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Southern White Spot Octopus

Callistoctopus bunurong (Stranks 1990)

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Octopus bunurong Stranks, 1990

Octopus bunurong Stranks, 1990b:462, fig. 3a-f.

Octopus sp. C, Stranks, 1988a:65, figs. 31–35.

DIAGNOSIS.—Animals medium-sized (to 475 mm TL; to 95 mm ML). Mantle elongate ovoid (MWI 42–59–83); head slightly narrower than mantle (HWI 28–49–65), demarked from mantle by moderate constriction; eyes large, projecting above surface of head. Funnel large, slender, bluntly tapered (FLI 47–55–75); funnel organ VV-shaped, limbs thick, outer limbs length of median limbs. Arms very long (ALI 167–708), stout at base, tapering to narrow tips. Arm lengths unequal, arm order I > II > III > IV. Suckers raised above arm surface, of moderate size (SI 3–7–12), without sucker enlargement. Right arm III of males hectocotylized, shorter than opposite number (HAMI 167–209–279; OAI 46–62–82); ligula wide, medium-sized (LLI 9–10–12); ligula groove well marked and deep, with incomplete transverse ridges; calamus very short, acutely pointed (CLI 13–18–22); hectocotylized arm with 70–96 suckers. Web very shallow (WDI 9–12–15), web formula usually A > B > C > D > E. Radula with A3-4 symmetrical seriation of rachidian. Ink sac present. Gill lamellae 9 to 10 per outer demibranch. Mature female with large eggs (capsule 8–10 mm long, 2–3 mm wide); method of egg attachment to substrate unknown. Penis long (PLI 5–21–39), with single-coiled diverticulum; spermatophores relatively short (SpLI 41–65–103), slender (SpWI 3.1–4.4-5.1), with large, coiled sperm reservoir (SpRI 41–50–56).

Integumental sculpture consists of pattern of fine, rounded, and closely set epidermal tubercles and some irregularly spaced, larger, and more elongate tubercles. Tubercles largest on dorsum; tubercles smaller and less prominent on ventral surface. No large papillae in ocular region. Lateral integumentary ridge or fold around mantle circumference absent. Coloring of live animals unknown. Color of specimens preserved in ethyl alcohol light brown to red brown dorsally, creamy red to light brown ventrally. Some regions on dorsum mottled. Surface of raised tubercles usually darker than background, colored brick red to dark brown, giving a speckled appearance. Ocelli absent.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Stranks, 1990b:462, fig. 3a-f. See also Stranks, 1988a:65, figs. 31–35.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Australia, Victoria, Wilsons Promontory, Townsend Point (38°49′S, 140°16′E), no depth data.

TYPE.—Holotype: NMV F53223, male, 55 mm ML. Specimen in good condition, preserved in ethyl alcohol.

DISTRIBUTION AND BIOLOGY.—Endemic to temperate waters of southeastern Australia, from the Great Australian Bight to southern New South Wales, including Bass Strait and northern Tasmania. An inshore species, living on reefs, or rocky areas of sand, or among seagrass, at depths from 1–130 m. Biology unknown.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Callistoctopus bunurong

provided by wikipedia EN

Callistoctopus bunurong, the southern white-spot octopus, is a species of octopus in the family Octopodidae,[1] that can be found in Australia waters, at depths from 1 to 130 meters[2] on sandy substrates.[3] It was originally placed in the genus Octopus, having the scientific name Octopus bunurong, but has been moved to the genus Callistoctopus.[1][3]

Description

Its shape is similar to an oval, containing long arms with narrow tips. Its coloration is red, orange, and white, with white spots covering all of the body, and transverse bands of smaller white spots along the arms of it. A white coloration of skin extends along the mantle on each side, and the size of the mantle can grow up to 48 cm in length. The webs of it are short, almost being transparent.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Its range is in Australia, of coasts of Western Australia, Southern Australia, and Victoria. It lives at depths from 1 to 130 meters, buries in sand and seagrass areas, and comes out at night to feed.[2][3]

Behavior

This octopus has the ability to dig into the sand quickly if in danger. The females of C. bunurong lay eggs that can develop well into young, and then settle to the seafloor after they have hatched. At night it spends time outside of the sand searching for small crustaceans to eat.[3]

Conservation

There are no specific threats to this species, and has been listed as a least concern species due to it having a wide range, but further research is needed to know more about its population size, life history and ecology.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Callistoctopus bunurong (Stranks, 1990)". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  2. ^ a b c "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Callistoctopus bunurong (Stranks, 1990), Southern White-spot Octopus". Museums Victoria Collections. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
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Callistoctopus bunurong: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Callistoctopus bunurong, the southern white-spot octopus, is a species of octopus in the family Octopodidae, that can be found in Australia waters, at depths from 1 to 130 meters on sandy substrates. It was originally placed in the genus Octopus, having the scientific name Octopus bunurong, but has been moved to the genus Callistoctopus.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
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