dcsimg

Behavior

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The photophores along the body and tentacles of the Watasenia scintillans are used to attract prey, provide camouflage, frighten predators, and to attract a mate. The firefly squid also has highly developed vision. Its eyes contain three different types of light-sensitive cells and are believed to be capable of distinguishing different colors.

Communication Channels: visual

Other Communication Modes: photic/bioluminescent

Perception Channels: visual

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Krupa Patel, Rutgers University
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Conservation Status

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Watasenia scintillans is not protected under any conservation program.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Krupa Patel, Rutgers University
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Life Cycle

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Fertilized eggs hatch in 6-14 days depending on the water temperature, which varies from six to 16 degrees Celsius. Higher temperatures encourage quicker hatching.

At 15 degrees Celsius, one hour after fertilization, polar bodies appear, followed in five hours with first cleaveage. By 10 hours, 100 or more cells have been formed, and around 16 hours the embryonic lobe has been developed. The embryonic lobe covers about half of the egg in a day and a half. In four days, primordial eyes are present and oral depression starts. A day later, primordial arms, mantle, and funnel appear and then chromatophores appear on the mantle and the eyes are developed. Final organ and chromatophore formation and hatching occurs in 8-8.5 days.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Krupa Patel, Rutgers University
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Benefits

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Eating raw Watasenia scintillans, known in Japan as Hotaruika, that is infected with spirurina type X larvae, belonging to the phylum Nematoda, can cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, creeping eruption, and ileus (bowel obstruction).

Negative Impacts: injures humans (causes disease in humans )

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Krupa Patel, Rutgers University
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Benefits

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Watasenia scintillans can be eaten raw, known as Hotaruika in Japan, or cooked. These species of squid also draw large crowds during their spawning season at Toyama Bay in Japan. The large schools that swim up to the shallow waters light up the dark water along the shore, giving tourists a nighttime show. This spectacle has led to the bay being named a Special Natural Monument and construction of a museum devoted to the species.

Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Associations

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Watasenia scintillans are prey for northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus and is a predator of shrimp, fish, and planktonic crustaceans. This squid is also a host to nematode larvae.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Nematoda
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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Watasenia scintillans consumes a diet consisting of shrimp, crabs, fish, and planktonic crustaceans. The photophores on the tips of its tentacles are used in a flashing pattern to attract prey, especially fish.

Animal Foods: fish; aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates; zooplankton

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Distribution

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The geographic range of Watasenia scintillans is the Western Pacific ocean around Japan.

Biogeographic Regions: pacific ocean (Native )

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Habitat

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Watasenia scintillans is a marine animal found in depths of 200 to 400 meters.

Range depth: 200 to 400 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; saltwater or marine

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Life Expectancy

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The firefly squid lives for about one year.

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Morphology

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Watasenia scintillans is a small cephalopod, growing to 7-8 cm. The firefly squid is equipped with special light producing organs called photophores. Photophores are found in many parts of the body but large ones are usually found on the tips of the tentacles as well as around the eyes. These lights can be flashed in unison or alternated in patterns. This squid has arms with hooks and tentacles with hooks and one series of suckers. The mouth cavity has dark pigmentation.

Average length: 7.62 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Associations

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The photophores along the body of the squid can be used against predators in either a warning form or as counter-illumination camouflage. The northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, is a known predator.

Known Predators:

  • Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus

Anti-predator Adaptations: aposematic ; cryptic

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Reproduction

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Bioluminescent photophores can attract mates and be used for communication with other squids.

The spawning season runs from March to May. During this time, firefly squids can be seen gathering in large numbers to lay their eggs. Once the eggs have been released into the water and fertilized, the adult squid die. This completes the one-year life cycle of the squid.

Breeding interval: Once yearly

Breeding season: March - May

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; broadcast (group) spawning; oviparous

Adult firefly squids die after eggs have been released into the water and fertilized.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

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Patel, K. and D. Pee 2011. "Watasenia scintillans" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Watasenia_scintillans.html
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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Watasenia scintillans (Berry, 1911)

ORIGINAL REFERENCE.—Abraliopsis scintillans Berry, 1911:93.

DEPOSITION OF TYPES.—Holotype: CASIZ 21667 (previously 453), female, 59 mm ML, Japan (label lost, exact locality and date unknown), SSB no. 147.

Paratypes: USNM 816498, 2 females, 52 mm ML, 55 mm ML, same lot as holotype, dried and in very poor condition.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.—Off Japan (Okutani, 1967; Okutani et al., 1987; Tsuchiya, 1993).

