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Suina

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Suina (also known as Suiformes) is a suborder of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries. A member of this clade is known as a suine. Suina includes the family Suidae, termed suids, known in English as pigs or swine, as well as the family Tayassuidae, termed tayassuids or peccaries. Suines are largely native to Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, with the exception of the wild boar, which is additionally native to Europe and Asia and introduced to North America and Australasia, including widespread use in farming of the domestic pig subspecies. Suines range in size from the 55 cm (22 in) long pygmy hog to the 210 cm (83 in) long giant forest hog, and are primarily found in forest, shrubland, and grassland biomes, though some can be found in deserts, wetlands, or coastal regions. Most species do not have population estimates, though approximately two billion domestic pigs are used in farming, while several species are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 100. One species, Heude's pig, is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to have gone extinct in the 20th century.

Classification

Suina's placement within Artiodactyla can be represented in the following cladogram:[1][2][3][4][5]

Artiodactyla

Tylopoda (camels)Cladogram of Cetacea within Artiodactyla (Camelus bactrianus).png

Artiofabula

Suina (pigs)Recherches pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des mammifères (Pl. 80) (white background).jpg

Cetruminantia

Ruminantia (ruminants) Walia ibex illustration white background.png

Cetancodonta/Whippomorpha

Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses)Hippopotamus-PSF-Oksmith.svg

   

Cetacea (whales)Bowhead-Whale1 (16273933365).jpg

         

The suborder Suina consists of 21 extant species in nine genera. These are split between the Suidae family, containing 18 species belonging to 6 genera, and the Tayassuidae family, containing 3 species in 3 genera. This does not include hybrid species such as boar–pig hybrids or extinct prehistoric species. Additionally, one species, Heude's pig, went extinct in the 20th century.

Suina Suidae      

Sus

   

Porcula

       

Potamochoerus

     

Hylochoerus

   

Phacochoerus

         

Babyrousa

    Tayassuidae

Pecari

     

Tayassu

   

Catagonus

       

Anatomy

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Boar skeleton

Suina differ from other even-toed ungulates in that they have maxillary (upper) incisor teeth. In contrast, other even-toed ungulates, such as goats and deer, have incisors only on the lower jaw, with a horny dental pad where the upper incisors would be.

Most even-toed ungulates have a four-chambered stomach. In contrast, the Suina have a simple stomach that allows an omnivorous diet.

While most artiodactyls have long slender legs, the Suina generally have short, stubby legs.

References

  1. ^ Beck, N.R. (2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evol Biol. 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. PMID 17101039.
  2. ^ O'Leary, M.A.; Bloch, J.I.; Flynn, J.J.; Gaudin, T.J.; Giallombardo, A.; Giannini, N.P.; Goldberg, S.L.; Kraatz, B.P.; Luo, Z.-X.; Meng, J.; Ni, X.; Novacek, M.J.; Perini, F.A.; Randall, Z.S.; Rougier, G.W.; Sargis, E.J.; Silcox, M.T.; Simmons, N.B.; Spaulding, M.; Velazco, P.M.; Weksler, M.; Wible, J.R.; Cirranello, A.L. (2013). "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post-K-Pg Radiation of Placentals". Science. 339 (6120): 662–667. doi:10.1126/science.1229237. hdl:11336/7302. PMID 23393258. S2CID 206544776.
  3. ^ Song, S.; Liu, L.; Edwards, S.V.; Wu, S. (2012). "Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (37): 14942–14947. doi:10.1073/pnas.1211733109. PMID 22930817.
  4. ^ dos Reis, M.; Inoue, J.; Hasegawa, M.; Asher, R.J.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Yang, Z. (2012). "Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1742): 3491–3500. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0683. PMC 3396900. PMID 22628470.
  5. ^ Upham, N.S.; Esselstyn, J.A.; Jetz, W. (2019). "Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation". PLOS Biology. 17 (12): e3000494. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000494. PMID 31800571.(see e.g. Fig S10)
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Suina: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Suina (also known as Suiformes) is a suborder of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries. A member of this clade is known as a suine. Suina includes the family Suidae, termed suids, known in English as pigs or swine, as well as the family Tayassuidae, termed tayassuids or peccaries. Suines are largely native to Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, with the exception of the wild boar, which is additionally native to Europe and Asia and introduced to North America and Australasia, including widespread use in farming of the domestic pig subspecies. Suines range in size from the 55 cm (22 in) long pygmy hog to the 210 cm (83 in) long giant forest hog, and are primarily found in forest, shrubland, and grassland biomes, though some can be found in deserts, wetlands, or coastal regions. Most species do not have population estimates, though approximately two billion domestic pigs are used in farming, while several species are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 100. One species, Heude's pig, is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to have gone extinct in the 20th century.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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visit source
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