dcsimg

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adelie penguins are very social and communication with neighbors and mates is important. The most common mode of communication with neighbors are displays and posturing. Mates also communicate using displays, but these are most often more ecstatic and one that only each mate would recognize. Mated Adelie penguins also use calls to identify each other and their offspring. Males and females actively defend their nest site and will often fight with their neighbors. Adelie penguins can signal apprehension by raising their head feathers and they can signal threat by a sideways stare with their crest raised and their eyes rolled downward.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

According to the IUCN Red List, Pygoscelis adeliae is considered "low risk" and of "least concern."

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known adverse effects of Pygoscelie adeliae on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adelie penguins are often good indicators of climate change. Adelie penguins are beginning to inhabit beaches that were previously perenially covered in ice, suggesting warming of Antarctic environments. Adelie penguin colonies are highlights for ecotourism in the Antarctic. From the eighteenth to the early twentieth century these penguins were used for food, oil, and bait. Their guano was mined and used as fertilizer. Now they are a protected species in most countries.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism ; research and education; produces fertilizer

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adelie penguins impact krill (Euphausia superba), Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), and cephalopod populations, the main species in their diet. These penguins are impacted by leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), killer whales (Orcinus orca), south polar skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki), and sheathbills (Chionis albus).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The primary food source for Adelie penguins is krill (Euphausia superba). They also consume fish, such as lantern fish and other members of the family Myctophidae and Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum). Squid, other cephalopods, and amphipods are part of their normal diet as well. Adelie penguins store food and regurgitate it later to feed their newly hatched young.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats non-insect arthropods, Molluscivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pygoscelis adeliae is found only in the Antarctic region. Adelie penguins breed on the coasts of Antarctica and on surrounding islands. The area with the most abundant population of Adelie penguins is in the Ross Sea.

Biogeographic Regions: antarctica (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Living in the Antarctic region, Adelie penguins must withstand very cold temperatures. During the winter months they inhabit large coastal ice platforms, so they will have better access to food. Krill, the primary staple in their diet, feed on plankton that live underneath sea ice, so there is an abundance of krill in those areas. During the breeding season, typically in the early spring and summer months, they travel to coastal beaches to build their nests on ice-free ground. With access to open water, this locale provides the penguins with almost immediate access to food for themselves and their young.

Average depth: 200 m.

Habitat Regions: polar ; terrestrial ; saltwater or marine

Terrestrial Biomes: icecap

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Survivorship among Adelie penguins is lower in individuals who begin to breed at younger ages, between 3 and 5 years. However, individuals that do attempt to breed at an earlier age tend to breed more successfully in later years than penguins that first breed at 5 to 6 years old. Adelie penguins have been known to live as long as 16 years.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
5 to 16 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adelie penguins are one of the smaller species of penguins, just above 60.96 cm tall. Their back, tail, head, and face are black. They have a white belly and a white ring around their brown eyes. Their feathers cover half of their bill, which is black with an orange base. They have dull white to pink legs and feet with black soles.

Range mass: 3.62 to 4.99 kg.

Average length: 69.85 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Typical predators of Pygoscelie adeliae are leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), killer whales (Orcinus orca), and south polar skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki). Leopard seals are the most common predators of Adelie penguins, usually near the edge of the ice pack. Leopard seals are never an issue for penguins on shore, because leopard seals only come ashore to sleep or rest. Adelie penguins have learned to evade these predators by swimming in groups, avoiding thin ice, and spending little time in the water within 200 m of the beach. Killer whales generally prey on larger penguin species, but may occasionally take Adelies. South polar skuas prey on eggs and chicks left unguarded by adults or at the edges of creches. act more as scavengers than predators. Sheathbills (Chionis albus) also sometimes taken unguarded eggs.

