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Blue Trim Parrotfish

Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775

Diagnostic Description

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This species is distinguished by the following characters: median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7); 3 scale rows on cheek, 1(6-7), 2(6-9), 3(3-5); pectoral-fin rays 13-15 (occasionally 15); terminal male usually with 2 conical teeth on side of upper dental plate (female without), with lips mainly covering the plates; caudal fin rounded in small female, with prolonged lobes in large adult. Colour of male dark reddish brown anteriorly with a bright green dot at top end of line from mouth through eye to top of opercular opening; female red on head, belly and fins, side with wavy black and white stripes, and dark green bands around the mouth and eye (Ref. 9793, 90102).
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Recorder
Estelita Emily Capuli
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Sex change occurs at 29.0 cm TL and 7 years of age (Ref. 55367).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Trophic Strategy

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Inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602), in slopes and drop-offs (Ref. 48636). Males common in atolls where they live mainly around the inner and outer edges of barrier reefs at depths of about 30 ft; females prefer deeper habitat (Ref. 4821). Small juveniles inshore on algae reef habitat. Enter silty, murky environments (Ref. 5490). Adults solitary (but may sometimes occur in small groups), juveniles in groups (Ref. 9710, 48636). Feed by scraping algae from rocks and corals (Ref. 5227). Roving hervivore (Ref. 43650, 57615).
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Biology

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Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602), in slopes and drop-offs (Ref. 48636), often solitary but may sometimes occur in small groups (Ref. 9710, 48636). Males common in atolls where they live mainly around the inner and outer edges of barrier reefs at depths of about 30 ft; females prefer deeper habitat (Ref. 4821). Small juveniles in groups are found inshore on algae reef habitat (Ref. 9710, 48636) and sometimes enter silty, murky environments (Ref. 5490). Feed by scraping algae from rocks and corals (Ref. 5227). Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Caught with nets and other types of artisanal gear. Marketed fresh (Ref. 5284). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 90102.
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Scarus ghobban Forskal

Scarus ghobban Forskål, 1775, p. 28.—Schultz, 1958, p. 84, pl. 16C, D; 1960, p. 248.—Kamohara, 1963, p. 15 [Japan].—Woodland and Slack-Smith, 1963, p. 45 [Heron Island].

Callyodon ghobban.—Smith, 1959, p. 279, pl. 43H.—Kamohara, 1960, p. 26.—Munro, 1967, p. 439, fig. 836 [New Guinea].

Pseudoscarus ghobban.—Gohar and Latif, 1961, pp. 97–126, figs. 1–10 [Red Sea; anatomy of alimentary tract]; 1961, pp. 127–146.

Scarus guttatus Bloch and Schneider, 1801, p. 294.—Schultz, 1958, p. 85, fig. 14, pl. 17A.

Callyodon guttatus.—Smith, 1949, p. 296, pl. 62: fig. 824.—Fourmanoir, 1957, p. 186, fig. 30 [Mozambique Channel].

Scarus maculosus Lacepède, 1802, pp. 5, 21, pl. 1: fig. 3.—Bauchot and Guibè, 1960, p. 295 [holotype no. 2478 in Paris Museum].

Scarus psittacus [not Forskål] Rüppell, 1828, pl. 20: fig. 1.

Scarus pepo Bennett, 1834, p. 28, fig. 28.

Scarus dussumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, p. 252.—Schultz, 1958, p. 100, pl. 20B.

Scarus Scabriculus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, p. 271.

Scarus hertit Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, p. 215.

Scarus reticulata Swainson, 1839, p. 226.

Scarus haridoides Bleeker, 1853, p. 344.

Scarus pyrrostethus Richardson, 1846 [1845], p. 262.

Pseudoscarus cantori Bleeker, 1862, p. 43, pl. 9: fig. 2.

Pseudoscarus californiensis Pellegrin, 1901, p. 163.

Scarus noyesi Heller and Snodgrass, 1903, p. 206, pl. 9.—Schultz, 1958, p. 91, fig. 18.

