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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals, but they may live 25 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Behavior

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins communicate with each other through clicks, whistles, and screams. Clicks are frequently heard, while screams are the least common and have only been observed in groups exceeding 4 or 5 individuals.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Conservation Status

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Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins are listed as near threatened by the IUCN and on Appendix I by CITES. Because they live in lose proximity to the shore, they often get tangled in fishing nets and, in areas in Africa, in anti-shark nets. Destruction of habitats is most likely the greatest threat to this species. This destruction is caused by environmental contaminants and reclamation of coastal waters.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins on humans.

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Benefits

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are occasionally hunted by humans, but not on a commercial scale. They are not generally held in captivity by aquariums because of high mortality rates for captive individuals.

Positive Impacts: food

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Associations

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins eat a variety of fish and are prey to some sharks. They also host some parasites, such as nematodes (Anisakis alexandri), which affect the stomach. In Hong Kong, lungworms (Halocercus pingi) have been observed in their orbits. Barnacles (Halocercus pingi) have also been observed living on the skin of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • nematodes (Anisakis alexandri)
  • lungworms (Halocercus pingi)
  • barnacles (Halocercus pingi)
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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins primarily feed on abundant estuarine fish and fish associated with reef environments. They generally feed close to the ocean floor. Some groups feed with the rising tide. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are also known to follow trawlers, feeding on discarded organisms.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Distribution

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Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins, Sousa chinensis, are found the Indian and Pacific Ocean, from the coast of Africa to the coast of China and Australia. There are two distinct forms of this species: Indian humpbacked dolphins Sousa chinensis plumbea and Pacific humpbacked dolphins Sousa chinensis chinensis. Indian humpbacked dolphins are mainly found along the coasts of the Indian Ocean, while Pacific humpbacked dolphins are mainly found along the coasts of Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia. Members of this species have been observed off the coast of over 30 different countries. They do not, however, occur around the Philippines due to the presence of deep oceanic waters.

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Habitat

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins have a highly tropical and subtropical distribution. They live in warm waters, generally warmer than 15 degrees Celsius, and at an average depth of 20 m, rarely traveling to waters deeper than 25 m. They are often found in or near bays, estuaries, mangrove forests, sandbanks, rocky and coral reefs and large river mouths. They generally remain close to the shore, but occasionally venture further if water depth remains shallow.

Range depth: 25 (high) m.

Average depth: 20 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; brackish water

Other Habitat Features: estuarine

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Life Expectancy

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Lifespan of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins is fairly high in the wild; they generally live 40 or more years. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are not commonly raised in captivity. Many die after 3 months in captivity, and one individual in India died after 28 days due to starvation. One individual, however, lived 31 years in captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
.08 to 31 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
40 years.

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Morphology

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are medium-sized dolphins, ranging from 1.8 to 3 m in length and weighing 250 to 285 kg when fully grown. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in waters near southern Africa express sexual dimorphism, with males larger than females, but sexual dimorphism is not observed in other areas.

The dorsal fin and hump of Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins varies with geographical region. In eastern waters, the dorsal fin is short and sits on a wide base that gradually slopes into the body. The tip of the fin is lightly recurved, and the hump is only 5 to 10% of the total body length. In western waters, the dorsal fin is shorter and more recurved, however it sits atop a much wider and longer base that reaches to about 30% of the body length.

Coloration of Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins varies greatly with developmental stage and with geographic region. In general, subadults are a mottled grayish-pink color and calves are dark gray. Individuals found in southern African waters are typically dark gray with a lighter ventral surface. They develop a pinkish-white spot on the dorsal fin as they age. Calves in this region are much lighter than those of other regions. Individuals found in the northern Indian Ocean are more brownish-gray in color. In waters around China and other areas of southeast Asia, individuals are pure white, often with a pinkish tint. White Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins also often have a speckling of dark flecks on their body.

Range mass: 250 to 280 kg.

Range length: 1.8 to 3 m.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike; male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Associations

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Sharks are the only known predator of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. While unconfirmed, it is likely that killer whales, Orcinus orca also prey on this species. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins have been known to flee from sharks and to chase sharks to avoid predation.

Known Predators:

  • Sharks
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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Reproduction

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Little information about the mating systems of Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins is documented. However, the most likely reroductive strategy of males is mate searching.