Known Predators:

  • leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx)
  • killer whales (Orcinus orca)
  • south polar skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki)
  • sheathbills (Chionis albus)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Male Adelie penguins attempt to attract mates with a "salute" in which they they stand about 4 m away from the female of interest and put on a display of beak thrusting, neck arching, and reaching his full height. This salute also serves to announce that male's territory in the colony. In early spring, Adelie penguins journey back to their breeding grounds. Males arrive first. Each pair recognizes each other's mating call and their nesting site from the previous year. These pairs may reunite for consecutive years unless one of the mates does not return to the nesting site. Males also exhibit defensive measures of beak pecking and open yelling to defend territories and mates.

Mating System: monogamous

Generally, Adelie penguins return to their same nesting site around springtime for mating. The lengthening of days in the spring stimulates penguins to begin their period of hyperphagia, or persistent feeding. They feed constantly to store fat that they need during the breeding and incubation periods. They build stone nests in preparation for their two eggs. Adelie penguins most commonly produce two offspring per breeding season, with one egg laid shortly after the first. The eggs incubate for about 36 days. The parents alternate caring for the young for about 4 weeks post-hatching, when the young enter a creche with other juvenile Adelie penguins for protection. At this time, both parents return to the sea to feed.

Breeding interval: Breeding occurs once a year from early spring to summer.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs in the austral spring and summer.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 3.

Range time to hatching: 24 to 39 days.

Average time to hatching: 32 days.

Average fledging age: 28 days.

Average time to independence: 60 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 3 to 6 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 6 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; oviparous

Both parents invest heavily in their young. During incubation males and females take turns with the egg while the other is feeding. Once the chick is hatched, both adults take turns in feeding and searching for food. Newly hatched chicks are born with down feathers but are unable to feed themselves; they are semi-precocial. Four weeks after a chick has hatched it will join a creche of other juvenile Adelie penguins for protection. During its time in the creche the parents still feed their young. After 56 days in the creche most Adelie penguins become independent.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Combos, V. 2008. "Pygoscelis adeliae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygoscelis_adeliae.html
author
Veronica Combos, Radford University
editor
Karen Francl, Radford University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Brief Summary

provided by EOL staff

The Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), a close relative of the Chinstrap Penguin (P. antarctica), nests on ice-free rocky coasts around Antarctica. It tends to occupy higher ground than does the less colonial Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua). Adélie Penguin colonies are typicaly large and are thus often located in extensive open areas, sometimes far from the open sea. Adélie Penguins feed mainly on krill (Euphausia superba, E. crystallorophias), along with smaller quantities of fish, amphipod crustaceans, and cephalopods (squid and relatives). Although these penguins generally hunt at depths less than 20 m, they have been recorded as deep as 175 m. Adélies typically arrive at their breeding colony in September or October and most eggs are laid in November. Colonies may be enormous, with densely packed nests, and may include Gentoos and Chinstraps, but the Adélies tend to cluster together in the colony. Two eggs are deposited in the simple nest (a small depression lined with pebbles). Eggs are incubated by both sexes for 30 to 43 days, broken into stints of 7-23 days. The young gather together in creches starting around 16 to 19 days and fledge at 50 to 56 days. They are sexually mature by 8 years (rarely at 5 and exceptionally at 3). After breeding, birds move north toward rich feeding grounds. Adults do not molt at the colony, but rather on ice floes. (Martínez 1992) Dunn et al. (2011) used ARGOS satellite telemetry and Global Location Sensors (geolocators) to identify the molt locations and winter foraging dispersal of Adélie penguins after they left their breeding colonies on Signy Island in the South Orkney Islands. They found that the birds remained away from colonies (at distances up to 2235 km) for around 9 months (Ballard et al. [2010] report that Ross Island Adélies make the longest migration known for this species, traveling as far as 17,600 km round trip between autumn and spring). Dunn et al. found that molt took place within the pack ice during February and March within a narrow latitudinal range (65 to 71 degrees S), at a mean distance of 126 km from the ice edge; the mean duration of individual molt was around 18.6 days. After molting, the birds spent the subsequent winter months moving north or northeastward within the expanding winter pack ice, at a mean distance of 216 km from the ice edge, and in areas with ice cover > 80%. Dunn et al. note that the dependence of Adélie Penguins on sea ice habitat suggests that any further reductions in sea ice extent in the Weddell Sea region would potentially have important impacts on Adélie Penguin population dynamics. Ballard et al. (2010) studied changes in annual migration patterns of Adélie Penguins through time. They suggest that although these penguins have had to modify their life history characteristics and movements through the millenia as ice ages have come and gone (with coincident changes in breeding and sea ice habitat), the current rate of habitat change may be unprecedented for this species.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Shapiro, Leo
author
Shapiro, Leo
original
visit source
partner site
EOL staff

