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California Yellowtail

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833

Diagnostic Description

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The only jack without scutella on the caudal peduncle. Dark blue dorsally and almost white ventrally; with a well defined line of demarcation between the two colors.
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Armi G. Torres
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 5 - 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 33 - 35; Anal spines: 2 - 3; Analsoft rays: 20 - 21
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Armi G. Torres
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Trophic Strategy

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Found in coastal areas and oceanic waters; off kelp beds and rocky areas (Ref. 2850). Form large offshore shoals.In Australia, juvenile yellowtail kingfish less than 30 cm FL often occurs near floating objects offshore. Tagging studies (Ref. 27112, 27869) have shown that yellowtail kingfish up to 75 cm FL remain in a limited area, at least for 12 months (Ref. 27112), with most recaptured within 50 km of their release point. Tagging data have also shown that larger fish travel further, with fish tagged off New South Wales being recaptured off Victoria, Lord Howe Island and New Zealand (Ref. 27869).Yellowtail kingfish are opportunistic daytime feeders. Feeding schools will sometimes rise to the surface (Ref. 27112).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Adults are benthopelagic in coastal and oceanic waters, off kelp beds and rocky areas (Ref. 2850), sometimes entering estuaries (Ref. 9563). They are solitary or in small groups and can be found near rocky shores, reefs and islands (Ref. 6390). Schools of juveniles are generally found in offshore waters, often near or beyond the continental shelf (Ref. 27865). They prefer warmer water (18-24°C) although they are occasionally found in cooler water (Ref. 27128). Adults feed on small fish, squid and crustaceans (Ref. 27121). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
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Susan M. Luna
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Seriola dorsalis

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Seriola dorsalis, the California yellowtail is a species of ray-finned fish of the family Carangidae.[2] This species is also known by several alternate names, such as amberjack, forktail, mossback, white salmon and yellowtail tunis or tuna [3] or by its Spanish name jurel. Although previously thought to belong to S. lalandi, recent genetic analysis distinguished California yellowtail (S. dorsalis) as a distinct species from the yellowtail amberjack (S. lalandi).[2]

Diet

The California yellowtail is carnivorous and feeds on a variety of fish. Mackerel, sardines, anchovies, squid, crab, and smelts are common in the yellowtail's diet.[4] Often, California yellowtail are found in schools feeding at the surface of the water, as well as deeper. This species prefers water temperatures of 21–22 °C (70–72 °F), though have also been found in waters between 18 and 24 °C (64 and 75 °F).[5] Temperatures cooler than 18 °C would make the yellowtail sink into deeper waters to conserve energy.

Range and habitat

The California yellowtail's range is circumglobal, in subtropical waters. It can be found near Catalina Island, San Clemente Island, and Santa Monica Bay, as well as in Mexican waters such as the Baja California Peninsula and the Gulf of California, congregating at certain areas in mass numbers like Cedros Island and Benitos Island. During the summer they can also be found in association with floating kelp paddies off the coast of southern California and Baja California. Yellowtail populations have also been found in waters off South Africa, the Walter Shoals, Amsterdam Island, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii, Rapa, Pitcairn Island, Jeju Island, and Easter Island. In the Eastern Pacific, they can be found in waters off British Columbia, south to Chile.[6] They are usually found around offshore islands, rocky reefs, and kelp beds.[3] They are also found in increasing numbers off the Islands of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago in the South Atlantic. They are frequently caught on the three northern Islands of Tristan da Cunha, Nightingale and Inaccessible and were recently reported by Factory Manager Erik Mac Kenzie at Gough Island at 40 degrees South, which is 200 miles south of the other islands. Fish in the size range 25 to 40 kg are not uncommon and are caught both from boats and the shore.

