dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 10 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen was still alive after 10 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Short-nosed fruit bats inflict serious damage on many fruit crops, and are viewed by local people as a pest species. In addition, these bats are possible vectors for Japanese encephalitis, a very serious disease in humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

These bats are important dispersers of date palm seeds, and pollinate many night blooming flowers.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

These bats are frugivorous, they and locate their preferred food items by scent. They have been described as voracious feeders, eating more than their body weight in food in one sitting. Some preferred fruits include ripe guava, banana, chikus (a popular Indian fruit crop), dates and liches.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The short-nosed fruit bat is found in Sri Lanka, India, South China, S.E. Asia, Western Malaysia, and Sumatra and neighboring small islands.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Cynopterus sphinx is common in tropical forests and areas where fruit crops are cultivated. They can also be found in grassland and mangrove forests. They typically nest high in palm trees. The bats chew the fronds of the palms to constuct fairly simple tents. These bats are also known to construct tents by closely interweaving the leaves and twigs of creeping vines which cover buildings, but such nests are constructed only when palms are not available.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
10 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

These bats have a relatively long snout. Their upper parts are typically bright orange with paler underparts, but there is much variation. The fur is very fine and silky. The wing span of the adult is about 48 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 75 g.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

In Central India, C. sphinx breeds twice per year. Females produce a single young at a time. The function of the female reproductive system is interesting in that each half of the bicornate uterus functions during alternate breeding cycles. The first pregancy cycle occurs from October through February/March. Mating occurs immediately postpartum, and a second offspring is born in July. Gestation 3-5 months. In 72% of bats, the first pregnancy occurs in the right horn of the uterus. The corpus luteum in the right ovary persists for some time after the pregancny and prevents ovulation from occuring in the right ovary during the second breeding cycle. This creats the pattern of alternate functioning of the two horns of the uterus. However, the corpus luteum in the left ovary does not persist until the beginning of the next breeding cycle. As yet, no reason has been found for the dominance of the right horn during the first breeding cycle.

Newborn bats weigh about 13.5 g and have a wingspan of 24 cm. By the time of weaning at 4 weeks of age, young bats weigh 25 g and have wings spanning 36 cm. Female short-nosed fruit bats reach sexual maturity at 5-6 months of age, but males are not capable of breeding until they are a year old.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 11 g.

Average gestation period: 120 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
525 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
150 days.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Shefferly, N. 1999. "Cynopterus sphinx" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cynopterus_sphinx.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Greater short-nosed fruit bat

provided by wikipedia EN

The greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), or short-nosed Indian fruit bat, is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae found in South and Southeast Asia.

Description

These bats have a relatively long snout. Their upper parts are brown to grey-brown with paler under parts. The fur is very fine and silky. The ears and wing bones of C. sphinx are edged in white. Lower cheek teeth rounded without accessory cusps. The wingspan of the adult is about 48 cm. Juveniles are lighter than adults. Average forearm length is 70.2 mm (64–79 mm).[2]

Habitat

The greater short-nosed fruit bat is found from Pakistan to Vietnam. It is common in tropical forests and areas where fruit crops are cultivated. They can also be found in grasslands and mangrove forests. They typically nest high in palm trees. The bats chew the fronds of the palms to construct fairly simple tents. These bats are also known to construct tents by closely interweaving the leaves and twigs of creeping vines which cover buildings, but such nests are constructed only when palms are not available.

Behaviour and breeding

The greater short-nosed fruit bat is gregarious, and typically roosts in same-sex groups of eight to nine individuals. The sexes remain separate until the mating season, when group size increases. They are polygynous and 6-10 males and 10-15 females usually share palm-frond tents during the breeding season.[3] It is the only nonprimate species known to show fellatio, which enhances copulation time in the species. Copulation by males is dorsoventral and the females lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis, but not the glans which has already penetrated the vagina. While the females do this, the penis is not withdrawn and research has shown a positive relationship between length of the time that the penis is licked and the duration of copulation. Postcopulation genital grooming has also been observed.[4] Males stay with females for some time after mating, but later return to same-sex groups.

