
138 heavy

Some seedling establishment may occur as birds and mammals transport
seed from off-site. However, seedling establishment in most blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.) is generally limited to favorable sites in good years.

Recovery of Blue Ridge blueberry is typically rapid. By the second year
after a prescribed fire in a clearcut jack pine stand in northern lower
Michigan, plants exhibited significant increases in cover [1]. Blue Ridge
blueberry was considered dominant in both burned and unburned stands
[1]. Cover was documented as follows [1,2]:

1979 1980 1981
cover freq. cover freq. cover freq.
mature jack
pine stand 27.2 30.0 -- -- -- --
unburned
clearcut 11.3 43.3 20.5 44.0 19.2 44.4
burned
clearcut 14.3 34.2 9.0 41.0 19.4 43.9

Although Blue Ridge blueberry generally increases after fire, small
reductions have been noted on certain sites. Ten to 26 months after a
burn in north-central New York, Swan [54] reported average frequencies
on unburned plots of 47 percent, whereas the average frequency on burned
plots was 36 percent. Similarly, Brown [11] observed relative densities
of 37.58 percent on burned sites and 43.92 percent on unburned sites in
Rhode Island woodlands.
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown, shrub

Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: fruit, rhizome, seed

Blue Ridge blueberry can regenerate through seed or by vegetative means.

Seed: In some areas, fruit is produced in abundance [33,53], but
elsewhere yields are more often small [16]. Vander Kloet and
Austin-Smith [63] reported that plants produce fruit "en masse" in the
Appalachians and Ozarks but produce fruit sporadically near the Atlantic
Coast. Little is known about specific germination requirements.
Radicles generally emerge within 13 days, dicotyledons develop within 23
days, and true leaves are produced within 38 days after planting [60].
The seeds of most blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) germinate only on good
sites in favorable years. Ballington and others [4] observed only a few
surviving Blue Ridge blueberry seedlings.

Vegetative regeneration: Blue Ridge blueberry spreads by means of rhizome
expansion to form extensive colonies [43,61]. Plants sprout readily
from underground rhizomes after aboveground vegetation is damaged or
destroyed. Most rhizomes are concentrated in the top 1.9 inches (5 cm)
of the A horizon of the soil, but some extend to depths of 6 inches (15
cm) [10]. Buds nearest the stem apex typically sprout first after
disturbance [10].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info for the term: climax

Blue Ridge blueberry is reported to have "ruderale tendencies" [57,58].
It commonly invades disturbed sites, such as abandoned farms and
clearcuts [58,61]. In parts of New England, it has become widely
established on abandoned pasturelands. Blue Ridge blueberry, black
huckleberry, and roundleaf greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia) have assumed
dominance in these relatively stable plant communities [44]. In many
areas, it becomes more abundant on plots burned at frequent intervals
[27].

Blue Ridge blueberry also grows in several climax communities. It occurs
in climax stands in pine-oak communities of New Jersey and in old-growth
post oak-black oak communities of the South Carolina Piedmont [30,37].
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

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Vaccinium vacillans Kalm ex Torr.
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Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: swamp

The currently preferred scientific name of Blue Ridge blueberry is
Vaccinium pallidum Ait. [32].

Blue Ridge blueberry hybridizes with many species including Darrow's
evergreen blueberry (V.darrowii), sweet hurt's blueberry (V. boreale),
small cluster blueberry (V. tenellum), highbush blueberry (V.
fuscatum), deerberry (V. stamineum), mayberry (V. elliottii), velvetleaf
blueberry (V. myrtilloides), downy blueberry (V. atrococcum), low sweet
blueberry (V. angustifolium), V. caesariense, and V. virgatum
[14,19,58,60]. Hybrid swarms or complexes involving Blue Ridge blueberry,
swamp highbush blueberry, and black highbush blueberry have been
reported [58]. Some researchers suggest that V. alto-montanum may be a
derivative of Blue Ridge blueberry hybridization [57,58] or, alternately,
an autotetraploid of Blue Ridge blueberry [19]. Vander Kloet [61]
reported that Blue Ridge blueberry may be an ancestor of highbush
blueberry (V. corymbosum). Hairy-fruited blueberry (V. hirsutum) may be
the product of Blue Ridge blueberry-deerberry hybridization [61].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the terms: hardwood, seed

Blue Ridge blueberry can retard erosion on steep slopes [53]. Most
blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) can be readily propagated by hardwood
cuttings or by seed [65]. The weight of 100 seeds averages 0.001 ounce
(34 mg) [60]. Propagation techniques have been examined in detail [65].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Wood Products Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The wood of Blue Ridge blueberry is soft and white but has no known
commercial value [53].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Vaccinium pallidum

provided by wikipedia EN

Vaccinium pallidum is a species of flowering plant in the heath family known by the common names hillside blueberry, Blue Ridge blueberry, late lowbush blueberry, and early lowbush blueberry. It is native to central Canada (Ontario) and the central and eastern United States (from Maine west to Wisconsin and south as far as Georgia and Louisiana) plus the Ozarks of Missouri, Arkansas, southeastern Kansas and eastern Oklahoma.[2]