Conservation status

This fish is listed as "least concern" by the IUCN, on the basis that "significant global population declines have not been reported and are not suspected. Its range coincides with numerous marine protected areas."[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Williams, I. (2015). "Seriola lalandi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T195097A43155921. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T195097A43155921.en.
  2. ^ a b Martinez-Takeshita, N., D. M. Purcell, C. L. Chabot, M. T. Craig, C. N. Paterson, J. R. Hyde, & L. G. Allen. 2015. A tale of three tails: cryptic speciation in a globally distributed marine fish of the genus Seriola. Copeia, 103(2): 357-368.
  3. ^ a b California Yellowtail, Retrieved August 2009
  4. ^ Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer 1993 FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 250 p.
  5. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=382&genusname=Seriola&speciesname=lalandi〈=English
  6. ^ Eschmeyer, W.N.; E.S. Herald; H. Hammann (1983). A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 336.
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Seriola dorsalis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Seriola dorsalis, the California yellowtail is a species of ray-finned fish of the family Carangidae. This species is also known by several alternate names, such as amberjack, forktail, mossback, white salmon and yellowtail tunis or tuna or by its Spanish name jurel. Although previously thought to belong to S. lalandi, recent genetic analysis distinguished California yellowtail (S. dorsalis) as a distinct species from the yellowtail amberjack (S. lalandi).

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Yellowtail amberjack

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The yellowtail amberjack, yellowtail kingfish or great amberjack (Seriola lalandi) is a large fish found in the Southern Ocean. Although previously thought to be found in all oceans and seas, recent genetic analysis restricts S. lalandi proper to the Southern Hemisphere waters.[3] However, they are found in northern hemisphere waters during certain times of the year. The fish was given its name by Monsieur de Lalande, a naturalist who first informed Valenciennes of the existence of this species. No one is sure why he used the word Seriola (feminine diminutive form of seria, a large earthenware pot) to name the fish, but the second word lalandi was derived from his surname Lalande.[4]

Taxonomy

The yellowtail amberjack was formally described in 1833 by the French zoologist Achille Valenciennes (1794–1865) from type specimens sent to il[5] by the naturalist and explorer Pierre Antoine Delalande (1787–1823), who is honoured in its specific name.[6] Fishbase includes populations of similar fish in the Northern Hemisphere within this species[2] but other authorities regard Seriola aureovittata from the North Pacific Ocean around Japan and Seriola dorsalis of the north eastern Pacific as separate species.[7]

Distribution and habitat

The yellowtail amberjack occurs in tropical and temperate waters of the southern hemisphere and the northern Pacific. In Australia, it is recorded from North Reef, Queensland (23° 11′ S) to Trigg Island, Western Australia (31° 52′ S), and as far south as Tasmania.[8]

The yellowtail amberjack (or yellowtail kingfish as it is known in Australia) is a pelagic, schooling fish, usually seen as adults in small to large numbers. In general, they inhabit rocky reefs and adjacent sandy areas in coastal waters and occasionally enter estuaries. They are found from shallow water down to depths of around 50 m, although have been caught from over 300 m.

Young fish up to 7 kg are known to form shoals of several hundred fish. They are generally found close to the coast, while larger fish are more common around deep reefs and offshore islands.

Juvenile yellowtail amberjack are rarely seen, as they are often found far from land associated with floating debris or weed which provide camouflage. Juveniles are yellow with black bands. This colouration fades as the fish ages and by about 30 cm in length, the fish has assumed its adult colouration.

Biology

Very little is known of the yellowtail amberjack's biology, including their habitat preferences throughout juvenile life stages, migration patterns, and wild reproductive behaviour. Adults live around rocky reefs, rocky outcrops and drop-offs in coastal waters, and around pinnacles and offshore islands.[9] Maximum length is often reported to reach up to 180 cm.

Sydney Harbour

Before the introduction of kingfish traps (for commercial fishing) in the 1970s, there was a huge amount of yellowtail amberjack in Sydney Harbour. These traps were so effective that some studies suggested the traps may have wiped out as much as 60 per cent of the larger amberjack population.[10] In the mid-1990s under heavy pressure from recreational anglers, Bob Martin the Minister for Fisheries prohibited the use of these traps in Sydney Harbour.

