dcsimg
Life » » Animals » Cnidarians » Anemones And Corals » » Stony Corals »

Stony Coral

Porites nodifera Klunzinger 1879

Porites nodifera

provided by wikipedia EN

Porites nodifera, also known as dome coral, is a species of stony coral in the Poritidae family.[2][1][3]

It was first described by Carl Benjamin Klunzinger, a German physician and zoologist active in the Red Sea region in the 1860s, and classifying its species in the 1870s and 1880s.

Appearance

Porites nodifera have a hard substrate and grow in column-like structures toward the surface of the water.[4] The surface of each column tends to take on a relatively flat, circular shape and the coral has a fairly smooth surface. Overall, the color of the coral ranges from a dark brown to a light brown. It takes on a similar appearance to Porites harrisoni, which is a popular Porites species that is also found in the Persian Gulf; however, Porites nodifera tend to form columns that are substantially thicker in comparison.[5]

Distribution

Porites nodifera is native to the northwestern Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Persian Gulf. It is found in shallow water, generally at depths less than 5 metres (16 ft), but up to 15 metres (49 ft) deep.

It is tolerant of salinities of up to 48% and therefore is very common in areas of high salinities where sea grasses also dominate the habitat. Salinity is an ecological factor which limits the lower zones of coral reefs so the species is able to dominate the lowest zones of the Dahab Reef in Egypt in particular, forming a considerable single species stand. There is only one species in this area that co-exists in the lowest zone of the reef slope in very sparse numbers; millepora sp. Porites nodifera can also be found in areas of normal salinities (40-42%), but does not tend to dominate these zones because of interspecific competition from a variety of other coral species.[6]

In the Persian Gulf, Porites nodifera and other Porites species are the dominant corals present. This may be as a result of coral bleaching affecting Acropora coral species to a greater extent, and Porites filling in resulting gaps in the reef.[7]

Arabian Yellow Band Disease

Porites nodifera can become infected with a disease known as Arabian Yellow Band Disease, also referred to as AYBD, in their lifetime as it common amongst several coral species in the Persian Gulf.[8] Species who contrast AYBD are seen having a yellow band encompassing the coral. This yellow band encroaches on uninfected tissue, thereby killing the healthy tissue. Corals, especially those of the Porites nodifera species, are able to overcome AYBD as it is often seen to halt its manifestation and become inactive prior to infecting the entire coral, allowing the coral to rejuvenate itself by building new skeletons.[8][9]

Conservation

This coral is an IUCN Red List Least concern species currently. The most important known threat for this species is the extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats, including climate change and ocean acidification.[1]

In 2020, a study conducted in the Red Sea suggested that this species has a high tolerance to the increasing environmental temperature, and perhaps, will be used by other species as a refuge due to this ability.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b c Sheppard, A., Fenner, D., Edwards, A., Abrar, M. & Ochavillo, D. (2008). "Porites nodifera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2021.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Porites nodifera". ARKive. 2013-03-30. Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
  3. ^ "Corals of the World Factsheet and images - Porites nodifera". coral.aims.gov.au. 2011-06-24. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
  4. ^ McGregor, H. V.; Fischer, M. J.; Gagan, M. K.; Fink, D.; Woodroffe, C. D. (2011-07-15). "Environmental control of the oxygen isotope composition of Porites coral microatolls". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75 (14): 3930–3944. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.04.017. ISSN 0016-7037.
  5. ^ Riegl, Bernhard M.; Benzoni, Francesca; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles (2012), Riegl, Bernhard M.; Purkis, Sam J. (eds.), "The Hermatypic Scleractinian (Hard) Coral Fauna of the Gulf", Coral Reefs of the Gulf: Adaptation to Climatic Extremes, Coral Reefs of the World, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 187–224, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3008-3_11, ISBN 978-94-007-3008-3, retrieved 2021-03-20
  6. ^ Mewis, H. (2012). "Environmentally controlled succession in a late Pleistocene coral reef (Sinai, Egypt)" (PDF). Coral Reefs. 32: 49–58. doi:10.1007/s00338-012-0968-y. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  7. ^ Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Sam J. (2012). Coral Reefs of the Gulf: Adaptation to Climatic Extremes. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 75. ISBN 978-94-007-3008-3.
  8. ^ a b Riegl, Bernhard M.; Bruckner, Andrew W.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Purkis, Sam J. (2012), Riegl, Bernhard M.; Purkis, Sam J. (eds.), "Diseases, Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) and Their Effects on Gulf Coral Populations and Communities", Coral Reefs of the Gulf: Adaptation to Climatic Extremes, Coral Reefs of the World, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 107–125, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3008-3_7, ISBN 978-94-007-3008-3, retrieved 2021-03-20
  9. ^ Korrubel, Jan L.; Riegl, Bernhard (1998-03-01). "A new coral disease from the southern Arabian Gulf". Coral Reefs. 17 (1): 22. doi:10.1007/s003380050088. ISSN 1432-0975.
  10. ^ Osman, Eslam O. (2020). "Coral microbiome composition along the northern Red Sea suggests high plasticity of bacterial and specificity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities". Microbiome. BMC. 8 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/s40168-019-0776-5. PMC 6996193. PMID 32008576.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Porites nodifera: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Porites nodifera, also known as dome coral, is a species of stony coral in the Poritidae family.

It was first described by Carl Benjamin Klunzinger, a German physician and zoologist active in the Red Sea region in the 1860s, and classifying its species in the 1870s and 1880s.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Biology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
zooxanthellate
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Sheppard, C.R.C. (1998). Corals of the Indian Ocean: a taxonomic and distribution database for coral reef ecologists van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Basically a massive coral with vertical, thick spires projecting from the base. It is not one of the truly ramose corals and the spires do not generally fuse and do not generally divide further until the "basal" part has also grown upwards. Forms high coverage over large areas on reef slopes in the Gulf in particular (Sheppard, 1998).
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Sheppard, C.R.C. (1998). Corals of the Indian Ocean: a taxonomic and distribution database for coral reef ecologists van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Esther Fondo [email]