Adélie penguin

provided by wikipedia EN

The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a species of penguin common along the entire coast of the Antarctic continent, which is its only habitat. It is the most widely spread penguin species,[2] as well as the most southerly distributed of all penguins, along with the emperor penguin. It is named after Adélie Land, in turn named for Adèle Dumont d'Urville, who was married to French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, who first discovered this penguin in 1840.[3] Adélie penguins obtain their food by both predation and foraging, with a diet of mainly krill and fish.[2]

Taxonomy

The Adélie penguin is one of three species in the genus Pygoscelis. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the genus split from other penguin species around 38 million years ago, about 2 million years after the ancestors of the genus Aptenodytes. In turn, the Adélie penguins split off from the other members of the genus around 19 million years ago.[4]

Description

These penguins are mid-sized, being 46 to 71 cm (18 to 28 in) in height and 3.6 to 6.0 kg (7.9 to 13.2 lb) in weight.[5][6] Distinctive marks are the white ring surrounding the eye and the feathers at the base of the bill. These long feathers hide most of the red bill. The tail is a little longer than other penguins' tails. The appearance looks somewhat like a tuxedo. They are a little smaller than most other penguin species.

Adélie penguins usually swim at around 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h).[7] They are able to leap some 3 metres (10 ft) out of the water to land on rocks or ice.[8]

Ecology

Diet

The Adélie penguin is known to feed mainly on: Antarctic krill, ice krill, Antarctic silverfish, sea krill and glacial squid (diet varies depending on geographic location) during the chick-rearing season. The stable isotope record of fossil eggshell accumulated in colonies over the last 38,000 years reveals a sudden change from a fish-based diet to krill that began around 200 years ago. This is most likely due to the decline of the Antarctic fur seal since the late 18th century and baleen whales during the early 20th century. The reduction of competition from these predators has resulted in a surplus of krill, which the penguins now exploit as an easier source of food.[9]

Jellyfish including species in the genera Chrysaora and Cyanea were found to be actively sought-out food items, while they previously had been thought to be only accidentally ingested. Similar preferences were found in the little penguin, yellow-eyed penguin and Magellanic penguin.[10]

Predators

Adult Adélie penguins are regularly preyed upon by leopard seals. South polar skuas, in particular and Giant petrels kill many chicks and eat eggs as well. Giant petrels and orcas will occasionally kill adult Adelie penguins. Kelp gulls and snowy sheathbills also prey on chicks and eggs.[11]

Distribution and habitat

 src=
Adélie penguins on an iceberg in Antarctica

Based on a 2014 satellite analysis of fresh guano-discoloured red/brown coastal areas, 3.79 million breeding pairs of Adélie penguins are in 251 breeding colonies,[12] a 53% increase over a census completed 20 years earlier. The colonies are distributed around the coastline of the Antarctic land and ocean. Colonies have declined on the Antarctic Peninsula since the early 1980s,[13] but those declines have been more than offset by increases in East Antarctica. During the breeding season, they congregate in large breeding colonies, some over a quarter of a million pairs.[14] Individual colonies can vary dramatically in size, and some may be particularly vulnerable to climate fluctuations.[15] The Danger Islands have been identified as an "important bird area" by BirdLife International largely because it supports Adélie penguin colonies,[16] with 751,527 pairs recorded in at least five distinct colonies. In March 2018, a colony of 1.5 million was discovered.[17][18]