Pseudoscarus natalensis Gilchrist and Thompson, 1909, p. 259.

Pseudoscarus rostratus [not Poey, not Seale] Günther, 1909, p. 315, pl. 154.

Scarus garretti Günther, 1909, p. 306, pl. 153C.

Scarus pyrrostethus australianus Paradice, 1927, p. 103.

Scarus azureus Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, p. 742, pl. 72: fig. 1.—Schultz, 1958, p. 89, fig. 16.

Callyodon apridentatus Smith, 1956, pp. 10, 14, 19, pl. 44F; 1959, pp. 270, 278, 279, pl. 44F [large male of S. ghobban].

Callyodon pyrrhostethus.—Marshall, 1965, p. 323.

Characterized by 5 or 6 median predorsal scales, 3 rows of scales on cheek, with 1 to 3 scales in ventral row, ii,13 pectoral rays, rarely ii,12; lips not quite covering white teeth; background coloration light orange to yellowish, centers of scales marked with bright blue spots that are arranged to form 5 vertical bars separated by 1 to 3 yellow-orange or pale interspaces; vertical blue bars not always present. Dorsal and anal fins edged with narrow blue band and center of fins orange; anal with basal blue streak; blue streak from corner of mouth past lower edge of eye; edge of upper lip orange, that of lower lip green.

Schultz (1958) recognized two species of parrot-fishes that are closely related, S. ghobban and S. dussumieri. There is full agreement between Smith (1959) and Schultz (1958) on the identity of ghobban. The latter recognized S. dussumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes as distinct, and since the types of S. dussumieri have ii,13, rarely ii,12 pectoral fin rays, I agree with Smith (1959) that S. dussumieri is a synonym of ghobban, whereas S. dussumieri [not Cuvier and Valenciennes] Schultz, 1958 (p. 100, pl. 20A) is actually S. mus (Smith).

USNM 202642, a specimen 270 mm in standard length from the Mombasa fish market, Kenya (IIOE, Sta. FT–2, 15 November 1964), appears to be an example of Scarus apridentatus Smith, 1956 (also 1958, pl. 42F). Since this specimen is a male and is very close to S. ghobban in all respects except the vertical blue bars, I agree that S. apridentatus is the adult male of S. ghobban as suggested by Smith (1959). Schultz (1958, p. 51) referred S. apridentatus to the synonymy of S. harid because Smith’s illustration appeared to have only 4 median predorsal scales.

A recent examination of Plate 154 (Pseudoscarus rostratus Günther, 1909, p. 315) indicates 5 or 6 median predorsal scales, which removes this species from the synonomy of S. lunula, where Schultz (1958, p. 54) placed it. The color pattern suggests it is S. ghobban.

Since no specimen of S. guttatus Bloch and Schneider has been collected to establish the validity of this species, I tentatively follow Smith (1956) and refer it to S. ghobban as a synonym.

The following specimens were recently collected by the Anton Brunn (IIOE): From Mombasa Market, Kenya: Sta. FT–2, 16 November 1964, 2 spec, 235270 mm; USNM 202665 and 202689, Sta. FT–2, 16 November 1964, 2 spec, 235–420 mm. From Amirantes Island: USNM 202662, Sta. RS–41, KA–39, 8 December 1964, 1 spec, 205 mm; Sta. HA–19, 8 December 1964, 1 spec, 71 mm; USNM 202664, Sta. HA–16, 3 December 1964, Aldabra Island, 14 spec, 35–177 mm; Sta. FT–11, 30 Novembeer 1964, Dar-es-Salaam Market, 1 spec, 49 mm. Uncataloged from Diego Garcia Atoll; Sta. HA–67–16, 22 June 1967, 1 spec, 167 mm; Sta. HA–67–17, 23 June 1967, 1 spec. 290 mm.

The Te Vega collected the following: Sta. 21, at Tutuila Island, 19 August 1963, 2 spec, 75 and 86 mm; Sta. 57, at Halmahera, off Teluk Kau village, 26 September 1963, 1 spec. 159 mm.

