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Chaetopterus variopedatus (Renier 1804)

Breeding Season

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
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Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Care of Adults

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Fertilization and Cleavage

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Later Stages of Development

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Living Material

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Woods Hole, Maine

References

  • Goldstein, L., . A study of the mechanism of activation and nuclear breakdown in the Chaetopterus egg. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Henley, C., And D. P. Costell, . The effects of x-irradiation on the fertilized eggs of the annelid, Chaetopterus. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Lillie, F. R., . Differentiation without cleavage in the egg of the annelid Chaetopterus pergamentaceus. Arch. f. Entw., : -.
  • Pasteels, J., . Recherches sur le determinisme de ['entree en maturation de l'oeuf chez divers Invertebres marine. Arch. Biol., : -.
  • Pasteels, J., . Mouvements localises et rythmiques de la membrane de fécondation chez des oeufs fécondés ou activés (Chaetopterus, Mactra, Nereis). Arch. Biol., : -.
  • Titlebaum, A., . Artificial production of Janus embryos of Chaetopterus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., : -.
  • Tyler, A., . Experimental production of double embryos in annelids and mollusks. J. Exp. Zool., : -.
  • Whitaker D. M., . On the rate of oxygen consumption by fertilized and unfertilized eggs. Iv. Chaetopterus and Arbacia punctulata. J. Gen. Physiol., : /-.
  • Wilson, E. B., . Observations on the early developmental stages of some polychaetous Annelides. Stud. Biol. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., : -.
  • Wilson, E. B., . The development of egg-fragments in annelids. Arch. f. Entw., : -.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Methods of Observation

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Preparation of Cultures

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Procuring Gametes

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

The Unfertilized Ovum

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Time Table of Development

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Chaetopterus variopedatus

provided by wikipedia EN

Chaetopterus variopedatus is a species of parchment worm, a marine polychaete in the family Chaetopteridae. It is found worldwide. However, recent discoveries from molecular phylogeny analysis show that Chaetopterus variopedatus sensu Hartman (1959) is not a single species.

Polychaetes, or marine bristle worms, have elongated bodies divided into many segments. Each segment may bear setae (bristles) and parapodia (paddle-like appendages). Some species live freely, either swimming, crawling or burrowing, and these are known as "errant". Others live permanently in tubes, either calcareous or parchment-like, and these are known as "sedentary".

Description

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Chaetopterus sp.

C. variopedatus builds and lives permanently in a tough, flexible, papery U-shaped tube buried in soft substrate with both ends protruding like little chimneys. The worm itself is segmented, pale coloured and up to twenty-five centimetres long. The anterior end is short and has bristle-bearing segments and a shovel-like mouth.[1] The middle section bears parapodia. On the 12th segment these are modified into long wing-like structures which secrete mucus and form a bag. The parapodia on segments 13, 14 and 15 are fused into three paddle-shaped, piston-like structures, the purpose of which is to pump water through the tube. The water is drawn in through the anterior end and expelled through the posterior end,[1] passing through the fine mesh of the mucus bag where food particles get trapped. The mucus bag is later rolled up and passed by a conveyor belt of whipping hairs in the ciliated dorsal groove[2] to the mouth where it is swallowed whole.[3] The posterior half of the worm is segmented and tapers towards the rear, bearing appendages on each segment.[4]

Distribution and habitat

C. variopedatus has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring in shallow coastal habitats in both temperate and tropical locations throughout the world.[1] It is plentiful around the coasts of Britain and Ireland but is absent from the east coast of England south of the Tees estuary. The tough permanent tubes are found buried in sand and gravel in the littoral and sub-littoral zones. At greater depths they are found adhering to bedrock, in crevices and under boulders.[4]

In New Zealand there have been many recent reports of the parchment-like tubes of Chaetopterus littering beaches, especially after storms. Since about 1995, large areas of shallow sea have been invaded by the worm, believed to be C. variopedatus. By covering the sandy bottom with a dense mat of tubes, the parchment worm makes life very difficult for the native bottom-dwelling fauna. Other marine worms, clams and starfish have been squeezed out, but the big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) has thrived as it finds extra prey in the tiny mysid shrimps and other crustaceans it finds between the tubes and can anchor itself by its tail to prevent itself being swept away.[2]

