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Behavior

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When mating, males change colors and exhibit a shimmering movement to attract females. In defense or aggression, yellow tangs extend their fins to full length, greatly increasing their size. They also expose their scalpel-like scales on their fins as a warning sign. They use these not only to defend themselves from predators, but also to scare away competitors for food or territory.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Zebrasoma scopas is not a threatened or endangered species.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Cycle

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Yellow tangs begin their lives as fertilized eggs floating in open water. After hatching, the clear, pelagic larvae develop in the plankton. They enter the acronurus larva stage where they develop an oval body, dorsal and ventral fins, and spines. After about ten weeks, they enter a planktonic stage. Here, waves carry them to a coral reef where they take refuge and continue to develop and grow.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Yellow tangs, along with other surgeonfish (Acanthuridae), are not generally dangerous. When they are young, they possess venom glands. As they age into juveniles and adults, they lose these glands. If yellow tangs are provoked, they can inflict deep injuries with the sharp blades on their tails.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings, venomous )

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Yellow tangs are important for tourism and the aquarium trade. Their bright yellow color is well recognized by scuba divers and other tourists on Hawaiian reefs. They are also a valuable resource in aquarium trade; they are the number one collected fish for export out of Hawaii. Their coloring, hardiness, and low cost all attribute to their popularity in marine aquariums, making them one of the ten most popular fish.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; ecotourism

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Yellow tangs, along with other algae feeders, are crucial parts of coral reef ecosystems. They feed on algae and seaweed that grow on the reefs, preventing them from overgrowing and killing corals. Yellow tangs are also a food source for larger fish and invertebrates.

Mutualist Species:

  • Acanthuridae
  • Anthozoa
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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Yellow tangs have a long, down-turned mouth with small teeth that are specialized for grazing on algae. Because they are mainly herbivores, they spend a large amount of their time grazing either alone or in groups. A large portion of their diet consists of uncalcified and filamentous algae that grows on coral reefs. In addition to smaller types of algae, yellow tangs feed on macroalgae, such as seaweed. Yellow tangs will also eat some types of zooplankton.

Animal Foods: zooplankton

Plant Foods: algae; macroalgae

Primary Diet: herbivore (Algivore)

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Yellow tangs, Zebrasoma scopas, are reef fish found in the waters west of Hawaii and east of Japan in the Pacific Ocean. They mainly live off the coast of Hawaii, but are also found in the more western ranges of their habitat, including the islands Ryukyu, Mariana, Marshall, Marcus, and Wake. They prefer subtropical waters.

Biogeographic Regions: pacific ocean (Native )

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Yellow tangs are reef-associated fish. Their preferred water temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius. They inhabit coral reefs in subtropical waters, but generally do not live in tropical seas. Yellow tangs mainly live in the sub-surge zone of a coral reef, this is the area with the least wave action. Zebrasoma scopas live at depths of 2 to 46 meters. The clear larva of yellow tangs develop into marine plankton, in this stage they are carried close to reefs where they settle in coral crevices.

Range depth: 2 to 46 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: reef

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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Not much is known about the lifespan of yellow tangs. However, some sources have found them living up to about 30 years on the reef and 10 years in captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
30 (high) years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
10 (high) years.

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Yellow tangs have a clear larval stage before developing into juveniles. Juveniles and adults have a narrow, oval body. They have an average length-weight ratio between 2.93 and 3.16. They have a long snout for eating algae, a large dorsal fin with four to five spines, and an anal fin with three spines. Like other surgeonfish and tangs (Acanthuridae), yellow tangs have a white, scalpel-like spine on both sides of the tail that can be used for defense or aggression. Yellow tangs are named for their bright yellow coloring; the only area that is not yellow is the white spine. At night, this bright yellow color changes to a darker, grayer yellow with a white lateral line.