RANGE.—Eastern, central and western Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Red Sea.
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bibliographic citation
Schultz, Leonard P. 1969. "The taxonomic status of the controversial genera and species of parrotfishes with a descriptive list (family Scardiae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-49. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.17

分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度-泛太平洋區,由紅海與南非奧歌亞灣到拉帕島與迪西島, 北至日本南部, 南至新南威爾斯的柏斯;東太平洋:加州灣到厄瓜多;地中海東部:Shiqmona海岸外。台灣各地海域及各離島岩礁海域均有分布。
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利用

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主要捕獲的漁法是延繩釣、一支釣、流刺網及籠具等,而本種魚亦是潛水鏢魚的對象以及水族館展示魚種。為常見的鸚哥魚種之一,全年皆有產,以夏季較盛產。肉質細嫩,適合各種煮法。
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描述

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體延長而略側扁。頭部輪廓呈平滑的弧型。後鼻孔並不明顯的大於前鼻孔。齒板之外表面平滑,上齒板幾被上唇所覆蓋;雌魚和雄魚的齒色皆為淡黃色;齒板上有0-1顆不很健全之犬齒;每一上咽骨具1列臼齒狀之咽頭齒。背鰭前中線鱗約6-7;頰鱗3列,上列為5-6鱗;中列為5-6鱗;下列為0-2鱗。胸鰭具15-16軟條。尾鰭於幼魚為截形,成魚微凹、雙截形或半月形。初期階段(IP, Initial phase)的雌魚體色為黃褐色,鱗片外緣為藍色,構成5條不規則之藍色縱帶,其中4條在軀幹部,另1條在尾柄部;另有2道較短之條紋分佈於眼上方,及下唇與眼下方之間;背鰭及臀鰭與體色相仿,外緣及基部為藍色;胸鰭及腹鰭為淡黃色,前端為藍色;尾鰭為黃色,外緣為藍色。終期階段(TP, Terminal phase)的雄魚體色,頭背側及體部為綠色,鱗片外緣為橙紅色或橙色,體色於腹部漸趨為粉紅色,頰部及鰓蓋為淺橙色;頜部及峽部為藍綠色;背鰭及臀鰭為黃色,外緣及基部有藍綠色縱帶;胸鰭為藍色;腹鰭為淡黃色,硬棘末稍呈藍色;尾鰭為藍綠色,內緣及外緣均為黃色。
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棲地

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主要棲息於潟湖與臨海礁石區的斜坡與峭壁旁;雄性亦常見於環礁,主要生活於障礙礁石的周圍內部與外緣,深度約10公尺左右;雌性則偏愛更深的棲息地;稚魚則在沿海的藻類棲息地。常被發現進入淤泥又黝暗的環境。成魚大部分獨游於接近珊瑚礁旁的砂地;幼魚大都成群的在珊瑚礁或海藻叢中覓食。啃食珊瑚,以珊瑚之共生藻為食。
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Scarus ghobban

provided by wikipedia EN

Scarus ghobban, also known as the blue-barred parrotfish, blue trim parrotfish, cream parrotfish, globe-headed parrotfish, green blotched parrotfish, yellow scale parrotfish, and bluechin parrotfish,[1] is a species of marine ray-finned fish in the family Scaridae.

Description

 src=
A Scarus ghobban

This species is blue-green to green in colour and commonly grows to approximately 46 cm. Its appearance is variable. It may have a central stripe on the dorsal and anal fins that is pink in colour. The underside of the body may be pinkish or yellowish. There may be blue markings around the area of the pectoral fin.[4]

Distribution

Scarus ghobban is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, known to live in waters from East Africa to Indonesia. It has also been found in the Mediterranean, likely having entered by way of the Red Sea as a Lessepsian migrant.[1] It also occurs at the Galápagos Islands[4] as well as Japan, south to Australia and east to French Polynesia.[2]

In 2004, the species was reported from Beirut, Lebanon.[5]

