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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 29.9 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

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Little is known about the mating system of Lasiorhinus latifrons. During the breeding season, males are aggressive towards each other, biting the ears, rump, and flanks of other male wombats (Wells, 1995). Females ready for mating may emit a coughing call when they are pursued by males. However, much of the process of selecting a mate is unknown.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Southern hairy-nosed wombats breed in synchrony with highest growth rates of the native grasses that make up their diet. Because of their dependence on the germination of grasses, their reproduction is affected by the amount of winter rainfall (Wells, 1987). During periods of drought, native grasses do not grow, and wombats do not breed. When the grasses begin to germinate, female wombats become ready for reproduction. Males also reach their peak reproductive activity when females are active (Temple-Smith et al., 2000). During the breeding season, males are aggressive towards each other and maintain dominance hierarchies (Cronin, 2000). Mating occurs in the burrow, with males usually remaining in one warren, while females move among them. When wombats copulate, the male lengthens the time of intromission by turning the female on her side and mounting her from behind (Wells, 1995). Female wombats usually give birth between September and December. A single young is born after 21 days of gestation. The juvenile then moves to the pouch where it completes its development. Young begin to leave the pouch between six and eight months of age, and leave permanently by nine months. Young wombats may continue to suckle at the pouch until they have reached 15 months of age (Cronin, 2000). Females are able to reproduce again after weaning is complete. At three years of age, both sexes reach sexual maturity.

Since the breeding of Lasiorhinus latifrons occurs in the summer, young wombats are weaned in the early spring, making them vulnerable to food stress and dependent on the amount of rain received in April (Wells, 1987). Wombats usually require two to three years with enough rainfall to successfully raise young. Without enough rainfall, there is not enough grass to sustain juveniles through their growth (Wells, 1995). Additionally, overgrazing of the land can destroy perennial grasses in favor of annual grasses that do not meet the nutritional needs of juvenile wombats.

Breeding interval: Southern hairy-nosed wombats breed once yearly, if optimal rainfall conditions prevail.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs from September to December.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 21 days.

Range weaning age: 6 to 9 months.

Average time to independence: 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 3 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 3 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 0.5 g.

Average gestation period: 21 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
547 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
547 days.

Southern hairy-nosed wombat females invest heavily in their young. Since the young of all marsupials are born very early in development and depend on their mother’s milk to complete development, the mother spends a lot of energy producing milk over a long period of time. Additionally, once the young leave the pouch, they return sporadically for more milk while learning how to burrow and graze from their mothers.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female)

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats communicate with each other through vocalizations and scents. A direct encounter between wombats is rare; they rely more heavily on scent to communicate. Wombats spend considerable time investigating scents left recently by other wombats (Wells, 1978). When two wombats do encounter each other, they make a rough coughing noise (Wells, 1978). When the animal is alarmed, it will use a more strident call to alert others (Wells, 1987). However, most communication between Lasiorhinus latifrons individuals occurs through olfaction and scent marking.

Communication Channels: acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats have withstood massive habitat loss due to human clearing of land. They are considered threatened, but are not listed as an endangered species (Cronin, 2000). Currently, one of the main threats to their survival is the spread of rabbits throughout Australia. Rabbits, and domestic livestock, compete with wombats for forage, leading to overgrazing in many areas. Once the land is overgrazed, dominant grass species shift from perennial ones, the native diet of wombats, to annual species that do not provide wombats with all of their metabolic needs (Wells, 1995). Additionally, human clearing of the land removes the vegetation that the wombats rely on during drought periods (“Southern Hairy-Nosed Wombat”, 1999). Hunting of wombats by aboriginal people is not considered a serious threat. Wombats are valued by aboriginal people, who will often leave their own land to hunt wombats elsewhere so that they can keep their own wombat populations healthy (Davies, 1998). Low wombat reproduction rates means that populations do not quickly recover from disruptions.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats are sometimes agricultural pests. When they dig their burrows, they can destroy crops. The coexistence of wombats and livestock pose a resource competition problem (Nowak, 1991). Additionally, livestock can sometimes break their legs when they break through into a wombat burrow (Nowak, 1991). Burrows also provide problems for farmers because they are good habitats for other pest species such as rabbits (Nowak, 1991). Many farmers also incorrectly believe that wombats destroy fences on their properties (Nowak, 1991).