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins breed once yearly, though births typically occur in the spring and summer. After a gestation period of 10 to 12 months, females usually give birth to 1 offspring that measures approximately 100 cm in length. Young are weaned around 2 years of age, although they are capable of eating solid foods after 6 months. Females reach sexual maturity around 9 to 10 years of age, while males reach sexual maturity around 12 to 13 years of age.

Breeding interval: Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins breed once yearly.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 10 to 12 months.

Range weaning age: 24 to 36 months.

Average weaning age: 24 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 9 to 10 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 12 to 13 years.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Female Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins provide considerable care to their young. Calves are weaned around 2 years of age and remain in association with their mother for 3 to 4 years. Allomothering, or non-maternal infant care, has been observed off the coasts of South Africa and Hong Kong.

Parental Investment: female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)

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Napier, S. 2011. "Sousa chinensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sousa_chinensis.html
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Biology

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Little is known about the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, but small groups of around three to seven individuals are most commonly seen (5). These are slow-swimming dolphins, typically travelling at around 4.8 kilometres per hour (5). Despite this sluggishness, many aerial displays are seen; including breaching, when the dolphin leaps out of the water, lob tailing (slapping the surface of the water with the tail) and spyhopping, when the dolphin raises its head vertically out of the water and then sinks below the surface quietly (6). These dolphins feed primarily on reef-associated and estuarine fish (9). Individuals may be aggressive and this appears to affect dominance rank within the group (5).
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Conservation

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Information on population densities and distributions are urgently needed before an effective conservation plan can be put into action.
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Description

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The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin has a typically streamlined body and a long slender beak (5). Populations differ in both shape and colour, with those in the west of the range possessing a 'double-step' dorsal fin with a fatty hump upon which the dorsal fin sits (6). Although usually dark grey on their back and lighter underneath, white and pink variations are also known; the most famous of these are the 'pink dolphins' of Hong Kong bay (2). The humpback dolphin has an unusual diving posture, first lifting its beak out of the water and arching its back, and then pausing before dipping below the surface or flipping its tail to dive (2). Given the wide morphological differences, there is some disagreement as to whether the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin does in fact represent four different species: Sousa plumbea, Sousa lentiginosa, Sousa chinensis and Sousaborneensis respectively (5).
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Habitat

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Inhabits coastal tropical and subtropical waters, preferring areas that are less than 20 metres deep (6).
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Range

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Found along the coasts of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans (6), from southern China and north Australia in the east, to South Africa in the west.
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Status

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Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Threats

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are at risk from factors that also threaten all other cetaceans, such as entanglement in fishing nets, pollution and the depletion of fish stocks worldwide (6). These coastal dolphins are also threatened by boat traffic, a factor that is especially pertinent in Hong Kong where this dolphin's habitat is also the busiest harbour in the world. In South Africa, shark nets may be an important cause of mortality but more data on this potential threat is required (8).
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Distribution in Egypt

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Resident in Red Sea and accidental in Mediterranean (Israel, and Egypt at Port Said, probably from the Suez Canal).

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Status in Egypt

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Native, resident?

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Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Dolphins of this highly variable species are characterized by a robust body with a long, well-defined beak. In most populations (especially those off southern Africa), the dorsal fin sits on a hump, or ridge, in the middle of the animal's back. In others the ridge appears to be absent, or less well-developed. In most areas, there also appear to be well-developed ridges on the tail stock. Males are larger and have more exaggerated ridges on the back and tail stock.

The colour pattern varies with age and area. In most regions, light coloured calves darken with age to become dark lead grey above and light grey below. However, off Malaysia and northern Australia calves and adults are nearly white. In the western Indian Ocean and off China dark calves lighten with age. In the latter case, pinkish white with spots and blotches. adults are

There are 29 to 38 teeth in each tooth row.

Can be confused with: Hump-backed dolphins are most likely to be confused with bottlenose dolphins . Differences in dorsal-fin shape (including presence of the hump on many hump-backed dolphins), head shape, and colour can be used to distinguish between the 2. Also, humpbacks tend to surface differently, pausing at the top of their roll.