Like other reef fish with a pelagic larval phase, regional currents facilitate high levels of gene flow, which in turn create high genetic diversity among the species. [6]

Habitat

Scarus Ghobban occurs in places with sandy bottoms and in areas with seagrass. It is also known to live in marginal reefs and in deeper waters.[1]

Ecology

Scarus ghobban grows quickly and can live up to 13 years. It tends to congregate in small schools.[1]Scarus ghobban can rotate their mandible bone at a high velocity; this allows them to function as a scraper and facilitate hydrological transport of fine sediments.[7]

Threats

While the species is captured in large numbers by fishermen for consumption and sale, and there is also a high amount of bycatch from other fisheries, it is not particularly targeted and appears not to be threatened at this point. As other parrotfish, it is dependent on coral reefs to some degree, and is likely to suffer from the continued degradation of same.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Myers, R.; Choat, J.H.; Russell, B.; et al. (2012). "Scarus ghobban". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T190705A17798394. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T190705A17798394.en. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b McGrouther, Mark (21 January 2019). "Bluebarred Parrotfish, Scarus ghobban Forsskål, 1775". Australian Museum. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Scarus ghobban" in FishBase. December 2019 version.
  4. ^ a b "Scarus ghobban". Darwin Foundation.
  5. ^ Bariche, Michel; Saad, Mohammed (2009) [2005]. "Settlement of the lessepsian blue-barred parrotfish Scarus ghobban (Teleostei: Scaridae) in the eastern Mediterranean". Marine Biodiversity Records. 1: e5. doi:10.1017/S1755267205000497.
  6. ^ Visram, Shakrim (2010). "Genetic connectivity and historical demography of the blue barred parrotfish (Scarus ghobban) in the western Indian Ocean". Marine Biology. 157 (7): 1475. doi:10.1007/s00227-010-1422-8. S2CID 85349344.
  7. ^ Melgarejo-Damián, M. P.; González-Acosta, A. F.; Cruz-Escalona, V. H.; Moncayo-Estrada, R. (2017). "A comparison of feeding biomechanics between two parrotfish species from the Gulf of California". Zoomorphology. 137 (1): 165–176. doi:10.1007/s00435-017-0383-6. ISSN 0720-213X.

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Scarus ghobban: Brief Summary

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Scarus ghobban, also known as the blue-barred parrotfish, blue trim parrotfish, cream parrotfish, globe-headed parrotfish, green blotched parrotfish, yellow scale parrotfish, and bluechin parrotfish, is a species of marine ray-finned fish in the family Scaridae.

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Description

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Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Males common in atolls where they live mainly around the inner and outer edges of barrier reefs at depths of about 30 ft; females prefer deeper habitat (Ref. 4821). Generally found in groups (Ref. 5213). Feeds on algae (Ref. 6113). Caught with nets and other types of artisanal gear. Marketed fresh (Ref. 5284).
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bibliographic citation
Ioannou, G.; Michailidis, N.; Loucaides, A.; Manitaras, I. (2010). First Occurrence Of Scarus ghobban (Actinopterygii: Scaridae) in The Coastal Waters Of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 11(2): 353-356. Ioannou, G.; Michailidis, N.; Loucaides, A.; Manitaras, I. (2010). First Occurrence Of Scarus ghobban (Actinopterygii: Scaridae) in The Coastal Waters Of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 11(2): 353-356. Goren, M.; Aronov, A. (2002). First record of the Indo-Pacific parrot fish <i>Scarus ghobban</i> in the Eastern Mediterranean. <em>Cybium.</em> 26(3): 239-240. Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021). Ioannou, G.; Michailidis, N.; Loucaides, A.; Manitaras, I. (2010). First Occurrence Of Scarus ghobban (Actinopterygii: Scaridae) in The Coastal Waters Of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 11(2): 353-356. Ioannou, G.; Michailidis, N.; Loucaides, A.; Manitaras, I. (2010). First Occurrence Of Scarus ghobban (Actinopterygii: Scaridae) in The Coastal Waters Of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 11(2): 353-356.
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