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Wombats are hunted throughout their region by aboriginal people. These native cultures consider wombats a part of their culture and enjoy eating their meat. However, they are cautious not to hunt them too frequently, as it takes a lot of time and energy to capture a wombat (Davies, 1998). Wombats have also been captured and domesticated as pets (Nowak, 1991).

Positive Impacts: food

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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When southern hairy-nosed wombats graze in front of their burrows, they may create an area with a higher density of new green shoots, a sign of delayed growth of individual grass plants (Wells, 1987). Additionally, other animals, such as introduced rabbits and foxes, may use wombat burrows. Southern hairy-nosed wombats are known to harbor a number of parasites, but seemingly with no effect on the wombats. Also, they may contract bacterial and fungal diseases.

Ecosystem Impact: creates habitat

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Progamotaenia diaphana
  • Eimeria wombati
  • Eimeria ursini
  • Ileocystis wombati
  • Macropostrongyloides lasiorhini
  • Phascolostrongylus turleyi
  • Oesophagostomoides longispicularis
  • Oesophagostomoides gilteneri
  • Oesophagostomoides stirtoni
  • Ixodes victoriensis
  • Ixodes tasmani
  • Ixodes holocyclus
  • Ixodes phascolomyis
  • Aponomma auruginans
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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats are herbivorous, grazing primarily on grasses and herbs. When available, they prefer new green shoots of grass, especially species in the genus Stipa, and will eat them until they are no longer available (“Southern Hairy-Nosed Wombat”, 1997). During droughts, wombats have been known to eat leaves and stems of short bushes, particularly the bluebush species in the genus Maireana (Wells, 1987). There is some evidence that wombats feed on roots during dry periods, with some preference shown for Eucalyptus species (Wells, 1987).

When feeding, southern hairy-nosed wombats choose green shoots if they are present to maximize their water and nutrient uptake. The digestive system has two adaptations that aid wombats in the uptake of water and energy from their food sources. Wombats use fermentation by bacterial colonies in their intestines to help them digest cellulose (Ride, 1970). Additionally, their feces is very dry, containing only 50% water (Ride, 1970).

Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; wood, bark, or stems

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats inhabit the semi-arid and arid grasslands and woodlands that receive 200 to 500 mm of rain per year in southeastern Western Australia, southern South Australia, and southwestern New South Wales.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Lasiorhinus latifrons require sturdy soil that is able to support the digging of large burrows. They also require perennial grasses and bluebush scrub (Maireana and Chenopodium), essential parts of their diet.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Because southern hairy-nosed wombats have continuously growing teeth, it is difficult to non-invasively collect data about wombat age. The best means to make an estimate of an animal’s age is to tag and track it over the course of its life. In a study that tracked and tagged adult wombats, individuals lived for 14 years (Wells, 1987). The main limit on the lifespan of Lasiorhinus latifrons is the amount of rainfall in a season rather than predation (Wells, 1987). Wombats are able to escape predators because they live in burrows.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
14 years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
20 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
17 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
18.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
24.5 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
20.0 years.

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Southern hairy-nosed wombats are stocky, robust animals, with a lot of power for digging. The body is close to one meter long with short, powerful legs. They are plantigrade and have flattened claws on each of the 5 digits; these are used for digging. On the hind feet, the second and third toes have fused, creating a digit with two claws that the wombats use for grooming (Cronin, 2000). The robust head is flattened and has narrow, pointed ears that extend over its top (Menkhorst, 2001). The incisors are rodent-like. The palate between the molars is wide (Wells, 1987). All the teeth grow continuously throughout their lives, perhaps an adaptation to accommodate their harsh diet. Since hairy-nosed wombats eat a coarser diet than that of common wombats (Vombatus ursinus), they need to masticate their food more thoroughly than that species, so their temporalis muscle is better developed and the masseteric muscle is more reduced (Nakajima and Townsend, 1994). Lasiorhinus latifrons can be distinguished from other Lasiorhinus species because the nasal bone is longer than the frontal bone. The tail is short and usually hidden by fur. The silky fur ranges in color from grey to tan. Soft, usually white, fur covers the rhinarium, giving the animal its name.