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Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Size

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Maximum known body sizes are 3.2 m (males) and 2.5 m (females). Weights of up to 284 kg have been recorded. Newborns appear to be around 1 m in length.
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Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Groups tend to contain fewer than 10 individuals, though some contain up to 30. Group structure has been studied using photo-identification techniques and off South Africa, some herds are stable. Also, off South Africa, where these dolphins have been most thoroughly studied, groups preferentially use sandy bays for resting and socializing, and open rocky coastline for foraging. Herds often patrol slowly parallel to shore. They are moderately acrobatic, but do not often bowride. Mating and calving occur all year, at least in South Africa, but there appears to be a calving peak in summer.

Feeding is primarily on nearshore, estuarine, and reef fish.

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Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Benefits

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In the northwest Indian Ocean, at least, some direct catches for human consumption and for oil are known. Incidental captures in fishing nets are known or suspected throughout the range. Catches occur in antishark gillnets off southeast Africa and off eastern Australia. Mortality off South Africa has been implicated as a population threat there. Mangrove habitat degradation may also present a threat to this species. IUCN:

Insufficiently known.

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Marine mammals of the world. Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber - 1993. FAO species identification guide. Rome, FAO. 320 p. 587 figs. . 
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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin

provided by wikipedia EN

The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis; Chinese: 中華白海豚; pinyin: Zhōnghuá bái hǎitún)[2] is a species of humpback dolphin inhabiting coastal waters of the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans.[3] This species is often referred to as the Chinese white dolphin in mainland China, Macao, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore as a common name. Some biologists regard the Indo-Pacific dolphin as a subspecies of the Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (S. plumbea) which ranges from East Africa to India. However, DNA testing studies have shown that the two are distinct species.[1] Additionally, a new species (the Australian humpback dolphin (S. sahulensis)) has just recently been split off from S. chinensis and recognized as a distinct species. Nevertheless, there are still several unresolved issues in differentiation of the Indian Ocean-type and Indo-Pacific-type humpback dolphins.

Description

 src=
Tail with visible grey and pink colours

An adult Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is grey, white or pink[4] and may appear as an albino dolphin to some. Uniquely, the population along the Chinese coast has pink skin,[5] and the pink colour originates not from a pigment, but from blood vessels which were overdeveloped for thermoregulation. The body length is 2 to 3.5 m (6 ft 7 in to 11 ft 6 in) for adults 1 m (3 ft 3 in) for infants. An adult weighs 150 to 230 kg (330 to 510 lb). Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins live up to 40 years,[6] as determined by the analysis of their teeth.

Calves are dark grey or black at birth and measure around 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Their coloration lightens through a mottled grey as they age.[4]

Behaviour

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins live in small groups, generally with fewer than ten individuals. They hunt as a group using echolocation.[7]

Adult dolphins come to the water surface to breathe for 20 to 30 seconds before diving deep again, for two to eight minutes. Dolphin calves, with smaller lung capacities, surface twice as often as adults, staying underwater for one to three minutes. Adult dolphins rarely stay under water for more than four minutes. They sometimes leap completely out of the water. They may also rise up vertically from the water, exposing the dorsal half of their bodies. A pair of protruding eyes allows them to see clearly in both air and water.

Reproduction

Female dolphins reach sexual maturity at around ten years old, while males mature at around 13 years old. They usually mate from the end of summer to autumn, and calves are born after a gestation period of eleven months. The mother stays with her calf until it can find food for itself, usually when it reaches 3–4 years old.[6]

Threats

The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is threatened by habitat loss, water pollution, coastal development, overfishing and an increase in marine traffic within its range.[8][9]

In 2015 the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin was classed as "vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[9]

Water pollution

In 2013, conservationists in Hong Kong warned that the local population had fallen from 158 individuals in 2003 to just 78 in 2011. Members of Hong Kong Dolphinwatch spotted a group of dolphins helping a mother to support her dead calf above the water in an attempt to revive it. A Dolphinwatch spokeswoman claimed that the calf had died after ingesting toxins from polluted seawater through its mother's milk. The Hong Kong Dolphin Conservation Society warned of a further decline in dolphin numbers in the area.[8]

Plastic pollution

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins are at particular risk of exposure to organic pollutants because they inhabit shallow coastal waters, which are often impacted by human activities. Anthropogenic pollutants pose a risk to marine mammals that reside in coastal waters. Discharge of organic pollutants into marine environments has been shown to decrease water quality, resulting in habitat loss and a significant reduction in species richness.[10] The loss of key pods has caused species fragmentation, also due to habitat loss, which increases species isolation and decreases connectivity, resulting in population decline.