Adélie penguins breed from October to February on shores around the Antarctic continent. Adélies build rough nests of stones. Two eggs are laid; these are incubated for 32 to 34 days by the parents taking turns (shifts typically last for 12 days). The chicks remain in the nest for 22 days before joining crèches. The chicks moult into their juvenile plumage and go out to sea after 50 to 60 days.

Behaviour

 src=
Adélie penguins at Cape Adare
Video of Adélie penguins in Antarctica

Apsley Cherry-Garrard was a survivor of Robert Falcon Scott's ill-fated British Antarctic Expedition of 1910, and he documented details of penguin behaviour in his book The Worst Journey in the World. "They are extraordinarily like children, these little people of the Antarctic world, either like children or like old men, full of their own importance."[19] George Murray Levick, a Royal Navy surgeon-lieutenant and scientist who also accompanied Scott, commented on displays of selfishness among the penguins during his surveying in the Antarctic:"At the place where they most often went in [the water], a long terrace of ice about six feet in height ran for some hundreds of yards along the edge of the water, and here, just as on the sea-ice, crowds would stand near the brink. When they had succeeded in pushing one of their number over, all would crane their necks over the edge, and when they saw the pioneer safe in the water, the rest followed."[20]

One writer observed how the penguin's curiosity could also endanger them, which Scott found a particular nuisance:

The great trouble with [the dog teams] has been due to the fatuous conduct of the penguins. Groups of these have been constantly leaping onto our [ice] floe. From the moment of landing on their feet their whole attitude expressed devouring curiosity and a pig-headed disregard for their own safety. They waddle forward, poking their heads to and fro in their usually absurd way, in spite of a string of howling dogs straining to get at them. "Hulloa!" they seem to say, "here’s a game – what do all you ridiculous things want?" And they come a few steps nearer. The dogs make a rush as far as their harness or leashes allow. The penguins are not daunted in the least, but their ruffs go up and they squawk with semblance of anger.… Then the final fatal steps forward are taken and they come within reach. There is a spring, a squawk, a horrid red patch on the snow, and the incident is closed.[21]

 src=
Adélie penguin chicks in Antarctica, with MS Explorer and an iceberg in the background

Others on the mission to the South Pole were more receptive of this element of the Adélies' curiosity. Cherry-Garrard writes:

Meares and Dimitri exercised the dog-teams out upon the larger floes when we were held up for any length of time. One day, a team was tethered by the side of the ship, and a penguin sighted them and hurried from afar off. The dogs became frantic with excitement as he neared them: he supposed it was a greeting, and the louder they barked and the more they strained at their ropes, the faster he bustled to meet them. He was extremely angry with a man who went and saved him from a very sudden end, clinging to his trousers with his beak, and furiously beating his shins with his flippers.… It was not an uncommon sight to see a little Adélie penguin standing within a few inches of the nose of a dog which was almost frantic with desire and passion.[22]

Cherry-Garrard held the birds in great regard. "Whatever a penguin does has individuality, and he lays bare his whole life for all to see. He cannot fly away. And because he is quaint in all that he does, but still more because he is fighting against bigger odds than any other bird, and fighting always with the most gallant pluck."[23]

Despite their size, Adélie penguins are known for their bold and boisterous personality, and will challenge other animals, including predators far larger than them.[24] In footage shot for the 2018 BBC Earth documentary 'Spy in the Snow', the boisterous behaviour of Adélie penguins was made especially apparent when an individual arrived to chase off a Southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) that had landed to threaten a group of emperor penguin chicks, in spite of the species difference between them.[25]