Range mass: 19 to 32 kg.

Range length: 772 to 934 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average basal metabolic rate: 16.001 W.

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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Since southern hairy-nosed wombats live in burrows, they can easily escape from predators. No predators are known for Lasiorhinus latifrons, but the closely related Lasiorhinus krefftii are preyed upon by dingoes and feral dogs (Banks, et al., 2003). Predation does not appear to be the main limiting factor in wombat longevity. Wombats are extremely dependent on the amount of rainfall in their habitat, which affects their life-span more than predators.

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Green, E. 2006. "Lasiorhinus latifrons" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lasiorhinus_latifrons.html
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Emily Green, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Southern hairy-nosed wombat

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The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is one of three extant species of wombats. It is found in scattered areas of semiarid scrub and mallee from the eastern Nullarbor Plain to the New South Wales border area. It is the smallest of all three wombat species. The young often do not survive dry seasons. It is the state animal of South Australia.[3]

Among the oldest southern hairy-nosed wombats ever documented were a male and a female from Brookfield Zoo just outside Chicago. Their names were Carver, who lived to be 34, and his mother, Vicky, who lived to be 24.[4] In South Australia in 2010, a domesticated wombat named Wally was also reported as having reached the age of 34.[5] Hamlet, a wombat at the Toronto Zoo, similarly died at age 34.[6]

Physical description

The southern hairy-nosed wombat is adapted to digging; it has a stocky and robust build, flattened claws, and five digits.[7] It is also plantigrade. The body length ranges from 772 to 934 mm (30.4 to 36.8 in) with a body mass ranging from 19 to 32 kg (42 to 71 lb).[7] Its short tail is hidden by its fur. The pelage is silky and is typically greyish or tan in colour. The wombat grooms itself with its second and third toes, which are fused together, except at the tips.[8][9] The head is robust and flattened and the ears are pointed.[10] The snout resembles that of a pig.[8] The animal gets its name from the hairs that cover its rhinarium.[7] The wombat's incisors resemble those of rodents, and its molars are widely spaced by the palate.[8] The teeth keep growing for the entirety of the animal’s life, which is likely an adaptation to its harsh diet.[7] Compared to the common wombat, the southern hairy-nosed wombat has a larger temporalis muscle and a smaller masseter muscle.[11] Also, unlike the northern hairy-nosed wombat, the southern hairy-nosed wombat’s nasal bone is longer than the frontal bone.[7]

Biology and ecology

Southern hairy-nosed wombats range though Western Australia, southern South Australia, and south-western New South Wales. They live in semiarid to arid grasslands and woodlands.[10]

Feeding and energy

 src=
Closeup of wombat lying down

Southern hairy-nosed wombats, along with other wombat species, select native perennial grasses and sedges, but do consume introduced pasture species, forbs, and the leaves of woody shrubs if their favoured food is not available.[12] Much of the southern hairy-nosed wombat's diet is Austrostipa nitida, which grows around its warren complex and is trimmed as it grazes.[12] This creates an area with a higher density of new green shoots, a sign of delayed growth of individual grass.[8] The teeth of the wombat are more effective in grinding food into small particles than the western grey kangaroo.[8] Its digestive tract has a tiny caecum and a colon divided into parts.[12] The anterior part is relatively small and serves as the site for fermentation, while the posterior part is larger and is where water is reabsorbed. The wombat conserves water by recycling more urea to the colon rather than releasing it as urine. Wombats release less than other herbivorous mammals.[13] As such, the southern hairy-nosed wombat produces very dry faeces, with water contents as low as 40%.[12]