Plastic pollution is widespread across all oceans due to the buoyant and durable properties of plastic, which allow for sorption of toxicants to plastic while traveling through the environment.[11][12] This has led researchers to the conclusion that synthetic polymers are hazardous to marine life and should be declared as a hazardous waste type. There are many transit paths that allow for plastics and pollutions to enter oceans: freshwater waste can enter oceans by rivers at the delta or estuary, by humans discarding their waste directly into marine waters, or through photo-degradation and other forms of weathering processes that aid in plastic fragmentation and dispersal. Large quantities of fragmented plastics collect in subtropical ocean gyres.[12] Plastic accumulation is not limited to ocean gyres; closed bays, gulfs and seas surrounded by densely populated coastlines and watersheds are all susceptible.[13]

 src=
Bioaccumulation:Plastic pollutants traveling from lower-trophic levels to higher-trophic levels.

The consumption of plastics causes adverse effects in marine mammals such as disease susceptibility, reproductive and developmental toxicity.[10] Constant absorption of organic pollutants like plastic can be transferred into the dolphin's tissues and organs through an ingestion pathway that is impacting megafauna, lower trophic levels and predators (not limited to Indo-Pacific).[14] Organ toxicity can lead to organ failure, loss of offspring and milk toxicity. Even if the dolphin is not consuming plastic directly then it can take in plastic pollutants through biomagnification and bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation is defined as the uptake of chemicals from the environment through dietary intake, dermal (skin) absorption or respiratory transport in air or water. This is a huge factor in plastic toxicity consumption in this species due to its long lifespan, which makes it susceptible to chronic exposure. Also, these dolphins contain a large quantity of blubber, lipids, which can result in an excess of toxicity storage in their tissues.

 src=
Echolocation, also known as sonar

Plastic pollution can also interfere with dolphins' use of echolocation. Echolocation is the main sense that all dolphins use to navigate, as well as to pinpoint prey and predators.[15] Dolphins and whales use echolocation by bouncing high-pitched clicking sounds off underwater objects, similar to shouting and listening for echoes. The sounds are made by squeezing air through nasal passages near the blowhole. These sound-waves then pass into the forehead, where a big blob of fat called the melon focuses them into a beam.[16] This process can be interrupted by noise pollution, as well as by obstructions in the water such as masses of oil or plastics.[17] Large blockages in the water can refract sound-waves, misleading the dolphin to falsely detect prey, kin or a predator in the area. This can become confusing and frustrating which can lead to extreme stress and potential health issues.

Clusters of plastic debris can cause noise pollution which interferes with the dolphins' sense of echolocation. As plastic debris is hurled together by ocean currents, sound is produced underwater. An excess of sound waves underwater can render the dolphins' sense of echolocation useless.

Distributions and watching

 src=
Adult Chinese white dolphin swimming off the coast of Lantau Island, Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, boat trips to visit the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins have been running since the 1990s.[18] The dolphins mainly live in the waters of Lantau North, Southeast Lantau, the Soko Islands and Peng Chau. A code of conduct regulates dolphin-watching activity in Hong Kong waters.[19]

There have been some reports of dolphin watching practices that have further endangered the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, such as in Sanniang Bay dolphin sanctuary in Qinzhou[20][21] and off Xiamen.[22] However, these generally are small, locally organised one-off tours or private pleasure boats that do not adhere to the Hong Kong Agricultural and Fisheries Department's voluntary code of conduct.

Nánpēng Islands Marine Sanctuary in Nan'ao County is also home to local pods.[23] The population in Leizhou Bay, Leizhou Peninsula, comprising nearly 1,000 animals and the second largest population in the nation, may also be targeted for future tourism.[24] Hepu National Sanctuary of Dugongs, and waters around Sanya Bay and other coasts adjacent on Hainan Island are home to some dolphins.[25] As the environment and local ecosystems recovery, dolphins' presences in nearby waters have been increasing such as vicinity to the nature sanctuary of Weizhou and Xieyang Islands.[26][27] Gulf of Tonkin waters in Vietnam may have unstudied populations that may appear elsewhere such as along Xuân Thủy National Park and Hòn Dáu Island in Hải Phòng.[28]