Range length: 20 (high) cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Predators of Zebrasoma scopas include larger fish and predatory invertebrates such as crabs and octopi. Yellow tangs rely on camouflage and their scalpel-like fins to protect themselves. To humans, these fish appear bright yellow, but, to other fish, yellow tangs blend in very well with coral reef backgrounds. According to Marshall et al. (2003) wavelength differences between yellow and average reef color become negligible at the depths where yellow tangs are found. In addition to camouflage, Zebrasoma scopas use their scalpel-like fins for defense.

Known Predators:

  • larger fish (Actinopterygii)
  • crabs (Decapoda)
  • octopi (Octopoda)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Zebrasoma scopas can spawn in groups or in pairs. When in groups, females release eggs and males release sperm into open water where fertilization occurs. When in pairs, the male courts a female by changing colors and exhibiting a shimmering movement. The two fish then swim upward and simultaneously release their eggs or sperm into the water. Males may spawn with multiple females in one session, while females typically spawn only once a month.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Yellow tangs reproduce externally. Their spawning peaks from March to September, but some fish spawn at all times throughout the year. An average female can release about 40,000 eggs.

Breeding interval: Females spawn about once a month

Breeding season: Breeding occurs year-round, but more often from March to September

Range number of offspring: 40,000 (high) .

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); broadcast (group) spawning; oviparous

There is no parental investment in yellow tangs beyond the fertilization of eggs.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female)

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Zabetakis, K. 2008. "Zebrasoma flavescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html
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Kara Zabetakis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

provided by EOL authors
There is a strong lunar pattern to reproduction with egg production peaking at the full moon. Females spawn most days, likely greater than 80% at least during the peak reproductive season. Females can produce up to 25,000 eggs per day, with an average adult female producing about 1.1 million eggs per year. Reproductive effort peaks in the late spring and summer, but there is evidence that yellow tang spawn at some level throughout the year. Adult males and females can be identified by the external appearance of the urogential opening. At 13 cm total length and around 5 years old females make a habitat shift from deeper coral rich habitats to shallow turf algal dominate reef flat and boulder habitats. They also start acting like adults in terms of movement patterns and spawign activity, and they start producing substantial amounts of eggs following a lunar cycle. Below this size and age egg production is minimal.
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Migration

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Each morning, shortly after sunrise, adult yellow tang migrate to shallow turf algae dominated boulder and reef flat habitats to forage over the same few hundred meters squared. These foraging sites are maintained for periods of at least weeks to months. About 1 hour before sunset, they migrate to individual specific spawning locations before moving to nighttime sheltering sites in deeper coral rich and boulder dominated habitats. Yellow tang adults made daily crepuscular migrations of up to 600 m between foraging and spawning or sheltering sites at consistent times relative to sunset and sunrise Yellow tang juveniles are found in deeper coral rich habitats and are site attached with small home ranges throughout this life stage (roughly 4-7 years).
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Migration

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Each morning, shortly after sunrise, adult yellow tang migrate to shallow turf algae dominated boulder and reef flat habitats to forage over the same few hundred meters squared. These foraging sites are maintained for periods of at least weeks to months. About 1 hour before sunset, they migrate to individual specific spawning locations before moving to nighttime sheltering sites in deeper coral rich and boulder dominated habitats. Yellow tang adults made daily crepuscular migrations of up to 600 m between foraging and spawning or sheltering sites at consistent times relative to sunset and sunrise Yellow tang juveniles are found in deeper coral rich habitats and are site attached with small home ranges throughout this life stage (roughly 4-7 years).
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Habitat

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Yellow tang settle out of a planktonic larval stage to mid-depth (10 to 25 m) reef habitats that tend to have high coral cover. Adult yellow tang (AYT) transition at around 13 to 15 cm total length to spending their days foraging in shallower (<10 m) turf-algae dominated boulder and reef flat habitats, while sheltering at night in deeper coral rich and boulder habitats. Each morning, shortly after sunrise, adult yellow tang migrate to shallow turf algae dominated boulder and reef flat habitats to forage over the same few hundred meters squared. These foraging sites are maintained for periods of at least weeks to months. About 1 hour before sunset, they migrate to individual specific spawning locations before moving to nighttime sheltering sites in deeper coral rich and boulder dominated habitats.
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Life Expectancy