COMMENTS.—Considerable confusion exists concerning the type locality of this species. In the original description, Berry (1911:94) gave measurements and locality (Japan) for only one specimen. In a subsequent paper, Berry (1912:425, figs 3, 4, pls. 7–9: figs. 1–6) expanded the species description, elaborated on the locality (Japan, probably off Misaki (Alan Owston?)), and gave his catalog number (SSB 147, cotypes, 3 females) for the type lot. In addition, he listed three other females examined (taken at Misaki by Ishikawa, SSB 279). The following year Berry (1913c:591) attempted to correct his locality information and wrote that “I had supposed my specimens to have been taken at Misaki, Sagami, but Drs. Ijima and Ishikawa have written me that this locality is probably erroneous. Ishikawa states that my specimens No. 279 really came from Uwotu on the Japan Sea, Watase quotes Toyama as a locality, and I have recently received specimens from Namerigawa, Ecchiu.” The correction of the locality of SSB 279, however, does not change the type locality, as SSB 279 is not part of the type series. Berry's entry for SSB 147, on 18 February 1911, in his specimen card-catalog states that (1) the specimens were found in the L.S.J.U. collections without any label and (2) Dr. Heath thinks them R/V Albatross material and most probably from Monterey Bay, California. Therefore, the type locality must simply be Japan with the more exact locality unknown.

Abralia japonica Ishikawa, 1929, is a synonym (Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1988). Data of Sasaki (1914) indicate that this is a mesopelagic-boundary species.

PYROTEUTHIDAE Pfeffer, 1912

TYPE GENUS.—Pyroteuthis Hoyle, 1904.

DIAGNOSIS.—Buccal crown with 7 or 8 supports. Buccal connectives attached to dorsal margins of arms IV. Secondary buccal connectives attached to ventral margins of arms I and II. Gladius with small, strongly pointed conus and elongate cone field; rostrum absent. Hooks present on (at least) arms I–III; presence on tentacular club varies with genus; armature on manus always in 4 series. Photophores present on viscera, eyeballs, and tentacles. Photophores absent from fins, mantle, funnel, head, and arms. Nidamental glands present; oviducal glands normal on one side, may be reduced or absent on other side. Oviduct single or unpaired. Fins subterminal; posterior lobes present. Tail not fleshy; vesicles absent. Nuchal folds absent. Tentacles with permanent constriction and bend near base; stalk “ligament” and vein leave tentacle distal to base and not in membrane. Ink sac embedded in digestive gland.

Pyroteuthis Hoyle, 1904

TYPE SPECIES.—Enoploteuthis marqaritifera Rüppell, 1844, by indication.

DIAGNOSIS.—More than 13 hooks per arm; hooks in 2 series; hooks present on arms IV. Tentacular club with 1 series of hooks on manus, 3 series of suckers on manus. Eyeball photophore number 6 (= lidded photophore) absent (numbering based on Pterygioteuthis eye, Chun 1910, pl. XIV: fig. 6). Six or 7 separated photophores in tentacular stalk. Oviducts unpaired (right oviducal gland may be reduced in size depending on species). Right arm IV hectocotylized; toothed plate absent.
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Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume I." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-276. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586

Firefly squid

provided by wikipedia EN

The firefly squid (Watasenia scintillans), also commonly known as the sparkling enope squid or hotaru-ika in Japan,[3] is a species of squid in the family Enoploteuthidae.[4] It is the sole species in the monotypic genus Watasenia.[4] These tiny squid are found on the shores of Japan in springtime during spawning season, but spend most of their life in deeper waters between 200 and 400 metres (700 and 1,300 feet; 100 and 200 fathoms).[5] They are bioluminescent organisms and emit blue light from photophores, which some scientists have hypothesized could be used for communication, camouflage, or attracting food, but it is still unclear in the scientific community exactly how this species uses their bioluminescence.[3] The firefly squid is a predator and actively hunts its food, which includes copepods, small fish, and other squids.[3] The lifespan of a firefly squid is about one year. At the end of their lives females return close to shore to release their eggs, and then die shortly thereafter. This mass migration of firefly squid to the shore is a lucrative business for Japanese fishermen, and during spawning season many go out to the bays to collect the dying squid. Many more also visit Japan during spawning season to see the bright blue light created from the firefly squid's bioluminescence light up the bay, making their spawning season not only a fishing opportunity but also a tourist attraction.[5]

Anatomy and morphology

The firefly squid belongs to the Cephalopoda class and the superorder Decapodiformes, commonly known as squids. Their body is divided between a distinct head and a mantle, and the layout of the body is bilaterally symmetrical. They are soft-bodied organisms which contain a skeletal structure composed of chitin. They have relatively large eyes, eight arms, and two tentacles. They are further classified into the order Oegopsida for possessing the characteristic traits of having no tentacle pockets in the head and no suckers on the buccal supports. They belong to the family of Enoploteuthidae, based on the hooks on their tentacles.