Vaccinium pallidum is a deciduous shrub, erect in stature but variable in height. It generally grows 23 to 51 centimeters (9 to 20 in) tall, but depending on environmental conditions it ranges from 8 centimeters (3.2 inches) to one full meter (40 inches) in height. It is colonial, sprouting from its rhizome to form colonies of clones. The shrub has greenish brown to red bark on its stems, and the smaller twigs may be green, reddish, yellowish, or gray. The alternately arranged leaves are also variable. They are generally roughly oval and measure 2 to 6 centimeters (0.8–2.4 inches) long. They are green to yellowish or bluish in color, turning red in the fall. The flowers are cylindrical, bell-shaped, or urn-shaped and are borne in racemes of up to 11. They are white to pinkish or greenish in color,[2] or "greenish white with pink striping",[1] and about half a centimeter[2] to one centimeter long.[1] They are pollinated by bees such as bumblebees and Andrena carlini.[1] The fruit is a berry up to 1.2 centimeters long. It is waxy blue to shiny black in color, or rarely pure white. It contains several seeds, a few of which are generally not viable. The plant reproduces sexually via seed and vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizome.[2][3]

Vaccinium pallidum grows in many types of habitat, including oak and chestnut woodlands, maple-dominated swamps, pine barrens, pine savanna, and a variety of forest types. It grows in the understory of trees such as red oak, black oak, white oak, post oak, chestnut oak, blackjack oak, Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, pitch pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, jack pine, eastern hemlock, red maple, and black cherry.[2]

Vaccinium pallidum is common on disturbed sites such as roadsides and abandoned fields. It also grows at climax in old-growth oak stands in the South Carolina piedmont. It can grow on dry, rocky soils, sandy and gravelly soils, and heavy clay. The climate is generally humid.[2]

The wild fruits are food for many types of bird and other animals. Each individual fruit has approximately eight calories. For humans the taste is "sweet to bland" and the fruit can be eaten fresh, in pies, or as jelly. The fruit is harvested and sold commercially in some areas, such as northeastern Alabama and northwestern Georgia. The plant is also grown as an ornamental.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Vander Kloet, Sam P. (2009). "Vaccinium pallidum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 8. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Tirmenstein, D. A. (1991). "Vaccinium pallidum". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
  3. ^ "Vaccinium pallidum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.

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Vaccinium pallidum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Vaccinium pallidum is a species of flowering plant in the heath family known by the common names hillside blueberry, Blue Ridge blueberry, late lowbush blueberry, and early lowbush blueberry. It is native to central Canada (Ontario) and the central and eastern United States (from Maine west to Wisconsin and south as far as Georgia and Louisiana) plus the Ozarks of Missouri, Arkansas, southeastern Kansas and eastern Oklahoma.

Vaccinium pallidum is a deciduous shrub, erect in stature but variable in height. It generally grows 23 to 51 centimeters (9 to 20 in) tall, but depending on environmental conditions it ranges from 8 centimeters (3.2 inches) to one full meter (40 inches) in height. It is colonial, sprouting from its rhizome to form colonies of clones. The shrub has greenish brown to red bark on its stems, and the smaller twigs may be green, reddish, yellowish, or gray. The alternately arranged leaves are also variable. They are generally roughly oval and measure 2 to 6 centimeters (0.8–2.4 inches) long. They are green to yellowish or bluish in color, turning red in the fall. The flowers are cylindrical, bell-shaped, or urn-shaped and are borne in racemes of up to 11. They are white to pinkish or greenish in color, or "greenish white with pink striping", and about half a centimeter to one centimeter long. They are pollinated by bees such as bumblebees and Andrena carlini. The fruit is a berry up to 1.2 centimeters long. It is waxy blue to shiny black in color, or rarely pure white. It contains several seeds, a few of which are generally not viable. The plant reproduces sexually via seed and vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizome.

Vaccinium pallidum grows in many types of habitat, including oak and chestnut woodlands, maple-dominated swamps, pine barrens, pine savanna, and a variety of forest types. It grows in the understory of trees such as red oak, black oak, white oak, post oak, chestnut oak, blackjack oak, Virginia pine, shortleaf pine, pitch pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, jack pine, eastern hemlock, red maple, and black cherry.

Vaccinium pallidum is common on disturbed sites such as roadsides and abandoned fields. It also grows at climax in old-growth oak stands in the South Carolina piedmont. It can grow on dry, rocky soils, sandy and gravelly soils, and heavy clay. The climate is generally humid.

The wild fruits are food for many types of bird and other animals. Each individual fruit has approximately eight calories. For humans the taste is "sweet to bland" and the fruit can be eaten fresh, in pies, or as jelly. The fruit is harvested and sold commercially in some areas, such as northeastern Alabama and northwestern Georgia. The plant is also grown as an ornamental.

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