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Biology

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Adults occur usually over mud and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and in estuaries where the nursery and feeding grounds are located. They feed mainly on worms, crustaceans and fishes. An excellent foodfish. Sold fresh and frozen; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
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Atlantic croaker

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The Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) is a species of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Sciaenidae and is closely related to the black drum (Pogonias cromis), the silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), the spot croaker (Leiostomus xanthurus), the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and the weakfish (Cynoscion regalis). It is commonly found in sounds and estuaries from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico.

Description

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Atlantic croaker in Pass Christian, Mississippi

The name croaker is descriptive of the noise the fish makes by vibrating strong muscles against its swim bladder, which acts as a resonating chamber much like a ball. The Atlantic croaker is the loudest of the drum family. It is also referred to as a hardhead, with smaller ones called pin heads. During spawning season (August to October), croakers turn a deep golden color, from this comes the name golden croaker. Beginning in August, tiny young enter the Chesapeake Bay and travel to low-salinity and freshwater creeks. They move to deeper parts of tidal rivers for the winter. Juveniles leave the bay with the adults the following autumn.[1] When full-grown at 2 to 3 years old, croakers reach between 18 and 20 inches in length long and 4 to 5 pounds, but on average are 1/2-2 pounds. The fish's lifespan can reach up to 8 years.[2] The Chesapeake Bay record Atlantic croaker, caught in August 2007 off New Point Comfort Lighthouse in Virginia, weighed 8 pounds, 11 ounces and measured 27 inches long. They have traditionally been used for food by Native Americans, and their remains are found in shell middens.[3] These fish are popular catches among recreational anglers.

Distribution and habitat

The Atlantic croaker is native to coastal waters in the western Atlantic Ocean. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Mexico and includes the northern half of the Caribbean Sea but possibly not the southern Gulf of Mexico or the Antilles. It is also thought to live on the coasts of southern Brazil and Argentina. It is usually found in bays and estuaries over sandy or muddy bottoms where it feeds on polychaete worms, crustaceans and small fish.[4] The croaker visits the Chesapeake Bay from March through October and is found throughout the Bay as far north as the Susquehanna Flats.[5]

Management

Croaker populations greatly vary from year to year, and can be dependent on the conditions of their habitats. Their management is challenging due to the variability in their numbers.[4] Due to a wide range and large population, croaker are listed as species of Least Concern by the IUCN.[6]

Importance in scientific research

In 1999, an androgen receptor protein called ZIP9 Protein was discovered in the brain, ovary and testicular tissues of Atlantic Croaker.[7]

References

  • Robins, C. Richard, G. Carleton Ray, and John Douglass. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes-North America. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 1986. 184-188.
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Atlantic croaker: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) is a species of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Sciaenidae and is closely related to the black drum (Pogonias cromis), the silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), the spot croaker (Leiostomus xanthurus), the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and the weakfish (Cynoscion regalis). It is commonly found in sounds and estuaries from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico.

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Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The Atlantic croaker or hardhead Micropogonias undulatus was previously only found along the east coast of the American continent, where it is one of the most common benthic fish. With its benthic lifestyle it is very unlikely that the species crossed the Atlantic Ocean by itself. Thus,via transport in ballast water of ships could be the origin of an introduction in Europe. Since 1998, the Atlantic croaker is found in low numbers in both Belgium and The Netherlands.
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bibliographic citation
Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
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Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
De knorrepos Micropogonias undulatus kwam oorspronkelijk enkel voor aan de oostkusten van het Amerikaanse continent, waar het één van de meest algemene bodemvissen is. Door deze levenswijze nabij de bodem is het weinig waarschijnlijk dat de soort op eigen houtje de Atlantische oceaan wist over te steken. Zo kan transport in ballastwater van schepen aan de oorsprong van een introductie in Europa gelegen hebben. De knorrepos is sinds 1998 in lage aantallen aanwezig in Nederland en België..
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Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
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Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Feeds mainly on worms, crustaceans and fishes
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Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
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Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Western Atlantic: from 42.35°N to Massachusetts, USA (excluding Florida) and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Mexico; possibly from southern Brazil to Argentina. Uncertain in southern Gulf of Mexico, Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean
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bibliographic citation
Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
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Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
American species, found for the first time in Belgian (and even European) waters in the night of 16 to 17 August 1998, a second time in 2001 in the Zeeschelde

Reference

Rappé, G. (). Eerste vangst van Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, ), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, ), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. De Strandvlo (-): -

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Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
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Claus, Simon [email]

Habitat

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Occurs usually over mud and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and in estuaries where the nursery and feeding grounds are located.
license
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bibliographic citation
Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
benthic
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bibliographic citation
Rappé, G. (2002). Eerste vangst van <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), een Amerikaanse vis, in Belgische en Europese wateren [First catch of <i>Micropogonias undulatus</i> (Linnaeus, 1766), an American fish, in Belgian and European waters]. <i>De Strandvlo 22(3-4)</i>: 119-121 North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Stevens, M.; Rappé, G.; Maes, J.; Van Asten, B.; Ollevier, F. (2004). Micropogonias undulatus (L.), another exotic arrival in European waters. <em>Journal of Fish Biology.</em> 64(4): 1143-1146. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]