The harsh environment in which the southern hairy-nosed wombat lives is further reflected in its energetics. In captivity, their standard metabolic rate was found to be 130 kl/kg^0.75 per day, which is very low compared to most placental animals and other marsupials.[13][14] They also have the lowest thyroid hormone levels among mammals.[12] The food wombats eat provides more than enough energy.[13] As long as enough food is available, the forage consumed by the wombat can support it during late lactation. It is more effective than a donkey at maintaining its weight on low-quality food.[15]

Burrow system and activities

Southern hairy-nosed wombats dig and live in burrows which they connect into warrens with many entrances. These warrens are their prime refuges and are shared by up to 10 individuals.[12] A wombat digs with its fore claws while sitting up.[16] It leaves its new burrow backwards and pushes out soil with all its paws.[16] The central warren is surrounded by a circle of small, simple burrows 100–150 m from it.[14] The small burrows along the outer edges is where young wombats go when they are displaced from the central warren.[12] Wombats may favour a certain burrow and not share it with others. However, there is no monopolization of burrows.[17] Wombats move between burrows and even warrens. Male wombats are territorial towards wombats from other warrens, possibly to defend food resources and the warren refuges.[12] Trails of droppings connect the burrows. The males also mark their territory with anal scent secretions by rubbing their backs and rumps on objects.[8] Fights between males over territories or mates do occur and involve bites to the ears, flanks, or rumps.[7] Also, a dominance hierarchy exists among males.[7]

 src=
Wombats sleeping in a tunnel at Melbourne Zoo.

The burrows of a southern hairy-nosed wombat can have air temperatures around of 14 °C in midwinter to 26 °C in midsummer, the wombat's preferred thermo-neutral zone, while the ambient temperatures outside range from down to around 2 °C in Winter and up to 36 °C or above during Summer.[18] Warrens can make surface conditions in habitats of low humidity and high temperatures better for the wombat.[18] A wombat retires deep in the burrow after foraging.[14] The next night, the wombat moves to the entrance to check if conditions are right before emerging again.[14] In the evening, wombats leave their burrows as the ambient temperature and burrow temperature are the same. In the early morning, when the surface temperature is lower, they retire.[19]

Mating and reproduction

The breeding of the southern hairy-nosed wombat occurs when their favoured food is at its peak growth rates. Their reproduction relies on the winter rainfall, which germinates the grasses.[8] Between August and October, when rainfall is sufficient, females enter ovulation and the males' testosterone levels and prostate gland sizes increase. In years of low rainfall, neither occurs.[12] When breeding, dominance hierarchies among males are established through aggression.[9] Copulation takes place in the warren, with males remaining in one burrow and females moving among them. Mating takes place underground and involves the male mounting the female from behind while she is on her side.[17] The gestation period of the wombat lasts 22 days and most births occur in October. When a young is born, it climbs into the pouch and clings to a teat. It stays in the pouch for six months growing to around 0.45 kg, with a light pelage and open eyes.[12] It soon leaves the pouch and starts grazing at the surface. The young is fully weaned when it is a year old and reaches full size at the age of three years,[12] which is also when it becomes sexually mature.[7]

Communication

Southern hairy-nosed wombats use vocalisations and scents for communication. While most communication between wombats occurs through olfaction and scent-marking, as they do not often encounter each other directly,[7] they emit rough, coughing noises when they pass each other, and emit a more strident call for alarm.[8]

Status

 src=
Illustration by Joseph Wolf (1865)

The southern hairy-nosed wombat was listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN in 2016, because "many subpopulations are now isolated and may be non-viable". It was previously listed as Least Concern because "While there are sporadic outbreaks of sarcoptic mange, competition with introduced herbivores, susceptibility to drought, and severe fragmentation in parts of its range, the species has a wide distribution, large population, occurs in a number of protected areas, and it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category".[2] Wombats were hunted by aboriginal people for their meat. However, capturing a wombat takes considerable time and energy, so they were not hunted too frequently.[20] The indigenous people of Australia value the wombat culturally and keep their local wombat populations healthy by hunting wombats in other areas.[20]