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Yellow tang are a long-lived species (the oldest individual collected to date was a 41 year old female).
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Size

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Yellow tang are sexually size-dimorphic with males being larger than females. Males grow substantially faster than females starting around age 2 and this trend continues until the asymptotic size is approached (age 7 to 10 years). Adult males are typically 17 to 20 cm long, while adult females are typically 14 to 17 cm long.
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Growth

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Yellow tang are a very long lived species and display the typical surgeonfish "square growth curve", with high initial growth rates that rapidly decrease after the first few years. Yellow tang are sexually size-dimorphic with males being larger than females. Males grow substantially faster than females starting around age 2 and this trend continues until the asymptotic size is approached (age 7 to 10 years). Adult males are typically 17 to 20 cm total length, while adult females are typically 14 to 17 cm total length.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
bright yellow overall (pale in preservative). Sheath of peduncular spine white. Body very deep, its depth 1.4 to 1.75 times in SL. Snout moderately protruding. Mouth small; teeth spatulate, close-set, the edges denticulate. 12 upper and 14 lower teeth in juveniles, and 18 upper and 22 lower teeth in an adult 15 cm SL (Ref 9808).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Diseases and Parasites

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Black spot Disease 4. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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Paired spawning (Ref. 240). Multiple spawner with reproductive activity occuring around the full moon (Ref. 86544).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 23 - 26; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 19 - 22
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Biology

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Adults inhabit coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs from below the surge zone to about 46 m (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic over rock at 1-81 m (Ref. 58302). They occur singly or in loose groups. Mainly herbivorous, browsing on filamentous algae. Group spawning and pair-spawning by territorial males that court passing females were observed. Spawning activity occurs around the full moon indicating lunar periodicity (Ref. 86544). Spawn in batches throughout the year (Ref. 86544). Presence of a venom gland could not be determined despite the presence of distinct anterolateral grooves; this may be due to the loss of venom glands in adults (Ref. 57406). A popular aquarium fish and the top marine fish export from Hawaii.
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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Importance

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aquarium: commercial
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於太平洋區,包括琉球、台灣、馬歇爾、馬里安那、威克及夏威夷群島等。台灣分布於南部、蘭嶼及綠島等。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

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一般以流剌網、陷阱法或潛水鏢魚法均可捕獲。觀賞及食用兼具。但一般以做為觀賞用魚為主。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體呈卵圓形而側扁。口小,端位,上下頜齒較大,齒固定不可動,扁平,邊緣具缺刻。背鰭及臀鰭硬棘尖銳,各為V棘及III棘,而前方軟條較後方延長,呈傘形;腹鰭I,5;尾鰭截平。尾棘在尾柄前部,稍可活動。幼魚及成魚體、頭部及各鰭皆一致呈鮮黃色;胸鰭有狹暗緣;尾柄棘白色。
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棲地

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主要棲息於珊瑚繁生的潟湖及面海的礁區,棲息深度由2至46公尺左右。通常單獨或成一小群優游於藻叢間。以絲狀藻為食。
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Yellow tang

provided by wikipedia EN

The yellow tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) is a saltwater fish species of the family Acanthuridae. It is one of the most popular marine aquarium fish. It is bright yellow in color, and it lives in reefs. The yellow tang spawn around a full moon. The yellow tang eats algae. The yellow tang has a white barb, located just before the tail fin, to protect itself.[1]

Taxonomy and etymology

The yellow tang was first described by English naturalist Edward Turner Bennett as Acanthurus flavescens in 1828 from a collection in the Hawaiian Islands. Zebrasoma refers to the body and the zebra-like stripes or bars on the body of other fish in the genus. Its species name is the Latin adjective flavescens which refers to the tang's yellow color.[2]

Yellow tang are in the surgeonfish family.