Biology

A female C. variopedatus can produce and liberate a batch of 150,000 to 1 million eggs into the sea. After fertilisation, the developing larvae become part of the plankton, drifting and feeding for some weeks until they settle out.[5] The development of C. variopedatus follows an unusual pattern in that those segments destined to become part of the mid-body region have accelerated development as compared with the anterior segments. This heterochrony is not seen in other polychaete worms.[3]

Ecology

Several species of crabs have adopted the tubes of C. variopedatus as their home with Pinnixa chaetopterana, Polyonyx gibbesi and certain Pisidia species living almost exclusively within the tubes although they do not share a tube with each other.[3] It is likely that the crabs gain protection from predators within the tubes and possibly food from the host worm.[6]

Bottom-feeding fish and crustaceans probably prey on C. variopedatus but the worm is made less accessible by the fact that it never emerges from its tube which is safely buried beneath the surface of the substrate. If it becomes injured, this worm has the ability to regenerate its entire body from a single segment.[7] Another anti-predator strategy involves emitting a luminescent cloud of mucus from its tube.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Life
  2. ^ a b Invasion of the parchment worm
  3. ^ a b c Marine organisms database Archived June 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Marine Life Information Network
  5. ^ Fauchald, K & PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: a study of the polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 17: 193-284.
  6. ^ Gray, IE. 1961. Changes in abundance of the commensal crabs of Chaetopterus. Biol. Bull. 120: 353-359.
  7. ^ Ruppert, EE & RD Barnes. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology, 6th Edition. Saunders College Publishing. Orlando, FL. 1056 pp.
  8. ^ Martin, N & M Anctil. 1984. Luminescence control in the tube-worm Chaetopterus variopedatus: role of nerve cord and photogenic gland. Biol. Bull. 166: 583-593.
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Chaetopterus variopedatus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Chaetopterus variopedatus is a species of parchment worm, a marine polychaete in the family Chaetopteridae. It is found worldwide. However, recent discoveries from molecular phylogeny analysis show that Chaetopterus variopedatus sensu Hartman (1959) is not a single species.

Polychaetes, or marine bristle worms, have elongated bodies divided into many segments. Each segment may bear setae (bristles) and parapodia (paddle-like appendages). Some species live freely, either swimming, crawling or burrowing, and these are known as "errant". Others live permanently in tubes, either calcareous or parchment-like, and these are known as "sedentary".

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Additional information

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Polychaeta larva, whose adults are not listed before, found in plankton samples
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bibliographic citation
Harms, J. (1993). Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight): a review of recent records. <em>Helgoländer Meeresunters.</em> 47: 1-34. [p. 25, tab. 3: Gastrosaccus spinifer, Mysis relicta, Praunus inermis, Schistomysis kervillei, Schistomysis spiritus. Dauvin, J.-C.; Dewarumez, J.-M.; Gentil, F. (2003). Liste actualisée des espèces d'Annélides Polychètes présentes en Manche [An up to date list of polychaetous annelids from the English Channel]. <em>Cahiers de Biologie Marine.</em> 44(1): 67-95.
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Simon Amelinckx [email]
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Simon Amelinckx [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Status of this species needs re-examination. Species probably not present in the Channel.
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Harms, J. (1993). Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight): a review of recent records. <em>Helgoländer Meeresunters.</em> 47: 1-34. [p. 25, tab. 3: Gastrosaccus spinifer, Mysis relicta, Praunus inermis, Schistomysis kervillei, Schistomysis spiritus. Dauvin, J.-C.; Dewarumez, J.-M.; Gentil, F. (2003). Liste actualisée des espèces d'Annélides Polychètes présentes en Manche [An up to date list of polychaetous annelids from the English Channel]. <em>Cahiers de Biologie Marine.</em> 44(1): 67-95.
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[email]
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