Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Psammolyce flava Kinberg, 1856

Psammolyce flava Kinberg, 1856:388; 1858:31, pl. 9: fig. 44; pl. 10: fig. 65.—Hartman, 1942a:108, fig. 8h; 1942b:90, pl. 9: figs. 21–23.—Nonato and Luna, 1970:71, pl. 5: figs. 65–67.—Amaral and Nonato, 1984:22.—Wolf, 1984:25–21, fig. 25–17, 18.—Lana, 1991:125 [not Horst, 1913:189; 1917:125 (= P. horsti, n. sp.)].

Eupholoe acuminata Treadwell, 1934:3, pl. 1: figs. 7, 8 [part]; 1939, fig. 27.

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN: Brazil: Off Rio de Janeiro, 22°30′S, 40°55′W, 37–55 m, holotype of P. flava (NRS 436, 226). Off Brazil, 23°08′S, 41°34′W, 108 m, blue mud, R/V Albatross sta 2762, 30 Dec 1887, 3 specimens (USNM 56875).

NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN: Off Puerto Rico, 18°40′15″N, 64°50′15″W, 274 m, Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Exped. sta 100, 1933, holotype of E. acuminata (USNM 20032).

NORTHEAST GULF OF MEXICO: 29°25′N, 86°21′W, 190 m, Alaminos sta 67 A5–11C, 21 Jul 1967, 1 specimen (USNM 70084). Off Florida, 27°57′N, 84°48′W, 175 m, MAFLA sta 2212, Feb 1978, 1 specimen (USNM 86006).

TYPE MATERIAL.—The holotype of Psammolyce flava consists of 4 anterior, middle, and posterior fragments, totaling 124 segments, 77 mm long and 6 mm wide, with setae; the pharynx, figured by Kinberg, had been cut out and is loose in the vial; some elytra remain. The holotype of Eupholoe acuminata consists of an anterior fragment of 48 segments, 18 mm long and 7 mm wide, with setae. It was previously examined by Hartman (1942a,b) and Wolf (1984) and referred to Psammolyce flava.

DESCRIPTION.—Dorsum smooth anteriorly, with relatively few sand particles; dorsum from about segment 24 covered with sand grains and silt particles, with clumps of sand grains attached to 3 groups of clavate papillae arranged in transverse rows on each segment (Kinberg, 1858, pl. 9: fig. 44A; Wolf, 1984, fig. 25-18a,c). Ventrum densely papillate with short papillae. Elytra leaving middorsum uncovered (Kinberg, 1858, pl. 9: fig. 44A; Wolf, 1984, fig. 25-18a). Elytra delicate, whitish, with most of surface covered with sand grains and foreign material. First pair of elytra deeply notched anteriorly, with long papillae on borders, and long and short adhesive papillae on surfaces (Figure 3A); following elytra oval, with long papillae confined to medial, posterior, and lateral borders and on surfaces (Figure 3B); more posterior elytra with medial projections, with additional adhesive papillae with flattened tops (Figure 3C; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 9: fig. 44H; Wolf, 1984, fig. 25-18b).

Prostomium and tentaculophores fused basally. Prostomium rounded, median antenna with large ceratophore about as long as prostomium, bulbous basally and curved distally, with long tapering style; 2 pairs of inconspicuous eyes, small dorsal and larger ventral; long tentaculophores lateral and anterior to prostomium, each with single aciculum, dorsal tentacular cirrus extending about as far as median antenna, and ventral tentacular cirrus about half as long as dorsal one, with numerous long notosetae extending anteriorly; lateral antennae small, inconspicuous, on inner basal sides of tentaculophores (hidden by ceratophore of median antenna); palps long, stout, emerging ventral and lateral to tentaculophores, with small inner palpal sheaths (Figure 1A; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 9: fig. 44B).

Segment II with middorsal papillate hump extending over prostomium between first pair of elytrophores (Figure 1A; Treadwell, 1934, pl. 1: fig. 7); notopodium of biramous parapodium with semicircular notopodial flange enclosing spreading bundle of finely spinous capillary notosetae; larger neuropodium with long, digitiform, terminal appendage extending to tips of neurosetae; ventral buccal cirrus extending to tip of neuropodium (Figure 1B; Wolf, 1984, fig. 25–18d). Neurosetae slender, compound, stems of upper ones with about 15 spinous rows, blades long, slender, tips curved, with slender secondary tooth; lower neurosetae similar, with fewer spinous rows and more slender blades (Figure 1C; Treadwell, 1934, pl. 1: fig. 8). Pharynx with 11 pairs of border papillae and 2 pairs of hooked jaws (Kinberg, 1858, pl. 10: fig. 65E,E′). Segment III with small rounded dorsal tubercles and small digitiform branchiae, without dorsal cirri; parapodia and setae similar to those on following segments (Figure 1D,E).

Biramous parapodia with rather thick, digitiform branchiae on elytrophores or dorsal tubercles (Figure 2A,C). Notopodia shorter than neuropodia, subconical, with large cup-shaped flanges nearly encircling bases of notosetae; neuropodia subconical, papillate distally, with 3 fimbriated bracts: J-shaped dorso-anterior bracts, C-shaped postacicular bracts, leaving gaps on anterior sides, and J-shaped ventro-anterior bracts; long papillae also on anterior and posterior sides of lower parts of neuropodia (Figure 2A,C,E). Ventral cirri with cirrophores with few short papillae; styles with basal knobs on upper sides and tips extending to near tips of neuropodia (Figure 2A,C). Notosetae numerous, finely spinous, capillary, extending anteriorly, dorsally, and posteroventrally beyond ventral cirri (Figure 2A,C). Compound neurosetae with stems smooth; blades rather short, spinigerous, with furcate slender tips; split tips sometime very close and appearing entire, except for faint longitudinal lines (Figure 2B,D; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 9: fig. 44G; Hartman, 1942b, pl. 9: figs. 22, 23; Wolf, 1984, fig. 25–18k–n). Upper neurosetae (4 or so) within dorso-anterior bract; middle group (9 or so) within postacicular bract; lower group (7 or so) within ventro-anterior bract (Figure 2A,C,E).

DISTRIBUTION.—South Atlantic Ocean: Brazil; North Atlantic Ocean: Puerto Rico; Gulf of Mexico: Cuba; in 37 to 475 meters.
bibliographic citation
Pettibone, Marian H. 1997. "Revision of the sigalionid species (Polychaeta) referred to Psammolyce Kinberg, 1856, Pelogenia Schmarda, 1861, and belonging to the Subfamily Pelogeniinae Chamberlin, 1919." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-89. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.581