dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 24 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen was at least 24 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Communication Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Deforestation, hunting, and typhoons are threats to populations of P. dasymallus. Clearing of forest for agriculture takes away roosting and food supplies for these bats. Pteropus dasymallus formosus is now believed to be extinct in the wild. The extinction of this subspecies in the wild is believed to have been caused by hunting and deforestation (Thatcher 2004). Typhoons have a greater affect on forest structure because of deforestation. Smaller patches of trees are then more easily knocked down by the wind leaving less and less habitat. Reproductive factors also lead to conservation problems. Ryukyu flying-foxes have a low reproductive rate, making them unable to recover quickly after population declines. (Thatcher 2004, Mickleburgh et al. 1992, Species Under Threat 1998).

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus dasymallus do eat commercial fruit crops.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The 5 subspecies pollinate and disperse seeds important to the timber industry, food crops, and some medicinal plants.

Positive Impacts: pollinates crops

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Ryukyu flying-foxes are economically important because they pollinate wild and commercial plants.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus dasymallus feeds almost entirely on plants and their products. Fruit makes up the bulk of the diet. Figs seem to be one of the animal's favorites. Other plant products that are eaten are the flowers and leaves. Flowers are eaten in the spring and leaves year round. Insects may also be a part of the diet of this species in the summer and autumn. One study showed that P. d. dasymallus has a more diverse diet than any other pteropodid bats ever studied. Their diet includes bark, 17 species of fruit, nine species of leaves, five species of flowers, and eight species of insects on Kuchinoerabu Island.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore ); omnivore

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus dasymallus (Ryukyu flying-fox) range from the Ryukyu islands of Japan (Kuchinoerabu, Takara, Okinawa, Ishigaki, Iriomote, Hatoma, Obama, Yonakuni and some smaller islands) through parts of Taiwan (Kashoto Island, east coast Taiwan, and the Daito Islands).

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Ryukyu flying-foxes use forests for daytime roosting.

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
24 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Ryukyu flying-foxes are in the suborder Megachiroptera. Key characteristics of this suborder are that they have a well developed premaxillary bone, a postorbital process is present, they lack a tragus and a noseleaf, and their teeth are adapted for eating fruit. There are 5 subspecies of Ryukyu flying-foxes. They are P. d. daitoensis (Daito fruit bat), P. d. dasymallus (Erabu fruit bat), P. d. formosus (Taiwanese fruit bat), P. d. inopinatus (Orii's fruit bat), and P. d. yayeyamae (Yaeyama fruit bat). There are some character variations among the subspecies. Pteropus dasymallus daitoensis has brown wings and a yellow belly and back. The sides of the back are brown. The body is 221 mm long and forearm length 134 mm. Pteropus dasymallus dasymallus is the largest in size and darkest in color of the subspecies. The fur coloration consists of a blackish head and face, body is usually dark brown to black, and a cream colored area around neck. The forearm measured at around 137 mm. Pteropus dasymallus formosus is thought to be extinct in the wild. Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus has a brown muzzle, and it has a patch of darker fur that interrupts the white collar around its neck. Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus has an exposed lacrimal foramen. Pteropus dasymallus yayeyamae is the smallest in size among the 4 wild subspecies. The fur color varies on the dorsal and ventral sides of this subspecies. The head is usually brown and the neck a cinnamon color.

Average mass: 435 g.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus dasymallus have low reproductive rates. In most fruit bats females don't give birth for the first time until they are one or two years old (Mickleburgh et al. 1992). One young is born at a time with a gestation period of 4 to 6 months. In P. d. daitoensis mating takes place between November and early January and birth between May and June (Thatcher 2004).

Breeding season: Mating takes place between November and early January

Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 4 to 6 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 to 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Putz, B. 2000. "Pteropus dasymallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_dasymallus.html
author
Brian Putz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Ryukyu flying fox

provided by wikipedia EN

The Ryukyu flying fox or Ryukyu fruit bat (Pteropus dasymallus) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is found in Japan, Taiwan, and the Batanes and Babuyan Islands of the Philippines. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss and by hunting for food and the IUCN classify it as "Vulnerable".

Taxonomy and etymology

It was described as a new species in 1825 by Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. Temminck acquired the specimens used for his description from Dutch businessman Jan Cock Blomhoff[2] Its species name "dasymallus" is likely from Ancient Greek dasús 'hairy', and Ancient Greek mallós 'woolly'; Temminck described its fur as long and woolly.[2] The five subspecies are:[3]

  • Daito fruit bat - P. d. daitoensis
  • Erabu fruit bat - P. d. dasymallus
  • Taiwanese fruit bat - P. d. formosus
  • Orii's fruit bat - P. d. inopinatus
  • Yaeyama fruit bat - P. d. yayeyamae

The subspecies are based on populations that occur on different islands.[4]

