dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The only major differences between Berardius bairdii and B. arnuxii are the differences in size and range. Some researches claim that these two taxa represent one species with a disjunct distribution. Recent analyses of mitochondrial DNA have not resolved this ambiguity. In one study conducted by Dalebout et al. (1998) on the control region of the mitochondrial genome, only a 3.78% difference was found between B. arnuxii and B. bairdii. However, they had an extremely small sample size (two B. bairdii and one B. arnuxii). Despite high relatedness, these two taxa continue to be labled as separate species as is evident in later studies by Dalebout et al. (2004) and other researchers (Price et al. 2005).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Barardius arnuxii has a prominent melon and skull structure similar to other odontocetes, indicating that this species uses echolocation for signaling and sensory applications, but little is actually known. Hobson and Martin (1996) observed dolphin-like vocalizations in one group of individuals in ice leads. These clicks and squeaks were made while their heads were above the water line and seemed only to occur while their blowholes were closed. A study by Rogers and Brown (1999) on the acoustic traits of B. arnuxii found that these whales were "highly vociferous" exhibiting whistles, clicks, and click trains similar to other echolocators.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; ultrasound ; echolocation ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Arnoux’s beaked whales are listed under the IUCN red list under the category LR/cd, but no specific threats are listed. They are listed in Appendix I of CITES but are not currently protected under the United States Endangered Species Act. The relatively few sightings imply that B. arnuxii is not common, but little is known regarding its abundance or potential threats.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: no special status

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Although B. arnuxii may feed on species used by humans, they do not seem to have any significant impact on any fisheries.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Encounters between humans and Berardius arnuxii are very rare. There is no commercial or subsistence harvesting of this species and they are not caught as by-catch in existing fisheries.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Arnoux's beaked whales seem to act primarily as benthic predators. They are also hosts for several parasites such as nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, diatoms, cyamid amphipods, and occasional barnacles.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • nematodes (Nematoda)
  • trematodes (Trematoda)
  • cestodes (Cestoda)
  • diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)
  • cyamid amphipods (Cyamidae)
  • barnacles (Cirripedia)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little is known about the food habits of Berardius arnuxii and most information comes from comparison with B. bairdii. Berardius bairdii is primarily teuthophagous and piscivorous (squid- and fish-eating), but other benthic, epibenthic, and pelagic prey are also eaten. Berardius arnuxii is presumed to have a similar diet with slight variation due to the difference in geographic range. Their association with pack ice suggests that B. arnuxii may be exploiting a unique niche that is not available to most other cetaceans who do not have access to prey found under ice.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Berardius arnuxii has a circumpolar distribution in the southern hemisphere extending from the Antarctic coastline and ice edge (78° S) northward to about 34° S. Most records of sightings and strandings are south of 40° S, but some records occur farther north. A stranded individual was found as far north as 23° S off the coast of Brazil. It is assumed that B. arnuxii mostly occupies deeper, open ocean waters like its northern sister species Berardius bairdii, but there have been numerous sightings of B. arnuxii in shallower coastal waters (less than 500 m depth), and in close proximity to, as well as under, sea ice. Most strandings have occurred around New Zealand.

Biogeographic Regions: antarctica (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Arnoux’s beaked whales are marine, open ocean dwellers, but they have also been seen in association with Antarctic sea ice and occasionally in shallower coastal waters. Their northern congener, Berardius bairdii, prefers deeper water where they dive to 1000 m to feed. Actual diving depths of B. arnuxii have never been recorded, but dive times of an hour or more indicate that they too may dive to depths of 1000 m.