Female bats perform fellatio to increase copulation time. This species is the only non-primate to exhibit this behavior.[4]

The adult sex ratio is very female biased. Researchers attribute this to the relatively rapid maturation of females compared to males. In Central India, C. sphinx breeds twice per year. Females produce a single young at a time. Each half of the bicornate uterus functions during alternate breeding cycles. The first pregnancy cycle occurs from October through February/March. Mating occurs immediately post partum, and a second offspring is born in July. Gestation period is about 3–5 months. In 72% of bats, the first pregnancy occurs in the right horn of the uterus. The corpus luteum in the right ovary persists for some time after the pregnancy and prevents ovulation from occurring in the right ovary during the second breeding cycle. This creates the pattern of alternate functioning of the two horns of the uterus. However, the corpus luteum in the left ovary does not persist until the beginning of the next breeding cycle. As yet, no reason has been found for the dominance of the right horn during the first breeding cycle.[5][6] Newborn bats weigh about 13.5 g and have a wingspan of 24 cm. By the time of weaning at 4 weeks of age, young bats weigh 25 g and have wings spanning 36 cm. Female short-nosed fruit bats reach sexual maturity at 5–6 months of age, but males are not capable of breeding until they are a year old.[7]

These bats are frugivorous, and locate their preferred food items by scent. They have been described as voracious feeders, eating more than their body weight in food in one sitting. Some preferred fruits include ripe guava, banana, chikoo, dates, and lychees.

Short-nosed fruit bats inflict serious damage on many fruit crops, and are considered pests. In addition, these bats are possible vectors for Japanese encephalitis, which is serious disease in humans.[8] These bats are important dispersers of date palm seeds, and pollinate many night blooming flowers.

They are also known to construct shelter tents by severing leaves and stems from certain creepers and mast trees like Polyalthia longifolia.[9]

Frugivory, nectarivory, and folivory are well understood; in addition, geophagy behaviour has also been reported in this species recently, and is suggested to represent an ‘adaptive behavioural plasticity’ in the foraging behaviour of the greater short-nosed fruit bat. According to Mahandran et al.[10] geophagy have the function of mineral supplementation and/or detoxification.

References

  1. ^ Bates, P.; Bumrungsri, S.; Molur, S.; Srinivasulu, C. (2019). "Cynopterus sphinx". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T6106A22113656.
  2. ^ Bates, P.J.J; D.A. Harrison (1997). Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum. p. 258. ISBN 978-0951731314.
  3. ^ Balasingh, J; J. Suthakar-Isaac, S.; R. Subbaraj (1993). "Tent roosting by the frugivorous bat Cynopterus sphinx in southern India". Current Science. 65 (5): 418.
  4. ^ a b Tan, Min; Gareth Jones; Guangjian Zhu; Jianping Ye; Tiyu Hong; Shanyi Zhou; Shuyi Zhang; Libiao Zhang (October 28, 2009). Hosken, David (ed.). "Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time". PLOS ONE. 4 (10): e7595. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7595T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595. PMC 2762080. PMID 19862320.
  5. ^ Advani, R (1982). "Feeding, foraging and roosting behavior of the fruit eating bats and damage to fruit crops in Rajasthan and Gujarat". Saeugeteirkundliche Mitteilungen. 30 (1): 46–48.
  6. ^ Sandhu, S; A. Gopalakrishna. (1984). "Some observations on the breeding biology of Cynopterus sphinx in central India". Current Science. 53 (22): 1189–1192.
  7. ^ Krishna, A; C.J. Dominic (1983). "Growth of young and sexual maturity of 3 species of Indian Bats". Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology. 30 (1–2): 162–168.
  8. ^ Banjeree, K; Ilkal, M.A.; P.K. Deshmikh (1984). "Susceptibility of Cynopterus sphinx (frugivorus bat) and Suncus minimus (house shrew) to Japanese encephalitis virus". Indian Journal of Medical Research. 79 (1): 8–12.
  9. ^ Balasingh, J.; Koilraj, John; Kunz, Thomas H. (1995). "Tent Construction by the Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Southern India". Ethology. 100 (3): 210–229. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1995.tb00326.x. ISSN 1439-0310.
  10. ^ Mahandran, Valliyappan; Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Nathan, Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil (2015-11-17). "Geophagy by the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae) while foraging on Madhuca latifolia (Sapotaceae) in Tamil Nadu, South India". Acta Ethologica. 19: 95–99. doi:10.1007/s10211-015-0227-7. ISSN 0873-9749. S2CID 16892095.
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Greater short-nosed fruit bat: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), or short-nosed Indian fruit bat, is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae found in South and Southeast Asia.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN