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Soft Shelled Clam

Mya arenaria Linnaeus 1758

Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
Sand gapers are large shellfish. The large shell valves, which you sometimes find on the beach, don't close entirely. They gape a bit. That is why this animal is called a sand gaper. Originally, they came from America. The Vikings brought this animal from North America to Europe. That may not seem so strange. However, the Vikings lived before Columbus. The presence of sand gapers in Europe indicates that the Vikings had contact with America. This means that Columbus was not the first to travel to America.
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Care of Adults

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Cleavage

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Developmental Rate

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Later Stages of Development and Metamorphosis

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Woods Hole, Maine

References

  • Ayers, J. C., . Population dynamics of the marine clam, Mya arenaria. Limn. and Oceanog., : -.
  • Battle, H. I., . Rhythmic sexual maturity and spawning of certain bivalve mollusks. Contr. Canadian Biol. and Fish., : -.
  • Belding, D. L., . A report upon the clam fishery. th Ann. Rep., Comm. Fish and Game, Massachusetts, pp. -.
  • Bumpus, H. C., . The breeding habits of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, : -.
  • Kellogg, J. L., . Special report on the life-history of the common clam, Mya arenaria. th Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island, , pp. -.
  • Mead, A. D., . Observations on the soft-shell clam. th Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island , pp. -.
  • Mead, A. D., . Observations on the soft-shell clam. st Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island, , pp. -.
  • Mead, A. D., . Observations on the soft-shell clam. nd Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island, , pp. -.
  • Mead, A. D., and E. W. Barnes, . Observations on the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria). rd Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island, , pp. -.
  • Mead, A. D., and E. W. Barnes, . Observations on the soft-shell clam. th Ann. Rep., Comm. Inland Fish., Rhode Island, , pp. -.
  • Nelson, T. C., . On the distribution of critical temperatures for spawning and for ciliary activity in bivalve molluscs. Science, : -.
  • Prytherch, H. F., . The cultivation of lamellibranch larvae. In: Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals, edit. by Galtsoff et al., Comstock, Ithaca, pp. -.
  • Stafford, J., . The clam fishery of Passamaquoddy Bay. Contr. Canadian Biol., , pp. -.

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Living Material

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Preparation of Cultures

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Woods Hole, Maine
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Procuring Gametes

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

The Unfertilized Ovum

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Comprehensive Description

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
Biology/Natural History: This clam has been introduced from the Atlantic, being first seen in San Francisco Bay in 1874. It slowly spread north, and reached Alaska in the 1950's. By the 1920's it seems to have largely displaced the native clams in San Francisco Bay. This clam has long siphons, and can be 20-35 cm below the surface. It can live anaerobically for several days, and dissolves the shell to buffer acidity in these conditions. In San Francisco Bay its optimal intertidal depth is 30 cm above zero tide line. The siphons appear as slits at the surface of the mud, and emit a spurt of water as they contract if one steps near them. This clam burrows only slowly, without using the foot much. Burrowing is by closing the valves and forcefully ejecting water. Predators include skates, rays, and sharks. Predators in Europe include oystercatchers and curlews, from which the clams have a refuge in depth if over 15 cm deep. May contain pea crab symbionts. Mature at about 2-4.5 cm, and spawn in spring or summer. This species is highly esteemed for food.
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Distribution

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Geographical Range: Norton Sound, AK to Elkhorn Slough, Monterey, CA; Japan, Kamchatka, North Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas
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Comprehensive Description

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
As with other members of Family Myidae, this species has a shelflike or spoonlike chondrophore projecting from the hinge plate of the left valve, has two adductor muscles of similar size, and no radial ribs. Mya arenaria has a well-developed, deep pallial sinus. The chondrophore is well-developed, projecting as far or nearly as far as it is wide. The umbones are only slightly anterior to the middle. The hinge ligament is internal, attached to the chondrophore. The posterior end of the shell is less smoothly rounded than is the anterior but it is not truncate. The valves may gape slightly at each end, especially the posterior end. The shell is brittle and chalky white or gray outside with some light yellow or brownish periostracum and uneven concentric rings. The siphons are light brown with darker tips. Length to 17 cm, most often 10 cm or less in our area.
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Look Alikes

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How to Distinguish from Similar Species: Mya truncata and Platyodon cancellatus have a truncate posterior end and rarely exceed 7 cm. This species may be found along with horse clams such as Tresus capax and may look like a small individual of that species or especially like Tresus nuttallii, but the horse clams such Tresus capax have a chondrophore in BOTH valves and a large gape between the valves at the posterior end.
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Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Habitat

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In mud or sandy mud, sometimes mixed with gravel. Common in estuaries and other areas of reduced salinity.
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Habitat

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Depth Range: Intertidal
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Soft-shell clam

provided by wikipedia EN

Ecomare - strandgaperbroed (strandgaperbroed-op-balgzand-8326-sd).jpg
Ecomare - strandgaper (4792-mya-strandgaper-mok-ogb).jpg

Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.

Habitat and distribution

These clams live buried in the sediment on tidal flats. While they are common in muddy areas, their name "arenaria" means sandy and they prefer a combination of sandy and muddy areas. They are well known as a food item on the coast of New England in the Western Atlantic Ocean; however, the range extends much farther north to Canada and south to the Southern states. They are also found in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, for example in the UK, as well as in the North Sea's Wadden Sea (where they are the dominant large clam).

This species has become invasive on the Pacific Coast of North America, including Alaska, Canada and the continental United States.[1] However M. arenaria originated in the Pacific Ocean during the Miocene. It extended its range in the early Pliocene to the Atlantic, including European waters. The Pacific and European populations became extinct some time in the early Pleistocene, leaving only the Northwest Atlantic population, which subsequently spread via humans to its current distribution.[2][3] It also occurs in the Mediterranean Sea.[4]

Physiology

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A sea otter at Moss Landing, California, eating what appear to be Mya arenaria

Mya arenaria has a calcium carbonate shell, which is very thin and easily broken, hence the name "soft-shells" (as opposed to its beach-dwelling neighbors, the thick-shelled quahog).

This clam is found living approximately 3–8 in (7.6–20.3 cm) under the surface of the mud. It extends its paired siphons up to the surface, which draw in seawater, filter it for food, and expel it. The holes in the mud through which the water is drawn in and out can often be seen at low tide. Water may be visibly ejected from the siphon tips when pressure is applied to the surrounding mud. This makes the clams easier to locate when humans are clam digging.

Predators

As well as being eaten by humans, the soft-shelled clam is relished by sea otters in the eastern Pacific Ocean, where the clam is an invasive species (see image below). In New England the soft-shell clam is preyed heavily upon by northern moon snails and invasive green crabs. They are also a favorite of sea gulls, which pull the clam from the sand, climb to about 15–20 ft (5–6 m), and then drop the clam on a hard surface, breaking the shell. They then dive down quickly to eat the soft parts of the clam before others can get to it.

Cooking

Soft-shell clams are edible and can be used in a variety of dishes. Before cooking, it is generally recommended that clams be stored in saltwater for a few hours to facilitate the expulsion of sand from their digestive tracts. Some recommend that cornmeal be added to the water to give the clams something to filter from it.

Soft-shell clams can be eaten steamed, fried, or in clam chowder. "Steamers" (steamed soft-shell clams) are an integral part of the New England clam bake, where they are served steamed whole in the shell, then pulled from the shell at the table, the neck skin is removed and then while holding the clam by the neck it is dipped, first in the clam broth in which they were cooked, to rinse away remaining sand, and then very briefly in melted butter.

References

  1. ^ Powers, Sean; Bishop, Mary Anne; Grabowski, Jonathan & Peterson, Charles (April 2006), "Distribution of the invasive bivalve Mya arenaria L. on intertidal flats of southcentral Alaska", Journal of Sea Research, Elsevier B.V., 55 (3), pp. 207–216, Bibcode:2006JSR....55..207P, doi:10.1016/j.seares.2005.10.004
  2. ^ Strasser, M (1999), "Mya arenaria — an ancient invader of the North Sea coast", Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen, 52 (3–4), pp. 309–324, doi:10.1007/BF02908905
  3. ^ Petersen, KS; Rasmussen, KL; Heinemeler, J; Rud, N (1992), "Clams before Columbus?", Nature, 359 (6397), p. 679, Bibcode:1992Natur.359..679P, doi:10.1038/359679a0, S2CID 4358254
  4. ^ Crocetta & Turolla (2011), "Mya arenaria Linné, 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Mediterranean: its distribution revisited", Journal of Biological Research, 16, pp. 188–193
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Soft-shell clam: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
Ecomare - strandgaperbroed (strandgaperbroed-op-balgzand-8326-sd).jpg Ecomare - strandgaper (4792-mya-strandgaper-mok-ogb).jpg

Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.

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Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
It is believed that the softshell or sand gaper Mya arenaria was introduced from America in the 16th or 17th century. There is also evidence that Vikings brought this species to Europe around 1245-1295, intentionally as food or accidentally in bilge water. Because the sand gaper is able to survive in different types of environments, it has a worldwide distribution. It is a large clamp – up to 15 centimetres – which, when abundantly present, can significantly influence the environment. Because of its entrenched way of life (sometimes up to 50 centimetres deep in the soil!) its presence often remains unnoticed.
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Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
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Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
De strandgaper Mya arenaria zou uit Amerika in de 16e of 17e eeuw geïntroduceerd zijn. Er zijn echter aanwijzingen dat de Vikingen deze soort - intentioneel als voedsel of toevallig in het water in de onderste regio van het schip - al omstreeks 1245-1295 naar Europa brachten. Omwille van de mogelijkheid om in verschillende omgevingstypes te overleven, heeft de strandgaper een wereldwijde verspreiding. Het is een grote schelpensoort - wel tot 15 centimeter - die wanneer hij in grote aantallen aanwezig is, de omgeving sterk kan beïnvloeden. Omwille van de ingegraven levenswijze (soms tot wel 50 centimeter diep in de zeebodem!) is de aanwezigheid ervan vaak moeilijk vast te stellen.
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bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
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Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Labrador to off Georgia; Western Europe
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
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Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Circumboreal, not reaching the Mediterranean
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bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
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[email]

Habitat

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intertidal, bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. Conde, A.; Novais, J. M.; Domínguez, J. (2012). The presence of Mya arenaria in the Ria de Aveiro is the third confirmed record of this invasive clam on the Portuguese coast. <i>Marine Biodiversity Records</i>. 5, e88. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Crocetta, F.; Gofas, S.; Salas, C.; Tringali, L.; Zenetos, A. (2017). Local ecological knowledge versus published literature: a review of non-indigenous Mollusca in Greek marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(4): 415-434. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]