Reproduction

 src=
An Adélie penguin egg from MHNT
 src=
Mating Adélie penguins in Antarctica
 src=
Stuffed Adélie penguin chick held at Auckland Museum

Adélie penguins arrive at their breeding grounds in late October or November, after completing a migration that takes them away from the Antarctic continent for the dark, cold winter months. Their nests consist of stones piled together. In December, the warmest month in Antarctica (about −2 °C or 28 °F/-19°C or -2.2°C), the parents take turns incubating the egg; one goes to feed and the other stays to warm the egg. The parent that is incubating does not eat and doesn't even leave to defecate but instead projects feces away from the nest.[26] In March, the adults and their young return to the sea. The Adélie penguin lives on sea ice, but needs the ice-free land to breed. With a reduction in sea ice, populations of the Adélie penguin have dropped by 65% over the past 25 years in the Antarctic Peninsula.[13]

Young Adélie penguins which have no experience in social interaction may react to false cues when the penguins gather to breed. They may, for instance, attempt to mate with other males, with young chicks or with dead females. The first to record such behavior was Dr. George Murray Levick, in 1911 and 1912, but his notes were deemed too indecent for publication at the time; they were rediscovered and published in 2012.[27][n 1]"The pamphlet, declined for publication with the official Scott expedition reports, commented on the frequency of sexual activity, auto-erotic behaviour and seemingly aberrant behaviour of young unpaired males and females, including necrophilia, sexual coercion, sexual and physical abuse of chicks and homosexual behaviour," states the analysis written by Douglas Russell and colleagues William Sladen and David Ainley. "His observations were, however, accurate, valid and, with the benefit of hindsight, deserving of publication."[28][29] Levick observed the Adélie penguins at Cape Adare, the site of the largest Adélie penguin rookery in the world.[30] As of June 2012, he has been the only one to study this particular colony and he observed it for an entire breeding cycle.[29] The discovery significantly illuminates the behaviour of the species whose population some researchers[31] believe to be a bellwether of climate change.[29]

Migration

 src=
Adélie penguins are identified and weighed each time they cross the automated weighbridge on their way to or from the sea.[32]

Adélie penguins living in the Ross Sea region in Antarctica migrate an average of about 13,000 kilometres (8,100 mi) each year as they follow the sun from their breeding colonies to winter foraging grounds and back again. During the winter, the sun does not rise south of the Antarctic Circle, but sea ice grows during the winter months and increases for hundreds of miles from the shoreline, and into more northern latitudes, all around Antarctica. As long as the penguins live at the edge of the fast ice, they will see sunlight. As the ice recedes in the spring, the penguins remain on the edge of it, until once again, they are on the shoreline during a sunnier season. The longest treks have been recorded at 17,600 kilometres (10,900 mi).[33]

Osmoregulation

Adélie penguins are faced with extreme osmotic conditions, as their frozen habitats offer little fresh water. Such desert conditions mean that the vast majority of the available water is highly saline, causing the diets of Adélie penguins to be heavy in salt.[34] They manage to circumvent this problem by eating krill with internal concentrations of salt at the lower end of their possible concentrations, helping to lower the amount of ingested salts.[34] The amount of sodium imposed by this sort of diet is still relatively heavy and can create complications when considering the less tolerant chicks. Adult Adélie penguins feed their chicks by regurgitating the predigested krill, which can impose an excessive salt intake on the chicks. Adult birds address this problem by altering the ion concentrations while the food is still being held in their stomachs. By removing a portion of the sodium and potassium ions, adult Adélie penguins protect their chicks from ingesting excessive amounts of sodium.[34] Adélie penguins also manage their salt intake by concentrating cloacal fluids to a much higher degree than most other birds are capable. This ability is present regardless of ontogeny in Adélie penguins, meaning that both adults and juveniles are capable of extreme levels of salt ion concentration.[34] However, chicks do possess a greater ability to concentrate chloride ions in their cloacal fluids.[34] Salt glands also play a major role in the excretion of excess salts. In aquatic birds such as the Adelie penguin, nasal salt glands excrete an extremely concentrated sodium chloride solution, reducing the load on their kidneys.[35]