Description

The Ryukyu flying fox is slightly smaller than the Indian flying fox, with a wingspan of 1.24–1.41 m (4 ft 1 in–4 ft 8 in). It weighs 400–500 g (0.88–1.10 lb).[4] Its forearm is approximately 140 mm (5.5 in) long.[5] The body of the bat is covered in long hairs, making the body seem almost woolly. The bat is reddish brown and has a yellowish white nape.[6] Its ears are small and pointed, and are difficult to see beneath its thick fur. Its flight membranes are dark brown in color.[2]

Biology and ecology

It is mostly frugivorous, consuming the fruits of at least 53 plant species; the flowers of 20 plant species; the leaves of 18 plant species; and the bark of one plant species.[7] It has also been observed consuming eight different species of insect.[8] The Chinese banyan tree is an important source of food year-round.[7] It is an important pollinator of a subspecies of Schima wallichii, an evergreen tree. It also pollinates a species of climbing vine, Mucuna macrocarpa. It is a nocturnal species, usually solitary roosting in trees during the day and foraging at night. The Ryukyu flying fox enhances seed dispersal, as seeds from digested fruits are deposited as guano up to 1,833 m (1.139 mi) from the parent trees.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The Ryukyu flying fox is native to Taiwan, Japan and the Philippines. In Japan it is found on the Ōsumi Islands, Tokara Islands, Okinawa Islands, Miyako Islands, Yaeyama Islands and Daitō Islands. In the Philippines it is present in Batan, Dalupiri and Fuga. Its habitat is forests where it roosts during the day in trees, singly or in small groups.[1]

Status

The largest population of these bats is probably on the Philippines and is thought to be stable. In Japan there are estimated to be well over five thousand individuals but in Taiwan, there has been a large reduction in bat numbers. This species faces a number of threats. Some populations in the Philippines are hunted for consumption and this bat is considered a delicacy on Babuyan Claro. In Japan, habitat loss is the main threat but some individuals get entangled in nets placed to protect citrus crops and others are electrocuted by power-lines. Overall, most populations have been in decline though this seemed to have levelled off to some extent by 2008 when the IUCN removed this bat from the "Endangered" category and placed it in the "Vulnerable" category.[1]

Relationship to humans

In Temminck's initial description, he wrote that it "devastates" orchards.[2] Its depredation on orchards caused Okinawa Prefecture to launch an investigation in 2012. In two villages surveyed in 2013, it was estimated that flying foxes cause 19 million yen ($175 thousand USD) in damages to citrus crops annually. Many Japanese farmers believe that the Ryukyu flying fox is a pest that should be managed by culling.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c Vincenot, C. (2017). "Pteropus dasymallus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T18722A22080614. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T18722A22080614.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Temminck, C.J. (1825). "Cinquième Monographie. Vues générales sur l'ordre des cheiroptères". Monographies de Mammalogie, ou description de quelques genres de Mammifères, dont les espèces ont été observées dans les différens musées de l'Europe. 1. Paris: G. Dufour et E. d'Ocagne. pp. 180–181, pl. XX–XVI.
  3. ^ "Pteropus dasymallus Temminck, 1825". ITIS Report. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Nakamoto, Atsushi; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Izawa, Masako (2008). "The role of Orii's flying-fox (Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus) as a pollinator and a seed disperser on Okinawa-jima Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan" (PDF). Ecological Research. 24 (2): 405–414. doi:10.1007/s11284-008-0516-y. S2CID 901864.
  5. ^ a b Vincenot, Christian Ernest; Collazo, Anja Maria; Wallmo, Kristy; Koyama, Lina (2015). "Public awareness and perceptual factors in the conservation of elusive species: The case of the endangered Ryukyu flying fox" (PDF). Global Ecology and Conservation. 3: 526–540. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2015.02.005.
  6. ^ Andrew T. Smith; Yan Xie; Robert S. Hoffmann; Darrin Lunde; John MacKinnon; Don E. Wilson; W. Chris Wozencraft, eds. (2010). A Guide to the Mammals of China (illustrated ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 332. ISBN 9781400834112.
  7. ^ a b Nakamoto, Atsushi; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Izawa, Masako (2007). "Food habits of Orii's flying-fox, Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus, in relation to food availability in an urban area of Okinawa-jima Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan". Acta Chiropterologica. 9: 237–249. doi:10.3161/1733-5329(2007)9[237:FHOOFP]2.0.CO;2.
  8. ^ Funakoshi, K; Watanabe, H; Kunisaki, T (1993). "Feeding ecology of the northern Ryukyu fruit bat, Pteropus dasymallus dasymallus, in a warm-temperate region". Journal of Zoology. 230 (2): 221. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb02684.x.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Ryukyu flying fox: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Ryukyu flying fox or Ryukyu fruit bat (Pteropus dasymallus) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is found in Japan, Taiwan, and the Batanes and Babuyan Islands of the Philippines. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss and by hunting for food and the IUCN classify it as "Vulnerable".

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN