dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Herbs, shrubs, trees or woody climbers, sometimes spiny, with often square stems. Stipules 0. Leaves usually opposite, sometimes whorled, rarely alternate, simple or dissected. Flowers mostly zygomorphic and 2-lipped, sometimes ± actinomorphic, usually 4-5-merous, usually bisexual. Calyx and corolla 4-5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous. Disk usually present. Ovary superior, usually 2-locular, usually soon 4 (or more)-locular by development of false septa. Ovules 2 in each true loculus. Fruit a drupe with 2-4 pyrenes or dividing at maturity into 2 or 4 nutlets.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Verbenaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=231
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Verbenaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Verbenaceae (/ˌvɜːrbɪˈnsi, -/ VUR-bin-AY-see-e(y)e) are a family — the verbena family or vervain family — of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.[2]

Recent phylogenetic studies[3] have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The new, narrowly circumscribed, family Verbenaceae includes some 35 genera and 1,200 species.[4][5] The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae[6] or in its own family, Avicenniaceae,[7] has been placed in the Acanthaceae.[4]

Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Genera

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Golden dew drops (Duranta erecta)
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Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora)

The genera in the new, narrowly circumscribed, family:[8]

Excluded genera

Various genera formerly included in the family Verbenaceae are now treated under other families:[9]

Moved to Acanthaceae
Moved to Lamiaceae
Moved to Oleaceae
Moved to Orobanchaceae
Moved to Phrymaceae
Moved to Stilbaceae

References

  1. ^ a b "Family: Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  2. ^ Stevens, P. F. (July 12, 2012). "Verbenaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  3. ^ Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In Harley, R.M. & Reynolds, T. (eds) Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  4. ^ a b "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  5. ^ Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. 2007: Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  6. ^ Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. 1. Elsevier. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
  7. ^ Nelson, Gil (1994). The Trees of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3.
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  9. ^ "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2011-10-10.

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Verbenaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Verbenaceae (/ˌvɜːrbɪˈneɪsiaɪ, -iː/ VUR-bin-AY-see-e(y)e) are a family — the verbena family or vervain family — of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.

Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The new, narrowly circumscribed, family Verbenaceae includes some 35 genera and 1,200 species. The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae or in its own family, Avicenniaceae, has been placed in the Acanthaceae.

Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), grown for aroma or flavoring Verbenas or vervains (Verbena), some used in herbalism, others grown in gardens
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