These excretions are crucial in the maintenance of Antarctic ecosystems. Penguin rookeries can be home to thousands of penguins, all of which are concentrating waste products in their digestive tracts and nasal glands.[36] These excretions inevitably drop to the ground. The concentration of salts and nitrogenous wastes helps to facilitate the flow of material from the sea to the land, serving to make it habitable for bacteria which live in the soils.[36]

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ About 100 pamphlets of the notes he took had been circulated to a selected few bearing the bold header Not for Publication. "Levick himself was equally cautious. References to these observations in the notebooks have often been coded by his rewriting certain entries on these behaviours using the Greek alphabet and then pasting this new text over the original entry (Fig. 1), whilst some entries were written directly in the Greek alphabet".[28] The following is an example of such a note; a transcription into the English alphabet is given on the right:

    Θις ἀφτερνooν ἰ σαυ ἀ μoστ εχτραoρδιναρι σιtε. ἀ πενγυιν ὐας ἀκτυαλλι ενyαyεδ ἰν σoδoμι ᾿uπoν θε βoδι ὀφ ἀ δεαδ ὑιτε θρoατεδ βιρδ ὀφ ἰτς ὀνε σπεσιες. Θε ἀκτ ὀccυπιεδ ἀ φυλλ μινυτε, θε πoσιτιoν τακεν ὐπ βι θε κoχ διφφερινy ἰν νo ρεσπεκτ φρoμ θατ ὀφ ὀρδιναρι κoπυλατιoν, ἀνδ θε ὑoλε ακτ ὐας yoνε θρoυ, δoυν τo θε φιναλ δεπρεςςιoν ὀφ θε χλoακα.[28]

    This afternoon I saw a most extraordinary site [sic]. A penguin was actually engaged in sodomy upon the body of a dead white throated bird of its own species. The act occurred a full minute, the position taken up by the cock differing in no respect from that of ordinary copulation, and the whole act was gone through down to the final depression of the cloaca.[28]