Evolution and genetics

Based on the gene Cytochrome C-oxidase 1 (CO1), a group of researchers was able to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of the genus Zebrasoma with mitochondrial barcoding sequences. [3]

Description and biology

Adult fish can grow to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length, and 1–2 centimetres (0.39–0.79 in) in thickness. Adult males tend to be larger than females. Yellow tangs are bright yellow in color. At night, the yellow coloring fades slightly, and a prominent brownish patch develops in the middle with a horizontal white band. They rapidly regain their bright yellow color during daylight. They can be aggressive, are prone to marine ich, and may damage coral within a reef tank. Male and female yellow tang look very similar. When mating, however, males change color and have a "shimmering" behavior which makes them identifiable. [4] The yellow tang has 5 dorsal spines along with 23-26 dorsal soft rays. The yellow tang also has 3 anal spines as well as 19-22 anal soft rays. There is a white spine on its caudal peduncle that it can use for defense. Its snout is moderately protruding. Its mouth is small with spatulate teeth that are place classed relatively close together inside of the yellow tang’s mouth. In juveniles, there are 12 upper and 14 lower teeth. In adults, there are 18 upper and 22 lower teeth. [1]

The yellow tang is a marine fish that lives in reefs. The yellow tang is found by itself or in very small groups / schools. The yellow tang is mainly herbivorous and eats filamentous algae. [1]

Reproduction

Spawning happens throughout the year, and it peaks once. Spawning normally happens around the time the moon is full, so this suggests there is some sort of lunar periodicity going on. Spawning happens in pairs or groups, and fertilization is external. Eggs are left in open water and yellow tang are substratum egg scatterers. Yellow tang do not guard their eggs, and once the eggs hatch the juveniles receive no parental care. [1]

Food

In the wild, yellow tangs feed on benthic turf algae and other marine plant material. In captivity they are commonly fed meat/fish based aquarium food, but the long term health effects of this diet are questionable. However, most experts in the marine aquarium industry express little skepticism that such a well rounded and balanced diet including plant and animal material would be in any way detrimental to mostly herbivorous fishes like tangs, since they still need on occasion, complex amino acids and nutrients that only ocean animals can provide. In the wild, yellow tangs provide cleaner services to marine turtles, by removing algal growth from their shells.

Distribution and habitat

Photo of two fish with rock in background
Yellow tangs in their natural habitat in Kona, Hawaii

It is commonly found in shallow reefs, from 2–46 metres (6.6–150.9 ft) deep, in the Pacific Ocean (Ryukyu, Mariana, Marshall, Marcus, Wake, and Hawaiian islands),[1] west of Hawaii and east of Japan. There have also been reports that they have been found off the coast of Florida in the Western Central Atlantic. Their habitat is tropical with a temperature range of 24-28 degrees Celsius.[1] Hawaii is the most common place for aquarium harvesting, where up to 70% of the yellow tangs for the aquarium industry are sourced from.[5] Over 70% of the yellow tang's natural range is protected from collection and fishing.[6] The yellow tang is listed as "Least Concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[7]

The yellow tang has been recorded in waters around Florida, where it is not native.[8]

Predators and other threats

The yellow tang has many natural predators, including larger fish, sharks, crabs, and octopi. [9][10] Another threat is habitat destruction that is caused by humans. Examples of habitat destruction caused by humans are pollution that started on land and flows into the water, physical damage and destruction from harmful fishing practices, as well as overfishing, coral harvesting, [11] and snorkeling, which can potentially cause reef damage.[6]

Conservation status

Conservation status is labeled as least concern, but there are many ways yellow tang are being protected. The most prominent is that yellow tang are being bred in captivity for aquarium use now more than they were, so collecting yellow tang from the ocean has decreased sharply. This allows wild yellow tang to be able to thrive without too many being taken, so the species is more likely to survive. [12]

