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Anchoveta

Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842

Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Body slender, elongate, rather round in cross-section, its depth about 4.5 to 5.5 times in standard length. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip bluntly rounded, reaching to but not beyond front border of pre-operculum, projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw in front of nostril.

Lower gillrakers 38 to 49, long and slender, increasing with size of fish; no gillrakers on hind face of third epibranchial.

Anal fin origin well behind base of last dorsal finray. A silver stripe along flank in young individuals, disappearing with age.

The high number of gillrakers distinguishes it from all Pacific species of Anchoa; other anchovies that may be sympatric in northern Peru are deeper-bodied and more compressed (Anchovia, Cetengraulis).

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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Distribution

provided by FAO species catalogs
Eastern South Pacific (northern Peru from about Aguja Point at 6° S southward to Chiloe, Chile at 42°31'S, the distribution dependant on the coastal extentof the Peru Current).
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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Size

provided by FAO species catalogs
To about 20 cm standard length.
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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Marine,coastal, mainly within 80 km of coast, but occasionally as far out as 160 km,forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters (descending in daytime to up to 50 m, rising at night).Entirely dependant on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current,its northern distribution limited in Peruvian waters in years when a 'tongue' of warmer and less saline surface water extends southward over the northbound coastal Peru Current (the so-called El Niño phenomenon).Feeds on plankton by filter-feeding, with up to 98% diatoms recorded in some studies (chiefly Coscinodiscus, Schroderella, Skeletonema and Thalassothrix); copepods, euphausiids, fish eggs and dinoflagellates also taken. Breeds throughout year along entire coast of Peru, but with a major spawning in winter/spring (July to September) and a lesser one in summer (February and March); also throughout year off Chile, with peaks in winter (May to July) and the end of spring (especially December); mature at about 1 year (about 10 cm standard length); eggs ellipsoidal.

Attains about 8 cm standard length in 6 months, 10.5 cm in 12 months and 12 cm in 18 months; longevity about 3 years.

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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

provided by FAO species catalogs
The most heavily exploited fish in world history, yielding 13 059 900 t in 1971, but with great fluctuations and a decline since that year. After the drastic reduction in catches of the 80's, influenced also by the strongest El Niño of the century (1982-83), in the 90's the catches are recovering and reached a peak in 1994 with 12 520 611 t. The fishes are recruited to the fishery at about 8 cm standard length at age 5 or 6 months. They are caught by purse seiner ( vessels known as bolicheras in Peru). Common fishing techniques are "Midwater otter trawling" and "Small pelagic midwater trawling". A good summary of the dynamics of the fishery is given by Schaeffer (1967) and the state of the fishery is monitored in publications by the Institute del Mar del Peru in cooperation with FAO (in Boletins and Informes of the Instituto).The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 8 723 265 t. The countries with the largest catches were Peru (6 740 225 t) and Chile (1 983 040 t).
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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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FAO species catalogs

Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Body elongate, slender, and rounded in cross section; snout long and prominent; lower branch of first gill arch with 34 to 49 gill rakers; anal fin with fewer than 22 rays, located behind dorsal fin base; body shiny blue or green (Ref. 55763). There is a silver stripe along flank in juveniles which disappears with age. The high number of gill rakers distinguishes it from all Pacific species of Anchoa.
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Recorder
Susan M. Luna
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Life Cycle

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Eggs ellipsoidal.
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Recorder
Crispina B. Binohlan
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Crispina B. Binohlan
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
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Susan M. Luna
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Trophic Strategy

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Inhabits the upwelling system off Peru and Chile. Mainly within 80 km of coast, but occasionally as far out as 160 km, forming huge shoals, chiefly in surface waters (descending in daytime to 50 m, rising at night). Employs both filter- and particulate-feeding modes on diatoms and copepods (Ref. 42392). Its northern distribution in Peruvian waters is limited in some years by the El Niño phenomenon.
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Rainer Froese
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Biology

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Adults occur mainly within 80 km of coast, forming huge schools, chiefly in surface waters. Are filter-feeders entirely dependent on the rich plankton of the Peruvian Current. In some studies, diatoms constituted as much as 98% of the diet. Large populations of guano birds and pelicans also depend on this fish (Ref. 9988). Utilized as fish meal and oil (Ref. 9988).
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Importance

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fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Peruvian anchoveta

provided by wikipedia EN

The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a species of fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae, from the Southeast Pacific Ocean. It has yielded greater catches than any other single wild fish species in the world, with annual harvests varying between 4.2 and 8.3 million tonnes in 2008–2012.[2] Almost all of the production is used for the fishmeal industry. The Peruvian anchoveta may be the world's most abundant fish species.[3]

Distribution and ecology

Peruvian anchoveta are found in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru and Chile, and typically found in huge schools within 80 km (50 mi) of the coast. They live for up to 3 years, reaching 20 cm (8 in).[4] They first reproduce at about 1 year age and 10 cm (4 in) length, whereas they are harvested as early as 6 months of age and 8 cm (3 in) length.[1] Anchoveta were previously thought to eat mostly phytoplankton, small zooplankton, and larvae. However, recent work has shown that anchoveta get most of their energy from larger zooplankton, including macrozooplankton.[5] Krill and large copepods are the most important dietary components.

Fisheries

The anchoveta has been characterised as "the most heavily exploited fish in world history".[1] The top yield was 13.1 million tonnes in 1971, but has undergone great fluctuations over time.[1] After a period of plenty in the late 1960s, the population was greatly reduced by overfishing[6] and the 1972 El Niño event, when warm water drifted over the cold Humboldt Current and lowered the depth of the thermocline. Nutrient-rich waters then no longer upwelled, and phytoplankton production decreased, leaving the anchoveta with a depleted food source. A drastic reduction was also brought about by another strong El Niño in the early 1980s, but production was back up to 12.5 million tonnes in 1994.[1] Along with the El Niño of 1982–1983, the 1997–1998 El Niño, the strongest on record, caused a loss in population of the anchoveta, negatively impacting fisheries, and therefore, the economy.[7] In 2008–2012, the annual catches varied between 4.2 and 8.3 million tonnes, which is consistently more than for any other fish species harvested in the wild.[2] In October 2015, an El Niño year, of 3.38 million metric tons of anchoveta surveyed by the Peruvian Marine Research Institute, only 2 million metric tons were of reproductive age; 5 million metric tons are needed to open fisheries. The fishing industry claimed populations were more around 6.8 million metric tons of reproductive-age anchoveta, so despite discrepancies, the Peruvian Ministry of Production allowed the opening of anchoveta fisheries the second season, but with a quota: 1.1 million metric tons, about half the quota of the first season of the year.[8]

Uses

Until about 2005 the anchoveta was almost exclusively used for making fishmeal. Peru produces some of the highest quality fishmeal in the world. Since 2005 anchoveta is increasingly used for direct human consumption, as fresh fish, as canned fish or as salted-matured fillets packed in oil. Peruvian canned anchoveta is sold as Peruvian canned sardines.[9] The new use is sometimes called the second anchoveta boom, the first boom being the discovery and subsequent fishery and fishmeal production in the 1960s/70s. The second boom was kick-started by the Peruvian Fish Technology Institute CIP, assisted by FAO. A large scale promotion campaign including by the then-president of Peru Alan García helped to make the anchoveta known to rich and poor alike. Previously it was not considered as food and hardly known among the population. It is now found in supermarkets and served in restaurants. Still, only 1 percent of anchovy catches are used for direct human consumption and 99 percent continue to be rendered into fishmeal and oil.[10]

Culinary aspects

Canned anchovy fillets found commonly in the US are intensely salty and are often removed of skin and bones. Often, they are marked as "Product of Morocco," which are salted-matured anchovy fillets. Canned anchovetas sold in Peru and other places are extremely similar to the canned sardines widely available in the US, hence the name "Peruvian sardines". Recently, new ways of preparation for the anchovetas have been developed in Peru, so new products are already in the international market such as anchoveta chicharrones, anchoveta jerky meat, anchoveta paste, and anchoveta steaks.

Fishing rights

The concept of fishing rights varies from country to country. In some countries, fishing rights are imposed, or a required fishing license, while in others, they are based on the underlying concept of resource rent. In this respect, the definition and calculation of fishing rent enables recognition of the payment that the state should receive for the use of a renewable natural resource: in this case anchoveta. The anchoveta fishery is of particular interest, not only because it ranks among the world's largest, but because in 2008 Peru passed the Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Law (Ley de Límites Máximos de Captura por Embarcación, LMCE), which entails the assignment of resource usage rights. Economic theory holds that the implementation of the resource rent means that it is the maximum possible compared with the open access status that previously existed. If fishery is of open access, there will be no resource rent due to the presence of a very large number of fishing boats, which leads to the extraction of the resource beyond biologically sustainable levels. Meanwhile, if a fishery falls under a regime of assigned property rights, then the rent generated will be positive and will guarantee a biologically and economically efficient level of extraction.[11] Peruvian fishing regulations stipulate a charge for fishing rights as payment for the use of a resource belonging to the nation. Each boat owner is charged for fishing rights based on a percentage of the price of fishmeal per ton landed. Recently there has been debate as to the relevance of the quantity of fish landed and whether this genuinely reflects the resource rent, given that the implementation of LMCEs have prompted an increase in the value of the anchoveta resource.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J. 2010. Engraulis ringens The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2.
  2. ^ a b Fish, crustaceans, molluscs, etc: Capture production by principal species in 2012 FAO Fisheries Statistics (accessed 12 Oct 2014)
  3. ^ Chappell, Bill (November 3, 2011). "Along With Humans, Who Else Is In The 7 Billion Club?". NPR.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Engraulis ringens" in FishBase. 10 2014 version.
  5. ^ (Espinoza & Bertrand 2008, Espinoza et al. 2009).
  6. ^ Pauly, Daniel; et al. (2002). "Towards sustainability in world fisheries". Nature. 418 (6898): 689–695. Bibcode:2002Natur.418..689P. doi:10.1038/nature01017. PMID 12167876. S2CID 2299135. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  7. ^ "International Research Institute for Climate and Society | Why do we care about El Niño and La Niña?". iri.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  8. ^ "Overfishing and El Niño Push the World's Biggest Single-Species Fishery to a Critical Point". Oceana. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  9. ^ Canadian Food Inspection Agency. "Canned Sardine Standard". Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  10. ^ Fréon, Pierre; et al. "Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate". GLOBEC International Newsletter 16(1). Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  11. ^ Galarza, Elsa (2013). "Los derechos de pesca: El caso de la pesquería de anchoveta peruana". Apuntes: Revista de Ciencias Sociales. 40 (73): 7. doi:10.21678/apuntes.73.686.
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Peruvian anchoveta: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a species of fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae, from the Southeast Pacific Ocean. It has yielded greater catches than any other single wild fish species in the world, with annual harvests varying between 4.2 and 8.3 million tonnes in 2008–2012. Almost all of the production is used for the fishmeal industry. The Peruvian anchoveta may be the world's most abundant fish species.

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