References
  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pygoscelis adeliae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.old-form url
  2. ^ a b "Adélie penguin". World Wide Fund for Nature. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  3. ^ Adélie, adj. and n. Archived 13 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2014. Accessed 11 April 2014.
  4. ^ Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Haddrath OP, Edge KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proc Biol Sci. 273 (1582): 11–17. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3260. PMC 1560011. PMID 16519228.
  5. ^ "Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)". ARKive. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Adélie Penguin". Sea World. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  7. ^ "Swimming Answers". Penguin Science. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Adelie penguin". The Global Education Project. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  9. ^ S.D. Emslie; W.P. Patterson (July 2007). "Abrupt recent shift in δ13C and δ15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in Antarctica". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (28): 11666–69. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608477104. PMC 1913849. PMID 17620620.
  10. ^ Christie Wilcox (15 September 2017). "Penguins Caught Feasting on an Unexpected Prey". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  11. ^ "Adélie penguin | bird". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  12. ^ Graham, Rex (15 July 2014). "Adelie Penguins thriving amid Antarctica's melting ice". Birds News. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b Eccleston, Paul (11 December 2007). "Penguins now threatened by global warming". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  14. ^ Schwaller, M. R.; Southwell, C. J.; Emmerson, L. M. (2013). "Continental-scale mapping of Adélie penguin colonies from Landsat imagery". Remote Sensing of Environment. 139: 353–64. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.009.
  15. ^ "Climate change winners and losers". 3 News NZ. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  16. ^ "BirdLife Data Zone". BirdLife International. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  17. ^ Borowicz, Alex; McDowall, Philip; Youngflesh, Casey; Sayre-McCord, Thomas; Clucas, Gemma; Herman, Rachael; Forrest, Steven; Rider, Melissa; Schwaller, Mathew (2 March 2018). "Multi-modal survey of Adélie penguin mega-colonies reveals the Danger Islands as a seabird hotspot". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 3926. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22313-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5834637. PMID 29500389.
  18. ^ May, Ashley (2 March 2018). "NASA satellite images of poop lead researchers to penguin 'supercolony'". USA Today. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  19. ^ Cherry-Garrard, Apsley (2000). The Worst Journey in the World. Picador. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-330-48135-9.
  20. ^ Levick, Antarctic Penguins, p. 83
  21. ^ Scott’s Last Expedition vol. I pp. 92–93
  22. ^ Cherry-Garrard, Apsley (2000). The Worst Journey in the World. Picador. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-330-48135-9.
  23. ^ Cherry-Garrard, Apsley (2000). The Worst Journey in the World. Picador. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-330-48135-9.
  24. ^ "Top 10 facts about Adélie penguins". WWF. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  25. ^ Aglietti, Tom. "Penguin chicks rescued by unlikely hero". BBC Earth. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  26. ^ Ouellette, Jennifer (4 July 2020). "The explosive physics of pooping penguins: they can shoot poo over four feet". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  27. ^ McKie, Robin (9 June 2012). "'Sexual depravity' of penguins that Antarctic scientist dared not reveal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  28. ^ a b c d Russell, D. G. D.; Sladen, W. J. L.; Ainley, D. G. (2012). "Dr. George Murray Levick (1876–1956): Unpublished notes on the sexual habits of the Adélie penguin". Polar Record. 48 (4): 1. doi:10.1017/S0032247412000216. S2CID 146584734.
  29. ^ a b c McKie, Robin (9 June 2012). "'Sexual depravity' of penguins that Antarctic scientist dared not reveal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  30. ^ "Shock at sexually 'depraved' penguins led to 100-year censorship". The Week. 10 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  31. ^ Ainley, David G. (2002). The Adélie Penguin: Bellwether of Climate Change. Columbia University Press. pp. 310 pp. with 23 illustrations, 51 figures, 48 tables, 16 plates. ISBN 978-0-231-12306-8.
  32. ^ Lescroël, A. L.; Ballard, G.; Grémillet, D.; Authier, M.; Ainley, D. G. (2014). Descamps, Sébastien (ed.). "Antarctic Climate Change: Extreme Events Disrupt Plastic Phenotypic Response in Adélie Penguins". PLOS ONE. 9 (1): e85291. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085291. PMC 3906005. PMID 24489657.
  33. ^ Rejcek, Peter (13 August 2010). "Researchers follow Adélie penguin winter migration for the first time". The Antarctic Sun. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  34. ^ a b c d e Janes, Donald (1997). "Osmoregulation by Adélie Penguin Chicks on the Antarctic Peninsula". The Auk. 114 (3): 488–95. doi:10.2307/4089249. JSTOR 4089249.
  35. ^ Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1980). "The Salt-Secreting Gland of Marine Birds". Circulation. 21 (5): 955–67. doi:10.1161/01.cir.21.5.955. PMID 14443123.
  36. ^ a b Andrzej, Myrcha; Anderzej, Tatur (1991). "Ecological Role of the Current and Abandoned Penguin Rookeries in the Land Environment of the Maritime Antarctic". Polish Polar Research. 12 (1): 3–24.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Adélie penguin: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a species of penguin common along the entire coast of the Antarctic continent, which is its only habitat. It is the most widely spread penguin species, as well as the most southerly distributed of all penguins, along with the emperor penguin. It is named after Adélie Land, in turn named for Adèle Dumont d'Urville, who was married to French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, who first discovered this penguin in 1840. Adélie penguins obtain their food by both predation and foraging, with a diet of mainly krill and fish.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Breeding Category

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Breeding
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK. Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
contributor
Danny Charbonneau [email]

IUCN Red List Category

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Least Concern
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK. Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
contributor
Danny Charbonneau [email]