Habitat Regions: polar ; saltwater or marine

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Berardius bairdii can live to be 84 years old in males and 54 years old in females. Age in odontocetes (toothed whales) is determined by counting rings in the teeth, similar to the annual rings in a tree. Nothing is known about the lifespan of B. arnuxii, but it is assumed to be similar to that of B. bairdii.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Berardius arnuxii is one of the largest members of the family Ziphiidae ranging from 8 to 12 m in length, they are second in size only to Berardius bairdii. They have long, tubular bodies and blunt or rounded flippers. The dorsal fin is set far back on the body and is relatively small for a beaked whale (about 3% of the total body length). It has a straight leading edge and concave trailing edge. They have a prominent melon which slopes down into the distinctive ‘beak’ or ‘bottlenose’ of ziphiids. The lower jaw protrudes past the upper jaw. A pair of triangular shaped teeth are present on this protrusion while a second pair of peg-like teeth sit farther back behind a short diastema. These two pairs of teeth are characteristic of the genus Berardius and erupt in both males and females when the individual reaches sexual maturity. A deep V-shaped groove on the throat that consists of folds in the skin and blubber is also distinctive of Berardius. Their blow is a single small puff which is fairly indistinct.

Juveniles are slate grey, while older, sexually mature individuals range from very dark to light grey and are generally lighter on the head. Some individuals may appear brown or green colored due to diatoms attached to the skin. Numerous white scars are apparent on sexually mature individuals and seem to accumulate with time as older individuals have more scarring than their younger counterparts. A greater amount of scarring is also seen on larger individuals. The scars are linear or curved scratch marks occurring on the head, back and sides. Other scar types such as ovals and irregular patches are occasionally seen. No difference in scarring between males and females is apparent. Most of these marks are presumably caused by scratches from the protruding teeth of conspecifics and other objects in their environment such as rock and sea ice. See the Behavior section for more information on conspecific scarring.

Berardius arnuxii is almost identical in appearance to Berardius bairdii. The only real difference is the smaller size of B. arnuxii, but there is considerable overlap in size between the two species. However, the ranges of these two species do not overlap, which greatly simplifies identification.

Range length: 8 to 12 m.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known predators of Arnoux’s beaked whales. However, killer whales (Orcinus orca) occasionally prey on Berardius bairdii in the northern hemisphere. As killer whales occur in the same range as B. arnuxii and utilize many of the same locations, it is possible that a similar relationship occurs, but evidence is currently lacking on this subject.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The mating system of B. arnuxii is not known. Scarring on the bodies of males and females may indicate social aggression, possibly around mating, but these behaviors have not been observed.

Little is known about the mating and reproductive habits of Berardius arnuxii. Investigation of the sister species, B. bairdii, is informative, but information on the reproduction of this species is also sparse and debated. Berardius bairdii becomes sexually mature at about 8 to 10 years of age at lengths of 10 m for females and 9.5 m for males. Some researchers claim that females mature first while others state that males mature first and live longer than females. Males are more numerous and older based on research conducted on B. bairdii around Japan, but this could be due to a difference in geographical ranges between the sexes or sampling bias (Kasuya 1986). The gestation period is between 10 and 17 months with a three year interval between birthing events. Calving occurs mostly in the spring, but some births take place from late winter through summer and fall. The mating peak occurs from fall to early winter. Due to their smaller overall size and the few records of mature or pregnant stranded individuals, B. arnuxii seems to mature at younger ages and smaller sizes than B. bairdii.

Breeding interval: Breeding interval in B. arnuxii is unknown.

Breeding season: Breeding seasonality in B. arnuxii is unknown.

Range gestation period: 10 to 17 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Like all mammals, females B. arnuxii invest heavily in their young through gestation and lactation. Otherwise, little is known about parental investment in Arnoux’s beaked whales.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Turner, J. 2007. "Berardius arnuxii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Berardius_arnuxii.html
author
Julia Turner, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Link Olson, University of Alaska Fairbanks
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Biology

provided by Arkive
As a result of the apparent rarity and open-ocean habitat of Arnoux's beaked whale, little is currently known about its biology (1) (5). Like other beaked whales, this species is an accomplished diver and, like Baird's whale, probably forages on the sea-bed at depths of between 1,000 and 3,000 metres (4). The exceptional diving abilities of Arnoux's beaked whale also allow it to enter regions covered by sea ice, where it may travel up to seven kilometres between breathing sites, locating them with uncanny accuracy (1) (5). Such behaviour may offer the benefit of access to this species' preferred diet of bottom-dwelling and pelagic fish and squid without competition from other predators (1) (5). Although this species is generally encountered in groups of six to ten individuals, reports of congregations of as many as 80 have also been recorded (4)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Conservation