On average an adult firefly squid is approximately 7.5 cm (3 in) in length.[3] They are brown/red in color, but emit blue light by their photophores. These photophores can be found all over the squids body, but the brightest light is emitted from three largest photophores at the tips of the arms. There are five slightly smaller photophores surrounding each eye, and hundreds more of smaller size dotted along the rest of its body.[6]

Distribution

The firefly squid inhabits the waters off the coast of Japan.[7][8] The depth at which these squids can be found varies (300–400 m or 1,000–1,300 ft during the day, and 20–60 m or 70–200 ft during the night) over the course of a day,[8] as they are one of the several species of squid that participates in diel vertical migration.[8][9] For this reason, they also experience a significant change in environmental temperature conditions throughout the course of a day(3–6 °C or 37–43 °F during the day and 5–15 °C or 41–59 °F during the night).[8] The firefly squid is especially well known for its yearly migration to the coastal waters of Toyama Bay for the purpose of reproduction.[7][8][9]

Diet and predators

The diet of a firefly squid changes through its life stages. During its paralarval stage, its diet is primarily composed of calanoid copepods (zooplankton). Subadult and adult stages see an increase in dietary diversity to include planktonic crustaceans, fishes, and squid.[10]

Firefly squid face high predation rates and may serve as the primary food source for some predatory species including northern fur seals, particularly during their yearly migration.[7][11] As a participant in diel vertical migration, firefly squid primarily feed during the night.[8][9] This feeding strategy is reflected in the squid’s gut anatomy, which has a longer cecum that allows it to absorb nutrients during the day when its metabolic rate is lower.[8][9]

Bioluminescence

 src=
Principle of the squid's counter-illumination camouflage. When seen from below by a predator, the bioluminescence helps to match the squid's brightness and colour to the sea surface above.
 src=
Boiled firefly squid, as served at a restaurant. Firefly squid are caught in bulk during spawning on the shores of Japan and are offered in many restaurants and grocery stores.

The firefly squid is found in the Western Pacific Ocean at depths of 180 to 360 m (600 to 1,200 ft) and is bioluminescent. The mantle, head, arms and tentacles are dotted with tiny, light-producing organs called photophores. However, light is also produced from many other small organs that are scattered around the body. The firefly squid creates light by a chemical reaction. This process involves wrangling together the dynamic duo of bioluminescence, which are two substances called luciferin and luciferase. The way it works is luciferin sits around waiting for luciferase, an enyme that triggers luciferin to make light. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/science/firefly-squid-toyama-japan.html#:~:text=The%20firefly%20squid%20creates%20light,way%20a%20lightning%20bug%20does.&text=Together%2C%20they%20form%20a%20bright,only%20live%20for%20a%20year. [12] When flashed, the light attracts small fish, which the squid can feed upon.

This squid has three visual pigments located in different parts of the retina which likely allows color discrimination, each having distinct spectral sensitivities.[13]

The squid spends the day at depths of several hundred metres, returning to the surface when night falls. It uses its abilities to sense and to produce light for counter-illumination camouflage: it matches the brightness and colour of its underside to the light coming from the surface, making it difficult for predators to detect it from below.[14]

Mating

Firefly squids make a yearly migration to the coastal waters of Toyama Bay each spring, during their mating season. The firefly squid is almost entirely monogamous in its mating behavior, this is extremely uncommon in cephalopods. One proposed explanation for this unusual behavior is that although the males reach sexual maturity prior to the breeding season, females do not reach full maturity until later in the season. As a result of the shorter life-span of males, most males are only able to copulate once and are largely gone by the time that females are able to use the sperm stored during copulation.[7] The firefly squid can also light up its whole body to attract a mate. Once the squid's eggs have been fertilized and laid, it dies, having reached the end of its one-year lifespan. Spawning, which involves large aggregations of the squid, takes place between February and July.[1]