In the aquarium

In a zoo aquarium

The yellow tang is very commonly kept as a saltwater aquarium fish. In 2015, researchers successfully bred them in captivity.[13] Captive-bred yellow tangs are now routinely available for purchase at fish stores and online vendors. They can grow up to 8 inches (20 cm) in the wild, but are introduced to aquariums in the 2" to 4" range. Some specimens as large as 6" are occasionally available. Life expectancy in the wild can exceed 30 years.[14]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Zebrasoma flavescens, Yellow tang : aquarium". www.fishbase.de. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  2. ^ "Order ACANTHURIFORMES (part 2): Families EPHIPPIDAE, LEIOGNATHIDAE, SCATOPHAGIDAE, ANTIGONIIDAE, SIGANIDAE, CAPROIDAE, LUVARIDAE, ZANCLIDAE and ACANTHURIDAE". The ETYFish Project. 2020-07-21. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  3. ^ Bernardi G, Nelson P, Paddack M, Rulmal J, Crane N (September 2018). "Genomic islands of divergence in the Yellow Tang and the Brushtail Tang Surgeonfishes". Ecology and Evolution. 8 (17): 8676–8685. doi:10.1002/ece3.4417. PMC 6157655. PMID 30271536.
  4. ^ "Learn All About the Yellow Tang Fish". The Spruce Pets. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  5. ^ Needs citation
  6. ^ a b Adam J (14 November 2016). "The Truth About Yellow Tang Collecting in Hawaii". Ref Builders | The Reef and Saltwater Aquarium Blog.
  7. ^ McIlwain J, Choat JH, Abesamis R, Clements KD, Myers R, Nanola C, Rocha LA, Russell B, Stockwell B (2012). "Zebrasoma flavescens. (Yellow Tang)". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. p. e.T178015A1521949. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T178015A1521949.en.
  8. ^ Schofield PJ, Morris Jr JA (28 January 2015). Field Guide to the Nonindigenous Marine Fishes of Florida. Maroon Ebooks. pp. 6–.
  9. ^ "National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland".
  10. ^ Zabetakis K. "Zebrasoma flavescens (Lemon sailfin)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  11. ^ US EPA, OW (2017-01-30). "Threats to Coral Reefs". US EPA. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  12. ^ "YELLOW TANG | Zebrasoma flavescens – Rising Tide Conservation". Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  13. ^ "Yellow tangs finally captive bred by the Oceanic Institute Captive bred, Hawaii, News, Places, Saltwater Fish, Surgeonfish, United States, yellow tang Reef Builders". Reef Builders | The Reef and Marine Aquarium Blog. 2015-10-20. Retrieved 2017-08-05.
  14. ^ Claisse JT, McTee SA, Parrish JD (March 2009). "Effects of age, size, and density on natural survival for an important coral reef fishery species, yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens". Coral Reefs. 28 (1): 95–105. doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0447-7.
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Yellow tang: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The yellow tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) is a saltwater fish species of the family Acanthuridae. It is one of the most popular marine aquarium fish. It is bright yellow in color, and it lives in reefs. The yellow tang spawn around a full moon. The yellow tang eats algae. The yellow tang has a white barb, located just before the tail fin, to protect itself.

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Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
It is a northern hemisphere Pacific species distributed from Hawaii (where it is abundant) to the Ryukyu Islands, including the Marshall Islands, Wake, Minami Tori Shima (Marcus Island), Mariana Islands, and Ogasawara Islands (Randall, 2001).

Reference

Weitzmann, B., Mercader, L and Azzurro, E. (). First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases. Mediterranean Marine Science. (): -.

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bibliographic citation
Weitzmann, B., Mercader, L and Azzurro, E. (2015). First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 16(1): 147-150. Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Weitzmann, B., Mercader, L and Azzurro, E. (2015). First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 16(1): 147-150. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
contributor
Shyama Pagad [email]

Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Inhabits coral rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs from below the surge zone to at least 46 m. Occurs singly or in loose groups and browses on filamentous algae. A popular aquarium fish and the top marine fish export from Hawaii. Group spawning and pair-spawning by territorial males that court passing females were observed.
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Weitzmann, B., Mercader, L and Azzurro, E. (2015). First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 16(1): 147-150. Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Weitzmann, B., Mercader, L and Azzurro, E. (2015). First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 16(1): 147-150. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115.
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]