Diet

Being a pelagic fish, yellowtail amberjack are highly active predetors, usually in schools or in pairs. Their main diet consist of baitfish including yellowtail mackeral, squid, prawns, garfish, kahawai and others. [11]

Uses and aquaculture

Seriola lalandi has been established as a suitable candidate for marine aquaculture. In contrast to the culture of the Japanese amberjack (S. quinqueradiata), which has long been cultured extensively in Japan, juveniles of S. lalandi are not easily available from the wild, and juveniles are produced in hatcheries from captive breeding stock. In 2010, the Stehr Group in South Australia was the largest producer of cultured S. lalandi in the world. Trials elsewhere in Australia have been undertaken and in some cases abandoned after stock losses.[12][13] Water quality concerns were raised following farmed kingfish mortalities in upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia in 2011.[14] In the late 2010s, yellowtail kingfish farms were established near Geraldton and the Abrolhos Islands in Western Australia by Indian Ocean Fresh Australia and Huon Aquaculture respectively.[15]

Some attempts have been made to culture the species in New Zealand, both in sea cages and a large land-based system at Parengarenga Harbour (northern New Zealand). Chile is currently trialling seacage and land-based farming methods. In Germany S. lalandi is being cultivated in the first land-based seafish-culture. The Dutch company, The Kingfish Company, is planning to open a land-based aquaculture S. lalandi operation in Maine, U.S., in 2022. Most cultured S. lalandi is sold to the Japanese restaurant market for consumption as sashimi. Amberjack can be eaten in a variety of ways, including grilling and drying.

References

  1. ^ Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Williams, I. (2015). "Seriola lalandi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T195097A43155921. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T195097A43155921.en.|volume= / |doi= mismatch
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Seriola lalandi" in FishBase. August 2019 version.
  3. ^ Martinez-Takeshita, N., D. M. Purcell, C. L. Chabot, M. T. Craig, C. N. Paterson, J. R. Hyde, & L. G. Allen. 2015. A tale of three tails: cryptic speciation in a globally distributed marine fish of the genus Seriola. Copeia, 103(2): 357-368.
  4. ^ Australian Museum (9 March 2020). "Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833". The Australian Museum. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  5. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Seriola lalandi". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  6. ^ Christopher Scharpf; Kenneth J. Lazara (10 August 2019). "Order CARANGIFORMES (Jacks)". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  7. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). Seriola "Species in the genus 'Seriola'". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  8. ^ Australian Museum (9 March 2020). "Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833". The Australian Museum. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  9. ^ Dianne J Bray, 2011, Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi, in Fishes of Australia, accessed 26 Aug 2014, http://www.fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/1662
  10. ^ "How to catch Sydney harbour kingfish". Fishabout Fishing Charters Sydney Harbour With Craig McGill. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  11. ^ "How to catch kingfish". The fishing website. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  12. ^ Page, Donna (5 February 2019). "Controversial Port Stephens kingfish farm scrapped". Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  13. ^ "Yellowtail kingfish farmed at Geraldton die". www.abc.net.au. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Concerns about kingfish deaths in upper spencer gulf". www.abc.net.au. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  15. ^ "Jobs to be created after aquaculture zone approved". www.abc.net.au. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
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Yellowtail amberjack: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The yellowtail amberjack, yellowtail kingfish or great amberjack (Seriola lalandi) is a large fish found in the Southern Ocean. Although previously thought to be found in all oceans and seas, recent genetic analysis restricts S. lalandi proper to the Southern Hemisphere waters. However, they are found in northern hemisphere waters during certain times of the year. The fish was given its name by Monsieur de Lalande, a naturalist who first informed Valenciennes of the existence of this species. No one is sure why he used the word Seriola (feminine diminutive form of seria, a large earthenware pot) to name the fish, but the second word lalandi was derived from his surname Lalande.

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Habitat

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Known from seamounts and knolls
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bibliographic citation
Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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