Wombats have been considered as agricultural pests by landholders.[21] Their digging can destroy crops and can increase the risk of livestock breaking their legs by falling through their burrow systems.[22] Competition between livestock, rabbits, and wombats can lead to overgrazing. Overgrazing and the spread of invasive weeds in some areas has led to the flora being dominated by annual grass and weed species, from which wombats cannot get enough of their metabolic needs, resulting in reports of emaciation and mass starvation.[7][23] The competition from introduced rabbits threatens the survival of wombats.[7]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Diprotodontia". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Woinarski, J. & Burbidge, A.A. (2016). "Lasiorhinus latifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T40555A21959203. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T40555A21959203.en.
  3. ^ "Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat". Unique Australian Animals Website.
  4. ^ Chicago Zoological Society> Remembering Carver: Oldest Wombat on Record Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 9 March 2013.
  5. ^ AdelaideNow> Wombats living happily ever after Accessed 8 March 2013.
  6. ^ Toronto Zoo mourns Hamlet, world’s oldest wombat, by Laura Beeston, at the Toronto Star; published July 8, 2016; retrieved March 27, 2018
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Green, Emily (2006). "Lasiorhinus latifrons southern hairy-nosed wombat". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Wells, R. (1989). "Vombatidae" (PDF). In Walton, D.W. (ed.). Fauna of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. pp. 1–25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008.
  9. ^ a b Cronin, L. (2000). Australian Mammals. Annandale: Envirobook.
  10. ^ a b Menkhorst, P. (2001). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ Nakajima, K.; Townsend, G. (1994). "A morphometric study of the skulls of two species of wombats (Vombatus ursinus and Lasiorhinus latifrons)". Australian Mammalogy. 17: 65–72.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tyndale-Biscoe, H (2005). Life of Marsupials. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 269–285. ISBN 978-0-643-06257-3.
  13. ^ a b c Wells, RT; Green, B (1998). "Aspects of water metabolism in the southern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons". In Wells, RT; Pridmore, PA (eds.). Wombats. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty. ISBN 0949324817.
  14. ^ a b c d Wells, R.T. (1978). "Thermoregulation and activity rhythms in the hairly-nosed wombats, Laisorhinus latifrons (Owen), (Vombatidae)". Australian Journal of Zoology. 26 (4): 639–51. doi:10.1071/ZO9780639.
  15. ^ Hume ID (1999). Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 434. ISBN 052159555X.
  16. ^ a b Ride, W. (1970). A Guide to the Native Mammals of Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 93.
  17. ^ a b Wells, R. (1995). "Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen, 1845)". In Strahan, R. (ed.). Mammals of Australia. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books. pp. 202–3.
  18. ^ a b Shimmin GA, Skinner J, Baudinette RV (2002). "The warren architecture and environment of the southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons)". Journal of Zoology. 258 (4): 469–77. doi:10.1017/S0952836902001620.
  19. ^ Tayor GK. "A long term population study of the southern hairy-nosed wombat Laisorhinus latifrons at Moorude Wildlife Reserve, South Australia". pp. 198–205. Missing or empty |title= (help) (Wells & Pridmore 1998)
  20. ^ a b Davies J. 1998. "Who Owns the Animals? Sustainable Commercial use of Wildlife and Indigenous Rights in Australia Archived 22 February 2004 at the Wayback Machine" Presented at "Crossing Boundaries" the 7th annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 10–14 June 1998.
  21. ^ AdelaideNow> Burrowing for the facts about wombats Accessed 8 March 2013.
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  23. ^ ABC News> Weeds, overgrazing blamed for mass wombat deaths Accessed 7 March 2013.
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Southern hairy-nosed wombat: Brief Summary

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The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is one of three extant species of wombats. It is found in scattered areas of semiarid scrub and mallee from the eastern Nullarbor Plain to the New South Wales border area. It is the smallest of all three wombat species. The young often do not survive dry seasons. It is the state animal of South Australia.

Among the oldest southern hairy-nosed wombats ever documented were a male and a female from Brookfield Zoo just outside Chicago. Their names were Carver, who lived to be 34, and his mother, Vicky, who lived to be 24. In South Australia in 2010, a domesticated wombat named Wally was also reported as having reached the age of 34. Hamlet, a wombat at the Toronto Zoo, similarly died at age 34.

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