Cantonese slang

The Cantonese language has a slang expression wu gei bak gei (often written as 烏忌白忌, "black taboo white taboo") which means someone or something is a bad omen or a nuisance. The phrase originates from the Cantonese fisher people, because they claim the dolphins eat the fish in their nets. However, in formal Chinese, it should be written as 烏鱀白鱀, with the gei originally in olden Chinese, meaning dolphins. The wu refers to the finless porpoises, which are black, and the bak, white, referring to Chinese river dolphins. These two species often interrupt and ruin the fishermen's catch. As years passed, because "dolphin" sounds the same as "bad luck", the meaning of the phrase changed. However, in Cantonese, wu refers to the calves of Chinese white dolphin and bak refers to the adults. Nowadays, dolphins are not called gei anymore, but 海豚 (hai tun), literally meaning "sea pig", with none of the negative connotations for pig found in English.

Eastern Taiwan Strait population

The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were first discovered along the west coast of Taiwan in 2002. Based on a survey done in 2002 and 2003, they are often found in waters <5m deep, and no evidence shows that they appear in water deeper than 15m.[29] A study in 2008 found that the population of humpback dolphins, which occupies a linear range of about 500 km^2 along the central west coast of Taiwan, is genetically distinct from all populations living in other areas.[30] And this population is called Eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population.

Taiwan is a densely populated island and highly developed area, which has many industrial development projects, especially along the west coast, where the ETS populations of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins live. Based on data collected between 2002 and 2005, the ETS population of humpback dolphins was less than 100 individuals.[29] Unfortunately, the newest data released in 2012 shows that only 62 individuals are left. It means during those 7 years, population of humpback dolphins is being destroyed constantly and severely. A preliminary examination revealed that the ETS humpback dolphin population meets the IUCN Red List criteria for "Critically endangered".[31] Without further protection and regulation, this population will go extinct quickly. The ETS is listed as Endangered species Under the Endangered Species Act by NOAA Fisheries since 2018.[32]

There are several facts that result in the decreasing number of ETS population of humpback dolphins. First, large-scale modification of the shoreline by industrial development including hydraulic filling for creating industrial or science parks, seawall construction and sand mining cause habitat fragmentation and diminish dolphin's habitats. In addition, exploitation of shoreline also contributes to toxic contamination flows into dolphin's habitats. The chemical pollution from industrial or agricultural and municipal discharge results in impaired health of dolphins, for instance, reproductive disorders, and compromised immune system.[33]

Second, fishing activities along the west coast of Taiwan are thriving, and cause many impacts on dolphins. Widespread and intensive use of gillnets and vessel strikes are potential threats for dolphins. Over exploitation of fish by fisheries' is another threat for the dolphin population. It has led to disturbance of marine food web or trophic level and reduces marine biodiversity. Therefore, dolphins have not enough prey to live on.

Still another problem is reduced amount of freshwater flows into estuaries from rivers. Since ETS population of humpback dolphins is closely associated with estuaries habitat, the elimination of freshwater discharge from rivers significantly decreases the amount of suitable habitats for dolphins.[29]

Hydroacoustic disturbance is another critical issue for dolphins. Sources of noise can come from dredging, pile driving, increased vessel traffic, seawall construction, and soil improvement. For all cetaceans, sound is vital for providing information about their environment, communicating with other individuals, and foraging; also, they are very vulnerable and sensitive to the effects of noise. Elevated anthropogenic sound level causes many dysfunctions of their behaviors, and even leads to death.[29]

In addition to threats from anthropogenic activities, dolphins are potentially at the risk due to the small population size, which may result in inbreeding and decreased genetic and demographic variability. Finally, climate change causes more typhoons to hit the west coast of Taiwan and cause great disturbance to dolphins' habitats.

Conservation

The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is listed on Appendix II[34] of the convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). It is listed on Appendix II[34] as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements. In the interim of 2003–2013, the number of these dolphins in the bay around Hong Kong has dwindled from a population of 159 to just 61 individuals, a population decline of 60% in the last decade. The population continues to be further threatened by pollution, vessel collision, overfishing, and underwater noise pollution.[35]

In addition to their natural susceptibility to anthropogenic disturbances, the Chinese white dolphin's late sexual maturity, reduced fecundity, reduced calf survival, and long calving intervals heavily curtails their ability to naturally cope with elevated rates of mortality.[36]

In recent years, Taiwan launched the largest Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin sanctuary on the Taiwanese coast, stretching from Miaoli County to Chiayi County.[37] The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is also covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).

Timeline of main events

  • 1637: The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin was first documented in English by the adventurer Peter Mundy in Hong Kong near the Pearl River. The species are attracted to the Pearl River Estuary because of its brackish waters.
  • 1765: Pehr Osbeck gives the first scientific description of the species.[38]
  • Late 1980s: Environmentalists started to pay attention to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population.
  • Early 1990: The Hong Kong public started to become aware of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. This was due to the side effects of the construction of the Chek Lap Kok Airport. It was one of the world's largest single reclamation projects: the reclamation of nine square kilometers of the seabed near Northern Lantau, which was one of the major habitats of the dolphins.
  • Early 1993: Re-evaluation of the environmental effects of the construction of Chek Lap Kok Airport. This alerted eco-activists such as those from the World Wide Fund for Nature in Hong Kong, in turn bringing media attention on the matter. Soon enough, the Hong Kong Government began getting involved by funding projects to research on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins
  • Late 1993: The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department was founded.
  • 1996: Dr. Thomas Jefferson began to conduct research on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in hope of discovering more about them.
  • 1997: The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin became the official mascot of the 1997 sovereignty changing ceremonies in Hong Kong.
  • 1998: The research results of Dr. Thomas Jefferson was published in "Wildlife Monographs".
  • 1998: The Hong Kong Dolphinwatch was organized and began to run dolphin watching tours for the general public to raise the public's awareness of the species.
  • 2000: The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department started to conduct long-term observation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong.
  • 2000: The population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins has reached around 80–140 dolphins in the Pearl River waters.
  • 2014: Dr. Thomas Jefferson and Dr. Howard C. Rosenbaum revised the taxonomy of the humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.). They describe a new species, the Australian humpback dolphin and define the accepted common name for this species, the Indo-Pacific Humpback dolphin.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jefferson, T.A.; Smith, B.D.; Braulik, G.T.; Perrin, W. (2017). "Sousa chinensis (errata version published in 2018)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T82031425A123794774. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T82031425A50372332.en.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link){{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  2. ^ Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R. L. Jr. (2005). "Sousa chinensis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 732. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ Jefferson, Thomas A.; Smith, Brian D. (2016), "Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria", Advances in Marine Biology, Elsevier, 73: 1–26, doi:10.1016/bs.amb.2015.04.002, ISBN 978-0-12-803602-0, PMID 26790886
  4. ^ a b Jefferson, Thomas A. (2008). Marine mammals of the world : a comprehensive guide to their identification. Marc A. Webber, Robert L. Pitman (1st ed.). London: Academic. p. 186. ISBN 0-08-055784-8. OCLC 326418543.
  5. ^ WWF Hong Kong. Wwf.org.hk. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  6. ^ a b Napier, Stephanie. "Sousa chinensis (Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Indo-Pacific Hump-Backed Dolphins ~ MarineBio Conservation Society". 18 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Hong Kong 'risks losing pink dolphins'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  9. ^ a b Smith, Brian; Braulik, Gillian; Center/NOAA), Thomas Jefferson (Southwest Fisheries Science; Rla), William Perrin (IUCN SSC Cetacean (22 June 2015). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Sousa chinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b Sanganyado, Edmond; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Liu, Wenhua (2018). "Bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin: A review on current knowledge and future prospects". Environmental Pollution. 237: 111–125. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.055. PMID 29477865.
  11. ^ Teuten, Emma L.; Rowland, Steven J.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Thompson, Richard C. (1 November 2007). "Potential for Plastics to Transport Hydrophobic Contaminants". Environmental Science & Technology. 41 (22): 7759–7764. Bibcode:2007EnST...41.7759T. doi:10.1021/es071737s. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 18075085.
  12. ^ a b Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia (10 December 2014). "Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea". PLOS ONE. 9 (12): e111913. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k1913E. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111913. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4262196. PMID 25494041.
  13. ^ Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha (2013). "Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e80466. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...880466R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080466. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3842337. PMID 24312224.
  14. ^ Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke (27 July 2009). "Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 364 (1526): 2027–2045. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0284. ISSN 1471-2970. PMC 2873017. PMID 19528054.