provided by Arkive
Although it does not appear to be particularly threatened by hunting, Arnoux's beaked whale is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which means that all international trade in this species in prohibited (3). In addition, this species is likely to benefit from the 1989 UN General Assembly resolution 44/225, which calls for effective conservation and management measures of living marine resources in areas of high seas drift-netting (1).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Description

provided by Arkive
One of the largest beaked whale species, Arnoux's beaked whale is almost identical in appearance to its close relative, Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), but is smaller in size (2). The body is uniform blackish-brown or dark grey, with irregular white blotches on the underparts of some individuals (2), and may be extensively scarred with single or paired rake marks made by the teeth of conspecifics (2) (4). The melon is relatively small, with a steep, almost vertical forehead, beneath which a short, tapering snout projects (2) (5). Interestingly, the lower jaw projects well beyond the upper jaw, so that the lower, front pair of large teeth is constantly exposed (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Habitat

provided by Arkive
Arnoux's beaked whale is usually found well-offshore, in deep, cold, temperate or sub-polar waters beyond the edge of the continental shelf (1) (2). Occasional sightings have also been made of this species in shallower coastal waters, and around seamounts and the continental slope (1). This species appears to be particularly well-adapted to living in ice-covered waters, and is frequently found around the Antarctic ice-edge and under pack-ice in the summer, but normally moves away from the ice-edge in winter (5).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Range

provided by Arkive
Arnoux's beaked whale is found in the southern Hemisphere, in a circumpolar distribution, from Antarctica as far North as southern Brazil and South Africa (1). Populations appear to be most concentrated to the south of New Zealand and South America (2)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Status

provided by Arkive
Classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Threats

provided by Arkive
A general lack of data about Arnoux's beaked whale means that its global population and conservation status are unclear. It is, however, generally thought to be rare and therefore may be adversely affected by some of the threats that are known to be causing declines in other beaked whale species. While this species is not generally targeted directly by commercial fisheries, it may be caught incidentally during drift-netting. In addition, commercial fishing in Antarctic waters may reduce food supplies for this species, particularly as a significant proportion of these fisheries are illegal and unregulated. Other issues may include climate change, as well as the use of active sonar by military vessels, which has been implicated in mass strandings of some beaked whale species (1).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Similar in appearance to Baird's beaked whale, this species has a small head, with a long tube-like beak, moderately steep bulbous forehead, small rounded flippers, short slightly falcate dorsal fin, and (usually) unnotched flukes. A pair of V-shaped throat grooves is present.

Arnoux's beaked whales are slate grey to light brown; the head region is generally lighter than the rest of the body. The body is often heavily scarred and scratched, and the underside tends to be lighter, and covered with white blotches.

Two pairs of triangular teeth are present at the tip of the lower jaw; they erupt in both sexes and are visible outside the closed mouth. The pair nearest the tip of the jaw is larger.

Can be confused with: Arnoux's beaked whales can be easily confused with southern bottlenose whales, which share much of their range. Differences in head shape, dorsal-fin shape, and tooth size and position should be sufficient to distinguish them, if clearly seen. Individuals of some species of Mesoplodon could also be confused with this species, but they are generally much smaller.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
author
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
original
visit source
partner site
FAO species catalogs

Size

provided by FAO species catalogs
Arnoux's beaked whales reach a known maximum size of 9.75 m; females are probably larger than males, as is generally true in beaked whales. Length at birth is unknown, but is probably around 4 m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
author
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
original
visit source
partner site
FAO species catalogs

Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Not much is known of the biology of this species. Most groups number between 6 and 10 individuals, but some as large as 80 whales have been seen. Arnoux's beaked whales are reportedly shy of boats and can dive for over an hour, making observation difficult. This species' reproductive biology is poorly known.