Commercial use

This squid is commercially fished in Japan, accounting for an annual catch of 4,804 to 6,822 tons from 1990 to 1999.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. (2014). "Watasenia scintillans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T163146A977074. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T163146A977074.en.
  2. ^ Julian Finn (2016). "Watasenia scintillans (Berry, 1911)". World Register of Marine Species. Flanders Marine Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Preston, Elizabeth (2018-07-03). "Flashes of Brilliance". bioGraphic. Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  4. ^ a b Tsuchiya, Kotaro (October 2015). "Watasenia scintillans". The Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  5. ^ a b Michinomae, Ishikawa; Kabutoyama, Kito; Masanao, Masaki; Nishinomiya, Yuji (2009). "Photic environment and bioluminescent cephalopod (Watasenia scintillans) -Firefly squid's MINAGE-". Aquabiology/Kaiyo to Seibutsu. 31: 280–286 – via ProQuest.
  6. ^ Teranishi, Katsunori; Shimomura, Osamu (2008-05-01). "Bioluminescence of the arm light organs of the luminous squid Watasenia scintillans". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 1780 (5): 784–792. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2008.01.016. ISSN 0304-4165. PMID 18294462.
  7. ^ a b c d Sato, Noriyosi; Tsuda, Sei-Ichiro; Alam, Nur; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko; Kusama, Satoshi; Inamura, Osamu; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Hirohashi, Noritaka (2019). "Polyandry is extremely rare in the firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans". bioRxiv 10.1101/2019.12.13.875062.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Watanabe, Hikaru; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Moku, Masatoshi; Kawaguchi, Kouichi (June 13, 2006). "Diel vertical migration of squid in the warm core ring and cold water masses in the transition region of the western North Pacific". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 315: 187–197. Bibcode:2006MEPS..315..187W. doi:10.3354/meps315187. JSTOR 24870152.
  9. ^ a b c d Omura, Ayano; Endo, Hideki (2016). "The functional-morphological adaptive strategy of digestive organs of decapodiform cephalopods". Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 78 (1): 43–7. doi:10.1292/jvms.15-0185. PMC 4751115. PMID 26369293.
  10. ^ Hayashi, S.; Hirakawa, K. (1997). "Diet composition of the firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans, from Toyama bay, southern Japan sea". Bulletin of the Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute (Japan) (in Japanese). ISSN 0021-4620.
  11. ^ Mori, Junta; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Baba, Norihisa (June 2001). "Squid in the diet of northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, caught in the western and central North Pacific Ocean". Fisheries Research. 52 (1–2): 91–97. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00233-8.
  12. ^ Tsuji, F. I. (1985-07-01). "ATP-dependent bioluminescence in the firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 82 (14): 4629–4632. Bibcode:1985PNAS...82.4629T. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.14.4629. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 390439. PMID 16593580.
  13. ^ "Map of Life - 'Colour vision' in Firefly squid". Convergent Evolution Online. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  14. ^ Young, R.E.; Roper, C.F. (1976). "Bioluminescent countershading in midwater animals: evidence from living squid". Science. 191 (4231): 1046–8. Bibcode:1976Sci...191.1046Y. doi:10.1126/science.1251214. PMID 1251214.
  15. ^ Tsuchiya, Kotaro. 2007. Watasenia Ishikawa 1914. Watasenia scintillans. Version 16 June 2007 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Watasenia_scintillans/19645/2007.06.16 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Firefly squid: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The firefly squid (Watasenia scintillans), also commonly known as the sparkling enope squid or hotaru-ika in Japan, is a species of squid in the family Enoploteuthidae. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus Watasenia. These tiny squid are found on the shores of Japan in springtime during spawning season, but spend most of their life in deeper waters between 200 and 400 metres (700 and 1,300 feet; 100 and 200 fathoms). They are bioluminescent organisms and emit blue light from photophores, which some scientists have hypothesized could be used for communication, camouflage, or attracting food, but it is still unclear in the scientific community exactly how this species uses their bioluminescence. The firefly squid is a predator and actively hunts its food, which includes copepods, small fish, and other squids. The lifespan of a firefly squid is about one year. At the end of their lives females return close to shore to release their eggs, and then die shortly thereafter. This mass migration of firefly squid to the shore is a lucrative business for Japanese fishermen, and during spawning season many go out to the bays to collect the dying squid. Many more also visit Japan during spawning season to see the bright blue light created from the firefly squid's bioluminescence light up the bay, making their spawning season not only a fishing opportunity but also a tourist attraction.

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Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
epipelagic, oceanic
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van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
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Jacob van der Land [email]