  15. ^ "How do dolphins communicate?". Whale & Dolphin Conservation UK. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  16. ^ "What is echolocation and which animals use it?". Discover Wildlife. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  17. ^ Nabi, G.; McLaughlin, R. W.; Hao, Y.; Wang, K.; Zeng, X.; Khan, S.; Wang, D. (2018). "Access to University Library Resources | The University of New Mexico". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 25 (20): 19338–19345. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-2208-7. PMID 29804251. S2CID 44108995.
  18. ^ "Hong Kong DolphinWatch Ltd".
  19. ^ Code of Conduct for Dolphin Watching Activities, Hong Kong Agricultural and Fisheries Department. (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  20. ^ Plight of dolphins major issue amid city expansion. China Daily. (3 September 2010). Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  21. ^ Show China. En.showchina.org. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  22. ^ 厦门海之风游艇带您来五缘湾看海豚_厦门海之风游艇有限公微信文章_微儿网. V2gg.com. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  23. ^ 2016. 汕头南澎青罗湾保护区:"美人鱼"和精灵们的海域 Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "近千头中华白海豚栖息广东湛江雷州湾". Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  25. ^ 2016. 海南海洋生态保护良好,成为大型珍稀海洋动物的"乐园" Archived 5 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 March 2017
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  28. ^ Công An Nhân Dân. 2006. Hải Phòng: Cá heo trắng xuất hiện cả đàn. Retrieved 7 March 2017
  29. ^ a b c d Wang, John Y. et al. (eds.) (2007) CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE EASTERN TAIWAN STRAIT POPULATION OF INDO-PACIFIC HUMPBACK DOLPHINS. National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium
  30. ^ Population differences in the pigmentation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, in Chinese waters : mammalia. Degruyter.com (17 October 2008). Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  31. ^ Sheehy, D.J. (2009) Potential Impacts to Sousa chinensis from a. Proposed Land Reclamation along the West Coast of Taiwan. aquabio.com
  32. ^ Fisheries, NOAA (29 December 2020). "Final Rule to List the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin as Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act | NOAA Fisheries". NOAA. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  33. ^ Wang, John Y. et al. (eds.) (2004) RESEARCH ACTION PLAN FOR THE HUMPBACK DOLPHINS OF WESTERN TAIWAN. The National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium
  34. ^ a b "Appendix II Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine" of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5 March 2009.
  35. ^ Hong Kong's Striking Dolphins Dwindle to Just Dozens | ABC News Blogs – Yahoo. Gma.yahoo.com (21 June 2013). Retrieved 2014-05-15.
  36. ^ Jefferson, Thomas A.; Hung, Samuel K. (2004). "A Review of the Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Chinese Waters". Aquatic Mammals. 30 (1): 149–158. doi:10.1578/am.30.1.2004.149.
  37. ^ Perrin F.W., Koch C.C., 2007. Wursig B., Thewissen G.M.J, Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. pp609. Academic Press. Retrieved 13-05-2014
  38. ^ Carwardine, Mark (2002) Sharks and Whales. DK ADULT. ISBN 0789489902. p. 362.
  39. ^ Jefferson, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Howard C. (2014). "Taxonomic revision of the humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.), and description of a new species from Australia". Marine Mammal Science. 30 (4): 1494–1541. doi:10.1111/mms.12152.

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Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin: Brief Summary

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The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis; Chinese: 中華白海豚; pinyin: Zhōnghuá bái hǎitún) is a species of humpback dolphin inhabiting coastal waters of the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. This species is often referred to as the Chinese white dolphin in mainland China, Macao, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore as a common name. Some biologists regard the Indo-Pacific dolphin as a subspecies of the Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (S. plumbea) which ranges from East Africa to India. However, DNA testing studies have shown that the two are distinct species. Additionally, a new species (the Australian humpback dolphin (S. sahulensis)) has just recently been split off from S. chinensis and recognized as a distinct species. Nevertheless, there are still several unresolved issues in differentiation of the Indian Ocean-type and Indo-Pacific-type humpback dolphins.

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Habitat

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tropical to warm temperate coastal waters, also in rivers, estuaries and mangroves
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van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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IUCN Red List Category

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Near Threatened (NT)
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van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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William Perrin [email]

IUCN Red List Category

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subpopulation Eastern Taiwan Strait humpback dolphin : Critically Endangered (CR)
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van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
contributor
William Perrin [email]