The feeding habits of Arnoux's beaked whales are assumed to be similar to those of their Northern Hemisphere relatives, Baird's beaked whales, thus consisting of benthic and pelagic fishes and cephalopods.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
author
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
original
visit source
partner site
FAO species catalogs

Benefits

provided by FAO species catalogs
Conservation Status : There has not been any substantial commercial hunting for this species, but some have been taken for scientific study. IUCN:

Insufficiently known.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
author
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
original
visit source
partner site
FAO species catalogs

Berardius arnuxii

provided by wikipedia EN

Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii), southern four-toothed whale, southern beaked whale, New Zealand beaked whale, southern giant bottlenose whale, or southern porpoise whale is one of the species of Berardius.[1] Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species, until genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation led them to be classified as separate. Little is known about their behavior because they only live in the ocean about 3,300 feet.[2]

Physical description

 src=
Skeleton of Berardius arnuxii, showing a skull adapted to vocalizations

Arnoux's and Baird’s beaked whales, have very similar features and would be indistinguishable at sea if they did not exist in disjoint locations.[3] Both whales reach similar sizes, have bulbous melons, and long prominent beaks. Their lower jaw is longer than the upper, and once sexual maturity is reached the front teeth are visible even when the mouth is fully closed.[3][4] The Baird's and Arnoux's beaked whales are the only whales in the Ziphiidae family where both sexes have erupted teeth. The teeth in the Ziphiidae are presumed to be used by the males for fighting and competition for females. Ziphiidae has the most prevalent and pronounced markings caused by teeth scaring among the cetaceans. Front-facing teeth may be covered in barnacles after many years.[4]

Baird's and Arnoux's beaked whales have similarly shaped small flippers with rounded tips, and small dorsal fins that sit far back on their body.[4] Adult males and females of both species pick up numerous white linear scars all over the body as they age, and these may be a rough indicator of age. These traits are similar in both sexes, as there is little sexual dimorphism in either species.[3][4] Among the observed differences in the sexes is their size: female Baird's and Arnoux giant beaked whales are slightly larger than the males.

Population and distribution

Arnoux's beaked whales inhabit great tracts of the Southern Ocean. Large groups of animals, pods of up to 47 individuals, have been observed off Kemp Land, Antarctica.[5] Beachings in New Zealand and Argentina indicate the whale may be relatively common in the Southern Ocean between those countries and Antarctica; sporadic sightings have been recorded in polar waters, such as in McMurdo Sound.[6] It has also been spotted close to South Georgia and South Africa, indicating a likely circumpolar distribution. The northernmost stranding was at 34 degrees south, indicating the whales inhabit cool and temperate, as well as polar, waters. There is no stock report for the Arnoux's beaked whale to date by NOAA.

Conservation

Arnoux's beaked whale has rarely been exploited, and although no abundance estimates are available, the population is not believed to be endangered. Arnoux's beaked whale is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MOU).[7]

References

  1. ^ Handbook of marine mammals. 4. Sam H. Ridgway, Richard J. Harrison. London: Academic Press. 1981–1999. ISBN 0-12-588501-6. OCLC 7819810.CS1 maint: date format (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/bairds-beaked-whale
  3. ^ a b c "Arnoux's beaked whale". Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d "Baird's beaked whale". WDC, Whale and Dolphin Conservation. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  5. ^ Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Sarah M. (1970). "Acoustic observations of Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii) off Kemp Land, Antarctica". Marine Mammal Science. 15: 192–198. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00789.x.
  6. ^ "Mystery Whales Put on Show at Scott Base | EveningReport.nz". Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  7. ^ "CMS Pacific Cetaceans MOU for Cetaceans and their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region". Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Berardius arnuxii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii), southern four-toothed whale, southern beaked whale, New Zealand beaked whale, southern giant bottlenose whale, or southern porpoise whale is one of the species of Berardius. Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species, until genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation led them to be classified as separate. Little is known about their behavior because they only live in the ocean about 3,300 feet.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
cold temperate and subpolar
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

IUCN Red List Category

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Data Deficient (DD)
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
William Perrin [email]